Evolution Encyclopedia Vol. 2 



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Chapter 9
"Unfortunately, in the field of evolution most explanations are not good. As a matter of fact, they hardly qualify as explanations at all; they are suggestions, hunches, pipe dreams, hardly worthy of being called hypotheses."— *Norman Macbeth, Darwin Retried (1971), p. 147.

"No one has ever found an organism that is known not to have parents, or a parent. This is the strongest evidence on behalf of evolution."—*Tom Bethell, "Agnostic Evolutionists," Harper's, February 1985, p. 61.

"As by this theory, innumerable transitional forms must have existed. Why do we not find them embedded in the crust of the earth? Why is not all nature in confusion instead of being, as we see them, well defined species?"— *Charles Darwin, quoted in H. Enoch, Evolution or Creation, (1966). p. 139.

"Where are we when presented with the mystery of life? We find ourselves facing a granite wall which we have not even chipped . . We know virtually nothing of growth, nothing of life."—*W. Kaempifert, "The Greatest Mystery of All: the Secret of Life," New York Times.

"I think, however, that we must go further than this and admit that the only acceptable explanation is creation. 1 know that this is anathema to physicists, as indeed it is to me, but we must not reject a theory that we do not like if the experimental evidence supports it."— *H. Lipson, "A Physicist Looks at Evolution," Physics Bulletin 31 (19801, p. 138.

"I am not satisfied that Darwin proved his point or that his influence in scientific and public thinking has been beneficial . . the success of Darwinism was accomplished by a decline in scientific integrity."—*W. R. Thompson, Introduction to "Charles Darwin, Origin of the Species.

" 'The Darwinian theory of descent has not a single fact to confirm it in the realm of nature. It is not the result of scientific research, but purely the product of imagination."'— *Dr. Fleischman. (Erlangen zoologist), quoted in F. Meldau, Why We Believe in Creation, Not Evolution, p. 10.

"The hold of the evolutionary paradigm is so powerful that an idea which is more like a principle of medieval astrology than a serious twentieth century scientific theory has become a reality for evolutionary biologists."—*Michael Denton, Evolution: A Theory In Crisis (1986), p.306.

"[Darwin could] summon up enough general, vague and conjectural reasons to account for this fact, and if these were not taken seriously, he could come up with a different, but equally general, vague and conjectural set of reasons."— *Gertrude Himmelfarb, Darwin and Darwinian Revolution (1968), p. 319.

"The particular truth is simply that we have no reliable evidence as to the evolutionary sequence . . One can find qualified, professional arguments for any group being the descendant of almost any other."—*J. Bonner, "Book Review," American Scientist 49:1961, p. 240.

"It was because Darwinian theory broke man's link with God and set him adrift in a cosmos without purpose or end that its impact was so fundamental. No other intellectual revolution in modern times.. so profoundly affected the way men viewed themselves and their place in the universe."— *Michael Denton (Australian molecular biologist), Evolution: A Theory in Crisis (1985), p. 67.



Evolution Disproved Series — Book 2

Table of Contents


Section 3 — Origin of Life: Requirements

Chapter 7 — The Primitive Environment

Chapter 8 — DNA and Protein Evolution

Chapter 9 — Cellular Evolution

Section 4 — Evolution of Life: Mechanisms

Chapter 10 — Natural Selection

Chapter 12 — Mutations

Chapter 13 — Species Evolution

Section 5 — Past Evidences of Evolution

Chapter 14 — Fossils and Strata

Chapter 15 — Ancient Man

Chapter 16 — Effects of the Flood

"The greatest tragedy that ever befell man's thinking, was when the beautiful and wonderful and mysterious world fell into the hands of theorists who captured the minds, first of the thinkers and then even of the thoughtless. For what they showed them was not nature as it is but a horrible caricature of nature as it would have to be to make their theories work." — V. Barclay, Darwin Is not for Children (1950), p. 74.


In the summer of 1989 the present writer learned that the California State Department of Education had recently notified the private, non-tax-funded Graduate School of ICR that it would have to close its doors if it did not teach evolutionary origins and processes in its science classes.

The Institute for Creation Research has, since the early 1970s, been the largest group working to educate the public in regard to the evidence disproving evolution. An attempt to close their college because it will not teach that which it knows to be error—and has satisfactorily proven to be error—is ridiculous, yet this is what the situation has come to in our nation. We have reached a point in America where evolutionary theorists control the science organizations and are seeking to take over every school in the land.

The ruling, seeking to force the closing of the ICR Graduate School in southern California, crystallized in the present writer a conviction that an in-depth book needed to be written to help awaken the thinking public to what scientific facts really have to say in regard to creation science and evolutionary theory.

(For additional information on the excellent work that ICR is doing, we would encourage you to contact them: Institute for Creation Research, P.O. Box 2667, El Cajon, CA 92021; telephone: 619-448-0900. You will find a list of other pro-creation organizations at the back of the third volume in this set of books. Three important ones would be: (1) Creation Research Society, P.O. 14016, Terre Haute, IN 47803; (2) Bible-Science Association, 2911 E. 42nd Street, Minneapolis, MN 55409; (3) Geoscience Research Institute, Loma Linda University, Loma Linda, CA 92350. Many worthwhile books and journals dealing with creation science will also be listed at the end of this set of books.)


The present 3-Volume set of books has been prepared in order to achieve an unusually broad scope of coverage, and yet present it in simple language. The way to stop the evolutionary onslaught is to educate the public. It is the sincere hope of the author that this set of books may help toward that end. Special thanks goes to the William Jennings College Library in Dayton, Tennessee for their loan of creation/evolution books and related materials.

Here are some of the special features to be found in this present set of three books:

DEPTH OF COVERAGE—The objective has been to provide you with nearly every worthwhile point dealing with each subject category. This is something that is not normally done. For example, under stellar evolution, you will find far more points dealt with than are to be found under this topic in most any easily-readable book critiquing stellar evolutionary theory. You may not wish to use all the points covered, but they are there if you need them.

BREADTH OF COVERAGE—Many excellent books deal only with one or two subject categories. Some concern themselves only with fossils, others with the history of evolutionary thought and certain biological aspects. In this present set of books, the objective has been to present the heart of each major aspect of the creation-evolution controversy. Included here will be found areas that are rarely mentioned at all, much less covered in detail.

SIMPLE VOCABULARY—Whenever a simple word could be used, a bigger one was avoided. The primary exception would be basic technical "label" words of science and evolutionary theory (examples: nebular hypothesis, paleontologist, overthrusts, recapitulation). If such words were not used, you would be blanked out on certain facts you need to know in order to grasp and discuss the subject properly. This material is suitable for high school and college level, as well as for adult reading.

Scientific professionals in the various fields will also find its abundance of points and breadth of coverage helpful. Scientists tend to be experts in a few highly narrowed areas, while not knowing as much as they would like about some others. This book will provide them with an overview of many scientific facts that bear upon a variety of fields. We have tried to cover in this set of three books, every basic area of concern in the on-going creation-evolution controversy. To our knowledge, no other book or book set does that.

LACK OF COMPLEX MATH—You will find no complicated mathematical formulas in these books. Results of math computations are occasionally given, but not the equations or calculations they are based on. Those who enjoy the depths of algebra and calculus will need to refer to our quoted sources.

THREE SEPARATE BOOKS—This material has been divided into three separate books, each dealing with its own range of topics.

Each book may be purchased separately; you are not required to buy the entire set. Yet the books dovetail.

Combined, they provide a fairly thorough coverage, and frequent cross-references are made to related material in other chapters. In addition, three-volume topical indexes are to be found at the back of each of the books. Consecutive paging of the entire three books makes possible these unified indexes.

ARRANGEMENT OF MATERIAL—Careful thought was given to the order in which this collection of scientific facts should be presented.

Volume 1— The origin of matter, stars, galaxies, the solar system, and the origin and age of the earth. The origin of the earth requires an analysis of dating methods, which is also included.

Volume 2 — The origin of life, and whether it could evolve into new species. The mechanisms by which evolution would have to occur. The evidence is clear that life origin and evolution have not occurred.

Volume 3 — Additional topics needing to be considered, including other evidences for and against evolution, as well as historical information.

MEASUREMENT EQUIVALENTS—The purpose of this set of books is to give you the facts in an understandable format so you can know and use them. For this reason, bracketed English/metric equivalents are given immediately following measurements. This is done both in the text and in quoted statements of scientists. Miles, millimeters, pounds, pints, barrels, decigrams, inches, liters, Centigrade, tons, Fahrenheit, kilograms; whatever it may be, a measurement equivalent is generally given. (Lacking clarifying data, tonnage units were assumed to be in short tons [2,000 lb] rather than long [2,240 lb].) Unfortunately, the use of two separate measurement systems in use by Western Civilization has only added to the confusion. Only the measurement of time has been left without double measurement standards.

QUOTATIONS—All quotations are set in a smaller type size and narrower width line. References are given in italics, immediately following the quotation,—instead of being placed in a footnote, at the end of the chapter, or at the back of the book. You do not have to go searching in order to find the source for a quotation; it will be there right in front of you!

A problem in some books are partial references that refer back to more complete references pages earlier (example: Grant, p. 283). But in this present set of books, each reference is given as completely as could be obtained (author, title, copyright date, and page). The exception is ibid. (same reference as preceding quotation) and op. cit. (same reference, but a different page number), yet even these two are only given immediately following a quotation giving the complete source.

Whenever possible, primary (not secondary) sources were given for each quotation.

ASTERISKS—A large number of quotations are included in this set of books, and a majority of them were written by non-creationists. It seemed well to try to identify creationist or evolutionist writers, when referred to or quoted in these volumes. For this purpose an asterisk ( * ) has been used. An asterisk preceding a name indicates that that individual is not known by the present writer to be a creationist This asterisk identification is not used for some individuals who lived prior to the 20th century. It frequently is not used after the first mention of a person in a paragraph or connected section of text. It is not used for persons named within a quotation, but is used in references at the end of quotations.

SPECIAL ILLUSTRATIONS—Two artists helped produce illustrations for this series of books. Jim Pinkosky provided a number of scientific illustrations. In addition, Fritz Alseth prepared a variety of special pictures (the "pen points") in order to graphically illustrate many of the principles clarified in the text.

As one reads through the wealth of information in these books, it becomes obvious that evolutionary theorists have used many devices and undergone many tribulations and defeats in their efforts to use the flimsy evidence they have gathered, prop up their theory, and resist the ever-growing mountain of negative evidence. Frankly, the situation is humorous. With this in mind, the present writer wrote the captions for a variety of small cartoon-like pictures. These were sent to Fritz, who then drew pictures to match them. His illustrations greatly help in reinforcing the powerful truths you will learn in the accompanying text. Thank you, Jim and Fritz!

In these books you will find 50 diagrams, 27 charts 10 reproductions, 74 sketches or drawings, 8 maps, 5 pictures, and 222 pen point pictures.

CHAPTER CROSS-REFERENCES—In many instances in which major topics are discussed in two different chapters, each will refer to the other by chapter location.

APPENDIX CROSS-REFERENCES—A wealth of additional material on various topics is given in the appendices at the back of most chapters. When additional material on a topic is to be found in the appendix, the reader will be notified of that at the appropriate point in the text.

BIBLIOGRAPHY—A sizeable quantity of additional resource material dealing with the creation—evolution controversy is listed at the end of the third volume. It includes a list of outstanding creationist books, journal articles, as well as creationist organizations worldwide.

A BOOK YOU CAN USE—Because of its simple approach, wide coverage, and helpful quotations, this set of books is excellent for several purposes, including: (1) Personal study; (2) sermon, prayer meeting, and lecture source material; (3) background material for your own magazine articles, booklets, books, and other media presentations. The truth should be shared in every way possible. We will not be concerned if you quote from this set of books extensively. They were not written merely to keep the information to ourselves.

LIMITED PHOTOCOPYING— We hereby give permission to make Xerox copies of part or all of a single chapter at a time, for (1) lecture notes to simplify presentation of these topics, and (2) hand-out sheets to share with others singly, or in classroom, lecture hall, church or other group meetings.

It is time we get serious about this—and educate as many as possible on the issues involved! If we do not instruct the people about true scientific principles, others will later instruct them in errors—with devastating results.

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