Encyclopedia Vol. 2
Chapter 19 EFFECTS OF THE FLOOD Part
"Paleontologists have paid an exorbitant price for Darwin's
argument. We fancy ourselves as the only true students of life's
history, yet to preserve our favored account of evolution by natural
selection we view our data as so bad that we almost never see the very
process we profess to study." —*Steven Jay Gould, The
Panda's Thumb (1982), pp. 181-2.
"The problem of the origin of species has not advanced in the
last 150 years. One hundred and fifty years have already passed during
which it has been said that the evolution of the species is a fact
but, without giving real proofs of it and without even a principle of
explaining it. During the last one hundred and fifty years of research
that has been carried out along this line [in order to prove the
theory], there has no discovery of anything. It is simply a repetition
in different ways of what Darwin said in 1859. This lack of results is
unforgivable in a day when molecular biology has really opened the
veil covering the mystery of reproduction and heredity . .
"Finally, there is only one attitude which is possible as I
have just shown: It consists in affirming that: Intelligence comes
before life. Many people will say, this is not science, it is
philosophy. The only thing I am interested in is fact, and this
conclusion comes out of an analysis and observation of the
facts." —*G. Salet, Hasard et Certitude: Le Transformisme
dent la Biologie Actuelle (1973), p. 331.
CHAPTER 19 - EFFECTS OF THE FLOOD
BASIC ARRANGEMENT OF THIS CHAPTER
The evidence points not to evolution, but to the Flood
1 - Fossils, strata, and the Flood
2 - Records about the Flood
3 - Conditions before the Flood
4 - Effects of the Flood ',
5 - Conclusion
1 - Water power
2 - When water and magma mix
3 - Killed, frozen, and buried
4 - Petrified wood
5 - Things to think about
6 - Additional evidences of the Flood
7 - Water explosion
Chapter 17, fossils and strata
Chapter 18, Ancient Man
Chapter 26, Paleomagnetism
The oldest historical records of mankind in our
possession were written by Moses. These are the books of Genesis and
Job. In the first of these Is given the history of the world from about
4000 B.C. on down to about 1900 B. C. Within the first two chapters of
Genesis we find an account of Creation Week, when our world and
everything in it were made; in chapters 6 to 9 we are told about the
worldwide Flood that occurred about 2348 B. C. (1656 A.M. [anno mundi],
or about 1,656 years after Creation).
The effects of that gigantic flood of waters were so
dramatic that we find many evidences of it today. It is impossible to
properly study origins and earth science without an understanding of the
effects of the Flood. For this reason, we are including this chapter.
We will begin by considering rock strata and fossil
remains as an effect and evidence of the Flood. Following this, we will
view several non-strata and fossil effects: (1) some effects of that
time before the Flood; (2) some effects of the Flood itself; (3) soma
effects of a period of time immediately after the Flood
In this chapter, we will obtain not only a better
understanding of the effects of the Flood, but also how clearly those effects prove, not
uniformitarianism, but catastrophism. There was a Flood! It alone can
explain so many geographical features on our planet today.
UNIFORMITARIANISM—A basic principle of
evolution for over a century has been the theory of uniformitarianism,
which teaches that "all things continue as they were from the
beginning" (you will find 2 Peter 3:3-7 interesting reading).
When evolutionists gaze upon the immense ocean, the
millions of fossils and thick coal seams in the sedimentary rocks, the
sea shells on top of the highest mountains, the deep canyons with small
rivers, vast dried-up lake beds, and thrust-up mountain blocks,—they
declare that it all came about by the same fairly gentle processes and
natural forces that are operating today.
"This is the great underlying principle of
modern geology and is known as the principle of uniformitarianism
. . Without the principle of uniformitarianism there could hardly be a
science of geology that was more than pure description." —*WD.
Thombuty, Principles of Geomorphology (1957), pp. 16-17.
Thoughtful scientists admit that the uniformitarian theory
really says nothing about the age of fossils, rock strata, the age of
the earth, or anything else:
"The idea that the rates or intensities of
geological processes have been constant is so obviously contrary to
the evidence that one can only wonder at its persistence. . Modern
uniformitarianism . . asserts nothing about the age of the Earth or
about anything else." —*James H. Shea, "Twelve
Fallacies of Uniformitarianism," in Geology, September 1982, p.
"Uniformitarianists find it particularly
difficult to apply their principle, namely: (1) the cause of
mountain-building; (2) the origin of geosynclines; (3) the origin of
petroleum; (4) the cause of continual glaciation; (5) the
mechanics of overthrusting; (6) the cause of peneplains; (7) the
cause of world-wide warm climates; (8) the nature of volcanism
producing vast volcanic terrains; (9) the nature of continental uplift
processes; (10) the origin of mineral deposits; (11) the nature of
metamorphism; (12) the origin of saline deposits; (13) the nature of
granitization; and (14) the origin of coal measures. Not one of
the above phenomena has yet been adequately explained in terms of
present processes." —H. R. Siegler, Evolution or
See chapter 17, Fossils and Strata, for much more
information on this.
CATASTROPHISM—In contrast, there is the concept
called "catastrophism. Here we find the view that a terrible crisis
occurred at some past time in history. Geologic evidence on all sides
declares that it was a catastrophe of such gigantic proportions that
rocks were twisted, mountains were hurled upward, water was pulled out
of the earth, and the very atmosphere was dramatically affected. As a
consequence, thousands of volcanoes erupted and vast glaciers moved
downward from poles which had earlier been warm.
"[Bretz] has been unable to account for such a
flood but maintained that field evidence indicated its reality. This
theory represents a return to catastrophism which many geologists have
been reluctant to accept." —*W. D. Thornbury, Principles of
Geomorphology (1954), p. 401.
The evidence is so profound that many secular scientists are
indeed turning away from uniformitarianism.
"In fact, the catastrophists were much more
empirically minded than Lyell [who first widely championed
uniformitarianism over a century ago]. The geologic record does seem to
require catastrophism: rocks are fractured and contorted; whole faunas
are wiped out. To circumvent this literal appearance, Lyell imposed his
imagination upon the evidence. The geologic record, he argued, is
extremely imperfect and we must interpolate into it what we can
reasonably infer but cannot see. [In contrast] The catrastrophists were
the hard-nosed empiricists of their day." —*Stephan Jay Gould,
"Catastrophes and Steady-State Earth," in Natural History,
February, 1975, p. 17. [Gould is a professor at Harvard University,
teaching geology, biology, and the history of science.]
"Conventional uniformitarianism, or
‘gradualism,' i.e., the doctrine of unchanging change, is verily
contradicted by all post-Cambrian sedimentary data and the geotectonic
[earth movement] histories of which these sediments are the record."
—*P.D. Krynine, "Uniformitarianism is a Dangerous Doctrine,
" in Paleontology, 1956, p. 1004.
"The doctrine of uniformitarianism has been
vigorously disputed in recent years. A number of writers, although
approaching the subject from different directions, have agreed that this
doctrine is composed partly of meaningless and erroneous components and
some have suggested that it be discarded as a formal assumption of
geological science . . It seems unfortunate that uniformitarianism, a
doctrine which has had so important a place in the history of geology,
should continue to be misrepresented in introductory texts and courses
by 'the present is the key to the past,' a [uniformitarian) maxim
without much credit." —*James W Valentine, "The Present
is the Key to the Present, " in Journal of Geological Education,
April 1966, pp. 59-60.
"Often, I am afraid the subject [of geology] is
taught superficially, with Geikie's maxim 'the present is the key to the
past' used as a catechism and the imposing term 'uniformitarianism' as a
smokescreen to hide confusion both of student and teacher." —*Stephen
Jay Gould, "Is Uniformitarianism Useful?" in Journal of
Geological Education, October 1957, p. 150.
1 - FOSSILS STRATA, AND THE
Although this section duplicates portions of our
earlier chapter, Fossils and the Geologic Column, the duplication is
considered necessary, for we will here correlate the fossil and strata
evidence with the worldwide Flood. Without doing so, it would be more
difficult to properly assess the relationships, implications, and impact
of the Flood.
FOSSILS AND ROCK STRATA—Above the molten rock
at the center of our planet is a mantle of black basalt, from which
flows the lava which issues forth out of volcanoes. Above that basalt,
is to be found the light-colored, coarse-grained crystals we call
granite. This is the basement rock of the world and undergirds all of
our continents. At times this granite is close to the surface, but
frequently a large quantity of sedimentary rock is above it.
This sedimentary rock that overlays the granite was
obviously laid down by a gigantic flood of waters, and is characterized
by strata or layers. The strata is composed of water-borne sediments,
such as pebbles, gravel, sand, and clay.
"About three-fourths, perhaps more, of the land area of the
earth, 55 million square miles, has sedimentary rock as the bedrock at
the surface or directly under the cover of the mantlerock. . The
thickness of the stratified rocks range from a few feet to 40,000 feet
[121,920 dm] or more at any one place . . The vast bulk of the
stratified rocks is composed of shallow-water deposits." —*O.D.
von Engeln and *K.E. Caster, Geology (1952), p. 129.
Within that strata is to be found billions upon
billions of fossils. These are the remains—or the casts—of plants
and animals that suddenly died. Yet fossilization does not normally
occur today, for it requires sudden death, sudden burial, and great
"To become fossilized a plant or animal must
usually have hard parts, such as bone, shell or wood. It must be
buried quickly to prevent decay and must be undisturbed throughout the
process." —*F.H.T Rhodes, *H.S. Zim, and *P.R. Shaffer,
Fossils (1962), p. 10.
These sedimentary strata (also called fossilbearing
strata, or the geologic column) were laid down at the time of
the Flood. There are no fossils in the granite, for that rock was formed
prior to the time of the Flood.
We would not expect to find fossils in granite since
the astounding information given in chapter 5, Origin of the Earth, reveals
granite to be "creation rock," antedating the Flood. We there
learned that, back in the beginning, granite came into existence in less
than three minutes!
MILLIONS OF ANIMALS DIED SUDDENLY—The quantity of
fossils in the sedimentary rocks is enormous.
"At this spot [in Wyoming] the fossil hunters
found a hillside literally covered with large fragments of dinosaur
bones.. In short, it was a veritable mine of dinosaur bones . . The
concentration of the fossils was remarkable; they were piled in like
logs in a jam." —*Edwin Colbert, Men and Dinosaurs (1968),
Scores of other instances of immense "fossil
graveyards" could be cited. Vast quantities of plants and
animals were buried suddenly. So many fossils exist that one researcher
made a carbon inventory—and found that at the present
time—most of the carbon in our world is locked within the fossils in
the sedimentary strata! There must have been an immense quantity of
living plants and animals before the worldwide Flood occurred. (More
information on the carbon inventory will be found in chapter 17, Fossils
MOST SPECIES ARE ALREADY EXTINCT—Some great natural
catastrophe occurred earlier in history, for most of the species which
have ever lived are no longer alive!
"Natural selection not only brings new species
into existence—if it does—but also eliminates species, and on a
colossal scale. It is calculated that 99 per cent of all the species
which have ever existed are now extinct. So perhaps it may be more
instructive to discover why species vanish than why they appear."
—*G.A. Taylor, Great Evolution Mystery (1983), p. 86.
"There is no need to apologize any longer for
the poverty of the fossil record. In some ways it was become almost
unmanageably rich, and discovery is outpacing integration." —*T.N.
George, "Fossils in Evolutionary Perspective," in Science
Progress, January 1960, p. 1.
WHY FOSSILS ARE SO IMPORTANT—The term
"evolution" means that one kind of life form is now changing
or has changed into another life form. If such changes are occurring
today, the transitional forms should be seen. If it has occurred in the
past the fossil record will show the transitional forms.
It is of interest that evolution bases its case on
the fossils. This is because there is no evidence that evolutionary
processes are occurring today. Therefore the Darwinists must consider
the fossils to be their primary evidence that it has ever occurred at
"The most important evidence for the theory of
evolution is that obtained from the study of paleontology [fossils].
Though the study of other branches of zoology, such as comparative
anatomy or embryology, might lead one to suspect that animals are all
inter-related, it was the discovery of various fossils and their
correct placing in relative strata and age that provided the main
factual basis for the modern view of evolution." —*G.A.
Kerkut, Implications of Evolution (1960), p. 134.
"Although the comparative study of living
plants and animals may give very convincing circumstancial evidence,
fossils provide the only historical, documentary evidence that life
has evolved from simpler to more and more complex forms." —*C.
O.Dunbar, Historical Geology (1960), p. 47.
But just as there are no transitional forms today,
there are none in the past either! At the present time, all we have are
distinct plant and animal kinds. No transitional species are to be
found. (We will frequently refer to these basic types as
"species," although man-made classification systems vary,
sometimes incorrectly classifying sub-species or genera as
In that great window to the past—the fossil
record—we only find distinct plant and animal kinds, with no
transitional forms. With the exception of creatures that have become
extinct (plants and animals which are no longer alive today, such as the
dinosaurs), ALL life forms found in the fossils are just like those
presently alive! To say it again: All non-extinct plant and animal
fossils are the same as creatures now alive on the earth. There is NO
evidence of evolution in the fossils.
But in Kerkut's statement, quoted above, it is
"the placing" of the fossils in the strata that provides the
evidence of evolution. All the Darwinists have to go by is placement,
not transitional forms. But what caused that placement?
FOSSIL PLACEMENT—As the waters of the worldwide
deluge rose higher and still higher, they first covered the
slowest-moving water creatures, and buried them under sediment. Then the
slower-moving land creatures were covered and buried under sediment.
Then the more agile creatures (both water and land) were covered. In the
fossil-bearing sedimentary strata we frequently find this arrangement,
with the smaller creatures in the lower strata and the larger ones
Yet even the smallest creatures are complex, and just
beneath the lowest stratum, the Cambrian, we find no fossils at all)
This is both an astonishment and a terrible disappointment to the
evolutionists. The lowest-level life forms in the strata are complex
multi-celled animals and plants.
"It has been argued that the series of
paleontological [fossil] finds is too intermittent, too full of
'missing links' to serve as convincing proof. If a postulated
ancestral type is not found, it is simply stated that it has not so
far been found. Darwin himself often used this argument—and in his
time it was perhaps justifiable. But it has lost its value through the
immense advances of paleobiology [the study of animal fossils] in the
twentieth century . . The true situation is that those fossils have
not been found which were expected. Just where new branches are
supposed to fork off from the main stem it has been impossible to find
the connecting types." —*N. Heribert-Nilsson, Synthetische
Artbildung (1953), p. 1188. (Director of the Botanical Institute at
Each twig on the imaginary plant and animal
"family trees" is a distinct plant or animal type, either
extinct or such as we have today. But there are no intermediate life
forms to connect the twigs! There are no branches and no trunk. Only the
"twigs"—the actual species—are not imaginary.
RAPID FORMATION OF IMMENSE DEPOSITS—Nowhere on earth
today do we have fossils forming on the scale that we see in geologic
deposits. The Karro Beds in Africa, for example, contain the remains of
perhaps 800 billion vertebrates) But such fossils are not forming today.
A million fish can be killed in red tides in the Gulf of Mexico, but
they simply decay away; they do not become fossils. Similarly, debris
from vegetation do not today become coal. In order for that to occur,
the vegetation would have to be rapidly buried under a heavy load of
It required massive flood conditions to do all that
burying. An immense worldwide catastrophe occurred in the past. It
produced the Sicilian hippopotamus beds, the fossils of which are so
extensive that they are mined as a source of charcoal; the great mammal
beds of the Rockies; the dinosaur beds of the Black Hills and the
Rockies, as well as in the Gobi Desert; the fish beds of the Scottish
Devonian stratum, the Baltic amber beds, Agate Spring Quarry in
Nebraska, and hundreds more. None of this fossil-making is being done
today. It only happened one time in history—at the time of the Flood.
Frequently the fossils in these beds come from widely
separated and differing climatic zones, only to be thrown together in
disorderly masses. Nothing but a worldwide Flood can explain this.
And those fossils had to be rapidly buried.
"In fact, when an organism dies, the
substances that compose its soft parts undergo more or less rapid
decay, due to such factors as attack by bacteria and erosion by water
(particularly the sea). . If an organism is to be preserved, it must
be protected from destructive agents as quickly as possible . . And
the sooner that this consolidation occurs, the more likely it is that
the organism will be preserved.. there are also certain layers, such
as those formed from extremely fine—grained calcareous rocks, which
have consolidated so rapidly as to permit the preservation of the most
delicate structures of many organisms." —*G. Pinna, The Dawn
of Life, pp. 1-2. [Deputy Director of the Museum of Natural History in
In spite of these facts, there are still science
writers who imagine that when an animals falls into mud, or water—and
dies—it becomes a fossil! But such an idea is only fiction.
"We can easily imagine the predicament which
led to the fossilization of the three individuals [three fossil birds]
so long ago. They were probably forced into reluctant flight by some
pursuing reptilian predator, only to flop down on the water and mud
from which they could not rise." —*R. Peterson, The Birds,
PRECAMBRIAN VOID—The lowest stratum with fossils in it
is called the "Cambrian." It has a great wealth of over a
thousand different types of creatures—all complex and multicelled
"At least 1500 species of invertebrates
are known in the Cambrian, all marine, of which 60% are trilobites and
30% brachiopods." —*Maurice Gigrroux, Stratigraphic Geology
(1955), p. 46.
Above this are the Ordovician, Silurian, and
Devonian, and they all include sea creatures similar to those in the
Cambrian. It is not until the Permo-Carboniferous that the first land
animals are encountered.
The worldwide fossil strata give abundant evidence of
a great flood of waters that covered the earth. But the sedimentary
strata are only one-third of the earth's geologic record. Below the
sedimentary strata, with its hoard of fossils, we find the
"Precambrian period,"—and no fossils. (Some scientists claim
that a few are there, others say they are not sure, while still others
maintain that there are absolutely no fossils below the Cambrian.)
"One of the major unsolved problems of geology
and evolution is the occurrence of diversified, multicellular marine
invertebrates in lower Cambrian rocks on all the continents,—and
their absence in rocks of greater age . . These [Precambrian]
sediments apparently were suitable for the preservation of fossils,
because they are often identical with overlying rocks which are
fossiliferous, yet no fossils are found in them." —*D.l.
Axelrod, "Early Cambrian Marine Fauna, " in Science, 128
(1958), p. 7.
This is an astounding enigma to the evolutionists
today, just as it was to "Charles Darwin over a hundred years ago:
(1) Why would all the levels of fossils reveal the same distinct phyla
and families that we find today? (2) Why would the lowest layers of
fossils (the Cambrian) be highly complex? (3) Why would there be
absolutely no transitional forms throughout all of the fossil strata?
(4) Why would there be no initial transitional forms below the Cambrian?
"There is, however, one gigantic gap in the
record that is of a different kind—the gap of Precambrian times.
Despite intensified search by hundreds of geologists, the rocks older
than the oldest fossilferous Cambrian sediments remain almost as
barren of fossils as when they were first studied 150 years ago. . On
the other hand, the earliest Cambrian rocks [just above the
Precambrian], formed about 500 million years ago, are relatively
richly fossiliferous and contain a fauna already highly diversified .
. Moreover, the major phyla when they first appear display a . .
differentiation that implies a complex phyletic history in
Pre-Cambrian times . .
"Granted [assuming] an evolutionary origin of
the main groups of animals, and not an act of special creation, the
absence of any record whatsoever of a single member of any of the
phyla in the Pre-Cambrian rocks remains as inexplicable on orthodox
[evolutionary] grounds as it was to Darwin [who wrote:] ('To the
question why we do not find rich fossiliferous [fossil-bearing]
deposits . . prior to the Cambrian system, I can give no satisfactory
answer')." —*T.N. George, "Fossils in Evolutionary
Perspective, " in Science Progress, 48 (1960), pp. 4-5.
The sedimentary strata with their billions of fossils
are both a powerful effect and evidence of the Flood. The Precambrian
lack of fossils is an additional evidence of it. Evolutionists point to
these strata with their fossils as proof of evolution. But throughout
the fossil rock we should find transitional-evolving-types of plants and
animals, and at the bottom should be the types that evolved into those
in the Cambrian. But the "missing links" simply are not there.
"One can no longer dismiss this event by
assuming that all Pre-Cambrian rocks have been too greatly altered by
time to allow the fossils ancestral to the Cambrian metazoans to be
preserved.. Even if all the Pre-Cambrian ancestors of the Cambrian
metazoans were similarly soft-bodied and therefore rarely preserved,
far more abundant traces of their activities should have been found in
the Pre-Cambrian strata than has proved to be the case. Neither can
the general failure to find Pre-Cambrian animal fossils be charged to
any lack of looking." —*W.B. Harland and *M. Rudwick
"The Great Infra-Cambrian Ice Age, " in Scientific American,
211(1964), pp. 34-38.
"Why should such complex organic forms [in the Cambrian] be in
rocks about six hundred million years old, and be absent or
unrecognized in the records of the proceeding two billion years? . .
If there has been evolution of life, the absence of requisite fossils
in the rocks older than the Cambrian is puzzling." —*G.M.
Kay and *EH. Colbert, Stratigraphy and Life History (1965), p.
FOSSIL TREES—Polystrate trees are fossil trees which
extend vertically through several layers of rock strata. They are often
20 feet [60.9 dm] or more in length. Often the entire length of each
tree will be preserved, along with the top and bottom. Such a formation
would easily be explained by the Flood, but is impossible to be fitted
into the theory of uniformitarianism, which says that the rock strata
are like tree rings, and have slowly been forming over the last two
billion years. Each strata supposedly took millions of years to form.
There is no doubt that those trees were quickly
covered by the strata, otherwise each tree would have decomposed while
waiting for a hundred thousand years of strata to form around it. From
bottom to top, these upright trees sometimes span "millions of
years" of strata. Quite obviously, both the trees and sediments
around them were moved into place and deposited at the same approximate
Many will recall the explosion of Mount St. Helens on
May 18, 1980. Research was done at the site shortly afterward and it was
discovered that the explosion filled Spirit Lake with logs, many of
which were floating vertically, due to the weight of their roots. This
helps explain what took place at the time of the Flood, as trees were
washed into an area and then covered by a rapid deposit of sediment.
As a result of upheaval of ground, combined with
successive depositions of sedimentary layers, there are instances in
which vertical trees are to be found at more than one level. Given the
chaotic conditions at the time of the Flood, this would be
understandable. Fossil trees have been found horizontal, vertical,
diagonal, and upside down.
COAL AND OIL—Most geologists agree that coal came from
ancient plants, and oil came from ancient marine animals (primarily the
soft parts of invertebrates, but also fish). Neither coal nor oil are
being formed today. None of it is found in Pleistocene (ice-age)
deposits, but instead was quickly laid down during the Flood, before the
glacial ice flows began.
"Petroleum occurs in rocks of all ages from the Cambrian to
the Pliocene inclusive, but no evidence has been found to prove that
any petroleum has been formed since the Pliocene, although
sedimentation patterns and thicknesses in Pleistocene and Recent
sediments are similar to those in the Pliocene where petroleum has
formed." —*Ben B. Cox, "Transformation of Organic
Material Into Petroleum Under Geological Conditions," Bulletin of
the American Association of Petroleum Geologists, May 1946, p. 647.
Why did no petroleum form after the Pliocene era?
This is a mystery to evolutionary geologists, but it is no problem to
Flood geology. From the beginning of the Cambrian to the end of the
Pliocene, was when the Flood occurred.
"The apparent absence of formation of petroleum subsequent to
the Pliocene must be explained in any study of the transformation of
organic material into petroleum." —*Ibid.
(Some oil deposits have been found below the Cambrian
level, but it was afterward learned that they seeped there from
fossil-bearing strata above.)
Great masses of vegetation, that became the coal we
use today, were quickly laid down. Because of Flood conditions, other
things were also deposited in those coal strata:
(1) Marine fossils (tubeworms, corals, sponges,
mollusks, etc.) are often found in coal beds.
(2) Large boulders are found in them.
(3) Fossil trees are found standing on an angle or
even upside down in coal beds.
(4) Washed-in marine sediments will split a coal
seam into two.
Not only are fossil logs found in rock and coal
strata, but also polystrate—or upright fossil trees—as well!
Sometimes these trees are even upside down! There is no possible way
that these trees could have remained in those positions for millions of
years, while rock and coal strata gradually formed around them.
(5) Sediment "under-soils" will
frequently be under them.
(6) Strata of deposited limestone, shale (hardened
clay), or sandstone will be found in between coal deposits. These
strata are often found scores of times in seams of coal.
The drawing on the left of an upright tree was made
from this petrified tree (Sigillaria) in Nova Scotia, Canada. The bottom
part is in shale and the upper part is in sandstone. This and other
petrified trees in Joggins, Nova Scotia have been studied by many
scientists. Throughout the world, still more polystrate trees continue
to baffle evolutionists. (For more on this, see Creation Research
Society Quarterly, June 1969.)
Evolutionists maintain that oil and gas require
millions of years to form, and could not be rapidly produced from
vegetation as Flood geology would require. But recent experiments have
shown that petroleum can be made quickly:
"There is great promise in a system being
developed by government scientists that converts organic material to
oil and gas by treating it with carbon monoxide and water at high
temperature and pressure . . By using the waste-to-oil process, 1.1
billion barrels [131 billion liters] of oil could be gleaned from the
880 million tons [798 trillion kg] of organic wastes suitable for
conversion [each year]." —*L.L. Anderson, "Oil from
Garbage," in Science Digest, July 1973, p. 77.
Here is an instance in which recently-formed coal occurred:
"Petzoldt (1882) describes very remarkable
observations which he made during the construction of a railway bridge
at Alt-Bre'isach, near Freiburg. The wooden piles which had been
rammed into the ground were compressed by overriding blocks. An
examination of these compressed piles showed that in the center of the
compressed piles was a black, coal-like substance. In continuous
succession from center to surface was blackened, dark-brown,
light-brown and finally yellow-colored wood. The coal-like substance
corresponded, in its chemical composition, to anthracite [hard coal],
and the blackened wood resembled brown coal." —*Otto
Stutter, Geology of Coal (1940), pp. 105-106.
"From all available evidence it would appear
that coal may form in a very short time, geologically speaking if
conditions are favorable." —*E. S, Moore, Coal, (1940), p.
PROBLEM OF GRADED BEDDING—Geologists maintain that the
sedimentary strata was gradually laid down over hundreds of millions of
years. But various aspects of the strata indicate it was laid down
rapidly under alluvial conditions. Rapid transport of various materials
by water appear to have been the cause.
One example of this is graded bedding. In the
strata we will find a layer of coarse pebbles and small stones, with
smaller pebbles above them, grading off above to still finer materials
such as sand. Below this graded bedding will be another graded bedding
where the process has been repeated as another collection of sediments
was washed in.
"The phenomenon of graded bedding (coarse
conglomerate on the bottom, with finer material graded upward) is
difficult to explain on the basis of uniformity, but not on the basis
of Genesis 8;1-3 where we are told that the Creator dried up the
flood—waters by strong winds that drove the waters by a "going
and returning." This process, too, would more readily account for
interbedding, the repetitive alternation of certain layers, in
some instances as many as 150 strata. Uniformitarian geology otters no
satisfactory explanation for this phenomenon. Then there is the matter
of disconformities, that is, a sudden change in fossil types
with not accompanying change in the physical composition of the rock
formation, or the appearance of fossils separated by a tremendous time
gap. This is not accounted for in uniformitarianism. If the deposition
had been uniform, as claimed, such disconformities should not have
occurred. The perplexing occurrence of so-called "older fossils"
above "younger fossils," which paleontologists try to
account for by thrust faults, can much more readily be accounted for
by accepting the occurrence of worldwide volcanic and seismic
upheavals such as accompanied the Deluge. In fact, the mere presence
of vast numbers of fossils is explainable only if plants and animals
were suddenly inundated, trapped, and buried in moving masses of
sediment. It is almost impossible to explain how organisms could have
been transformed into fossils if they had simply perished and had
remained exposed to the decaying process of air, sun, and bacteria.
There are so-called fossil graveyards in which is often found a
rich conglomeration of organisms. One such found in Eocene lignite
deposits of the Geiseltal in central Germany, contains more than six
thousand remains of vertebrate animals together with an even greater
number of mollusks, insects, and plants. So well preserved are many of
these animals that it is still possible to study the contents of their
stomachs. It is easy to imagine how these could have been deposited by
the swirling and receding waters of a great flood, but not how this
could have happened under uniformitarian conditions." —H.R.
Siegler, Evolution or Degeneration—Which? (1972), pp. 78-79.
UNITY OF THE STRATA—Basic to evolutionary theory is
the concept that each stratum was laid down during a period of millions
of years, while the other strata were laid down in other epochs or eras.
All of the strata are said to have required two billion years to form.
In contrast, the evidence indicates that the fossils
in each stratum were laid down rapidly, rather than slowly. But, in
addition, there is also evidence that each stratum was deposited at
about the same time as all the other strata! The primary difference is
that each layer has somewhat different fossils in it, but this too would
easily be explained by a gradually rising flood that washed in, and then
quickly buried, great masses of plants and animals. One layer and then
the next was rather quickly laid down by the Flood.
Two of the most important boundary points in the
geologic column are the Paleozoic to Mesozoic, and the Mesozoic
to Cenozoic. Careful research by *Wiedmann in Germany has revealed
that there is no observable time break between these, the two most
obvious divisions in the geologic column!
"The boundaries between eras, periods and
epochs on the geological time-scale generally denote sudden and
significant changes in the character of the fossil remains. For
example, the boundary between the Triassic and Jurassic periods of the
Mesozoic era (about 180 million years ago) was supposedly marked by
spontaneous appearance of new species . . A reassessment of the data
by Jost Wiedmann of the University of Tubingen in the Federal Republic
of Germany, gives a clearer picture of evolution at the boundaries of
the Mesozoic (225 million to 70 million years ago). He concludes that
there were no worldwide extinctions of species or spontaneous
appearances of new species at the boundaries." —*Report of
the International Geological Congress at Montreal: "Fossil
Changes: `Normal Evolution' " in Science News, September 2, 1972,
This is an important point that Wiedmann brings to
the attention of the scientific world. While most evolutionists maintain
that the geologic column slowly formed amid the peace and tranquility of
uniformitarian ages, there are other evolutionists who declare that
there must have been a succession of several catastrophes that
accomplished the task. But Wiedmann carefully analyzed the two principle
boundaries in the column—and discovered that "no worldwide
extinctions of species or spontaneous appearances of new species"
occurred at these boundaries. This is important.
The entire geologic column is an integral unit and
was all rapidly laid down at about the same time. Here are some
additional reasons why this is so:
- Rapid burial, or no Fossils occur. Each stratum had to be laid
down rapidly, or fossils would not have resulted.
- Rapid deposit, or no Rocks would form. The physical structure
and interconnections of the strata require rapid deposition in order
for them to form into rocks.
(3) No Erosion between Strata. Each stratum was
laid directly over the one below it, since there is no trace of
erosion between them. Each stratum was formed continuously and
rapidly, and then—with no time-lapse erosion in between—the next
stratum formed continuously and rapidly over that. And on and on it
(4) Layers not Worldwide. There are many
"unconformities" where one stratum ends horizontally, and
another begins. But there is no worldwide unconformity; instead one
stratum will gradually grade imperceptibly into another, which
thereupon succeeds it with more continuous and rapid depositation,
without a time break at any point.
(5) Generally no clear Boundaries.
rarely a clear physical boundary between strata formations. Generally
they tend to merge and mingle with each other in a zone of
STRATA SEQUENCE AND OVERTHRUSTS—If evolutionary theory
were correct, each layer of the cake would be quietly set in place on
top of the preceding one over a span of long ages. But instead we find "disconformities"
and "overthrusts." A "recent stratum" which
should therefore be near the top, will be underneath several "older
This can easily be explained by the turbulence of a
single worldwide Flood which laid all the stratum within a relatively
But evolutionary theory is totally baffled by such a
situation. So its supporters have invented the theory of "overthrusts."
As we mentioned in chapter 17, the Matterhorn—one of the
highest and most prominent mountains in Switzerland is supposed to have
moved horizontally many miles from some distant place. Evolutionary
theories about rock strata require such a hypothesis. Either the
mountains pack up and move to other lands, or evolution dies a sickening
death. The entire Matterhorn rests on top of what is theorized as
"younger strata," therefore it is said to have hiked over the
hills to its present location. The same is true for the Appalachians,
which climbed up out of the Atlantic onto the North American continent.
They arrived before the Pilgrims!
But, in reality, overthrusts are but another effect
of the Flood. For example, at one point, some land animals and plants
were covered by Flood-borne sediments. Then, from some distant location,
waters with fish were carried in and deposited in a pile of
sediment above the land creatures. And so it went.
A related problem is that, although the very bottom
strata should always be the Cambrian—in actuality, many different
strata are found at the bottom!
"Further, how many geologists have pondered
the fact that lying on the crystalline basement are found from place
to place not merely Cambrian, but rocks of all ages?" —*E.M.
Spieker, "Mountain-Building Chronology and Nature of Geologic
Time-Scale," in Bulletin of the American Association of Petroleum
Geologists, August 1956, p. 1805.
How do you solve a problem like that? Amid the confusion of s
worldwide deluge, and bursts of massive earth movements and hurricane
winds, all kinds of strata patterns could occur. Flood theory can
solve questions that evolutionary theory cannot answer.
FLOOD PREDICTIONS—If the Flood caused the sedimentary rock
strata, with their billions of fossils, then the following points
would be expected—and, upon examination of the fossils in the
strata—they all prove true:
(1) Animals living at the lowest levels would tend
to be buried in the lowest strata.
(2) Creatures buried together—would tend to be
buried with other animals that lived in the same region or ecological
(3) Hydrologic forces (the suck and drag of rapidly
moving water) would tend to sort out creatures of similar forms.
Because of lower hydrolic drag, those with the simplest shapes would
tend to be buried first.
(4) Backboneless sea creatures (marine
invertebrates), since they live on the sea bottom, would normally be
found in the bottom strata.
(5) Fish would be found in higher strata since they
can swim up close to the surface.
(6) Amphibians and reptiles would be buried higher
than the fishes, but, as a rule, below the land animals.
(7) Few land plants or animals would be in the
(8) The first land plants would be found where the
amphibians were found.
(9) Mammals and birds would generally be found in
higher levels than reptiles and amphibians.
(10) Because many animals tend to go in herds in
time of danger, we would find herd animals buried together.
(11) In addition, the larger, stronger animals would tend to sort out
into levels apart from the slower ones (Tigers would not be found with
(12) Relatively few birds would be found in the
strata, since they could fly to the highest points.
(13) Few humans would be found in the strata. They would be at top,
trying to stay afloat until they died; following which they would sink
to the surface of the sediments and decompose.
In the above 13 points, we have a solid Flood explanation for what we
find in the sequence of fossils in the geologic column. Yet, lacking any
other evidence to bring forward, it is that very sequence of fossils
placement which evolutionists declare to be the primary evidence that
animals have "evolved" from one another!
2 - RECORDS ABOUT THE FLOOD
WORLDWIDE FLOOD—Ours is the water
planet. We have 330 million cubic miles [531 million cubic km] of it!
Water covers 72 percent of our planet's surface. Every cubic mile of
seawater holds over 150 million tons [136 trillion kg] of minerals. On
the average, rain pours down on our planet at the rate of 1.5 tons
[1,361 kg] s day. At the present time, there is 70 billion gallons
[26,822 liters] of water for every person alive. The oceans of the world
are so vast and deep that if Earth had an absolutely level crust, the
sea would form an envelope over 8,800 feet [26,822 dm] deep.
The antediluvian world had never seen rain before.
But when it came, it really came. When the Genesis Flood began, the vast
water canopy collapsed and "the floodgates of the sky were
opened." Torrential rains fell for six weeks.
FLOOD STORIES—Races and tribes all over the
world have, as part of their traditions, stories about a great flood of
water that covered the whole earth. The event was so world-shattering
and life-changing that, from parents to children, stories of that great
upheaval passed down through the generations. Gradually, as mythologies
developed, legends about this flood became part of them. These stories
include various aspects of the Genesis account of the Flood:
"It has long been known that legends of a great flood, in
which almost all men perished, are widely diffused over the
world." —*James George Frazer, Folk-Lore in the Old
Testament, Vol. 1 (1919), P. 105.
One survey of 120 tribal groups in North, Central,
and South America, disclosed flood traditions among each of them. (International
Standard Bible Encyclopedia, Vol. 2, p. 822.)
- There was general wickedness among men.
- God saw that a flood was necessary.
- One family with eight members was protected.
- A giant boat was constructed.
(5) The family, along with animals and birds, went
Into the boat.
(6) The flood overwhelmed all those living on the
(7) The deluge covered all the earth for a time.
(8) The boat landed In a high mountainous area.
(9) Two or three birds were sent out first.
(10) The people left the boat with all the animals.
(11) The survivors worshiped God for sparing them.
(12) A promise of divine favor was given that there
would not be another worldwide flood of waters.
Another survey of ancient Flood literature and
legends is discussed by B. Nelson in The Deluge Story in Stone (1968).
In this tabulation, the stories and writings of 41 different tribal and
national groups were given.
First, we will list these 41 groups, many of which
were ancient races. ("A and B" indicate two different
sub-groups; for example: Fiji A and B.) Assyria-Babylonia (A and B),
Alaska, Andaman Island, Asia Minor, Aztecs, Brazil, Cherokee, China,
Cree, Egypt, Esquimaux (Canada), Fiji (A and B), Greece, Hawaii, India
(A and B), Italy, Lapland, Lenni Lenape, Lithuania, Leward Islands,
Mandan, Michoacan, Nicaragua, Papagos (Mexico), Persia (A and B), Peru,
Pimas, Russia, Scandinavia (A and B), Sumatra, Syria, Takoe, Thlinkut (A
and B), Toltecks, Wales.
Second, we will list twelve points in their legends,
according to the number of times each is included by each of the 41
Destruction by a flood-41 times.
Some humans saved-38 times.
A boat saved them-36 times.
Universal destruction by a flood-24 times.
One family was especially favored for protection-15 times.
The flood was caused by man's transgressions-14 times.
The flood came as a result of a divine decree-10 times.
Birds were sent out first-9 times.
Animals were saved by the boat also-8 times.
The survivors worship God after leaving the boat-7 times.
The boat landed In a high mountainous area-6 times.
After leaving the boat, God pronounced His favor on the saved-5
An even larger collection of Flood stories is to be
found in *Sir James G. Frazer's book, Folklore in the Old Testament
(1919), Vol. 1, pp. 146330. There are 11 Hellenic stories from ancient
Greece, 6 European stories, 29 Persian and Indian stories, 31
Australian, Southeast Asia, and Pacific stories, 63 North, Central, and
South American stories, and 3 African stories related in 185 pages of
Frazer's book; a total of 143 Flood stories. You will find them listed
in Donald W. Patten (ed), Symposium on Creation IV (1972), pp. 36-38.
An excellent five-page analysis of
confusion-of-tongues legends will be found in James E. Strickling, "Legendary
Evidence for the Confusion of Tongues," in Creation Research
Society Quarterly, September 1974, pp. 97-101. Quotations from a number
of sources are given.
"There are many descriptions of the remarkable event [the
Genesis Flood]. Some of these have come from Greek historians, some
from the Babylonian records; others from the cuneiform tablets [of
Mesopotamia], and still others from the mythology and traditions of
different nations, so that we may say that no event has occurred
either in ancient a modern times about which there is better evidence
a more numerous records, than this very one. . It is one of the event
which seems to be familiar to the moat distant nations—in Australia,
in India, in China, in Scandinavia, and in the various parts of
America. "—Stephen D. Peer, "Story of the Deluge,
"American Antiquarian, Vol. 27, No. 4, July-August 1905, P. 203.
NOAH'S NAME—If the story of the Ark and
the Flood is to be found among 120 different tribes of earth, should we
not expect that Noah's name would be remembered by some of them also? If
so, that would be a striking cultural evidence of the worldwide Flood,
which, itself, left so many physical evidences upon our globe. Not only
do the rock strata and their fossil contents vindicate the veracity of
the Flood story, but the languages of man do also! Here are some
Sanskrit (of ancient India) is a basic language,
dating back to nearly the time of the Flood. According to the legends of
India, Ma-nu was the man who built the boat and then, with seven others,
entered it and were saved. Ma is an ancient word for "water." Ma-nu
could then mean "Noah of the waters." In Sanskrit, Manu
later came to mean "mankind."
The most ancient man in the Germanic tribes was
called Mannus. Mannus was also the name of the Lithuanian Noah.
In the Hebrew, "Ararat" is the same as
"Armenia." The prefix Ar means mountain, so
"Armenia" probably means the mountain of Meni. According to
Genesis 8:4, Noah landed somewhere in the Ararat mountains.
The legendary founder of the first Egyptian dynasty
was Manes, and Minos was the man who is said to have been the
first man of Crete. The nearby Greeks said that Minos was the son
of their god, Zeus, and the ruler of the sea.
The English (as well as all Germanic) words
for man comes from the Sanskrit, manu.
The Egyptian god, NO was the god of waters who sent a
flood to destroy mankind. They identified Nu with the rain and the
atmosphere. Summerians taught that Anu was the god of the atmosphere.
The rainbow they called "the great bow of Anu."
In ancient Africa, the king in the Congo was called Mani
Congo. Later, Mani became the title of respect given to all leading
men of the country.
In Japan, manu became maru, a name included in most
Japanese ship names. Chinese mythology taught that Hakudo Maru
came down from heaven to teach men how to build ships. We know that Noah
was the first shipbuilder and that all ancient and modern hulls are
basically designed in the same manner. They are copied from an
arch-type. The Ark was the great pattern boat for men who had to
traverse the coasts of the new oceans, and knew that, nestled in the
mountains of Ararat, was a boat which had successfully done it. They
carefully copied its structural design.
In Japanese, Maru also means a protective circle or enclosure of
The first people to inhabit Japan were called Ainu,
and mat means "original man" in some Australian aboriginal
Among the North American Indians, manu became minne,
meaning "water" for the Sioux; hence our Minneapolis (city of
water) and Minnesota (sky-blue water). Minnetoba (our Manitoba, Canada)
meant "water prairie" to the Assiniboines.
In South America, we find the Nahuatl, managuac (our
Managua, capital of Nicaragua) which means "surrounded by
ponds." The fabled city, Manoa (meaning "Noah's water"),
was supposed to be the capital of the god El Dorado. A number of
important rivers in South America are derived from manu: The Amazon
(named after the Manau), the Manu in Peru, and also the Muymanu,
Tahuamanu, Pariamanu, Tacuatimanu, etc. In all of these, manu means
"river" or "water."
The Egyptians invented their picture
writing-hieroglyphics, we call them—soon after the Flood. Their word
for water was a wavy line. When the alphabet was later developed, that
symbol became the letter "m," for mayim, the Semitic word for
water. It later became the Greek letter Mu, the Roman letter Em, and our
The Assyrian name for "rain" was zunnu. The
Roman god, Janus (our January), was originally the Etruscan father god
of the world and inventor of ships. This could have easily have been
derived from the Hebrew word for "God of Noah," and by the
Estruscans pronounced Jah Nu.
The Greek sea-goddess was naiade, which meant
The ancient Norse of the Scandinavians called their
ship god, Njord (Niord), who lived at Noatun, the great harbor of the
god-ships. Noa in Norse is related to the Icelandic nor, which meant
The original Sanskrit word for "ship" was
nau, which later passed into our English word, navy, nautical, nausea
We are indebted to Bengt Sage for the above information (see
"Noah and Human Entomology, " in Creation the Cutting Edge,
pp. 48-52.) The publisher, Creation Life Publishers (Master Books], in
El Cajon, California has many, many other excellent books. Write them
for a book order sheet.)
THE FLOOD IN CHINESE—Harvard's Chinese-Japanese
Yenching Library dates written Chinese at approximately 2500 B.C. This
correlates closely with the end of the Flood. It is of interest that two
of the earliest written languages—Egyptian and Chinese—were both
Because of its ancientness, the Chinese script has
information for us from the very earliest times. In picture writing, it
portrays facts recorded in the book of Genesis. C.H. Kang and Ethel R.
Nelson did intensive research into that script and wrote the book, The
Discovery of Genesis: How the Truths of Genesis Were Found Hidden in the
Chinese Language. This is a fascinating volume; one you will want to
read for yourself.
Here are a few insights from the book:
(1) The Chinese character for Devil is formed from
three other characters: man, garden, and private. (Genesis 3:1-7)
(2) Tempter is a combination of three words: devil,
cover, and free. (Genesis 3:1-6)
(3) Righteousness combines sheep, I or me, and hand.
(4) The Chinese word for Total is a uniting of eight
people, who join hands over the earth. (Genesis 7:7,13; 8:13-16)
(5) Boat in Chinese is brings together two words into
one. The two words are vessel and eight. (Genesis 7:7,13; 8:13)
(6) Rebellion and Confusion have the same script: a
linking together of the words for tongue and walking. (Genesis 11:4-9)
(7) One example of the unusual discoveries is Garden
or field which is a square. Inside the square are four straight lines
radiating outward in a "plus sign" shape. According to Genesis
2:914, a river flowed outward in four streams and watered the entire
You will find the entire book very interesting.
CREATION AND THE FLOOD IN CHINESE
Chinese is one of the most ancient scripts in
existence. There is something about the Chinese personality that those
conscientious people have consistently chosen to remain very close to the
traditions handed down from earlier times. Especially is this so in their
written script. Because of that, written Chinese contains the story of
Creation, the Garden of Eden, the Fall of Adam and Eve, and the Flood
When the Chinese decided to put their language into
writing, they used picture writing as did the other earliest writing
civilizations. But, in the case of the Chinese, their word structure was
conducive to telling stories! They would devise one word, another, and
then a third: then put the three words together to make a fourth. Those
three words equaling that fourth told a story, and it can be read today in
the Chinese language.
An OUTSTANDING book dealing with this topic is: C.H.
Kang and Ethel R. Nelson, The Discovery of Genesis: How the Truths of
Genesis Were Found Hidden in the Chinese Language (1979), Concordia
Publishing House, St. Louis.
For example, eight mouths (eight people) inside a
container—is the Chinese name for boat. The word for empty is made up in
this way: eight people under one roof equals a cave. The word cave and
work together produces the word empty. This would indicate that when Noah
and his family left the Ark, they at first moved into a cave for shelter.
Leaving the cave, day after day, and after a sizable amount of work, they
finally emptied the Ark of all that they wanted from it. They later told
and retold their experiences to their descendants of several generations.
Here are a few samples from this book; many, many more
are to be found within its pages. You will want to obtain a copy of the
complete book for yourself.
You may recall that the Chinese recorded the solar
eclipse of 2250 B.C.; the earliest exact historical date in history,
confirmed scientifically (see chapter 6, Age of the Earth). Biblical
records indicate the Flood occurred about 2348 B.C. As the Chinese arrived
in their new home after the scattering from the tower of Babel, and
formulated their picture writing, they placed in those pictures
recollections of those important earlier events: the Fall of Man, the
early sacrificial system, the worldwide Flood, and the Tower of Babel.
Those are four of the outstanding events described in Genesis 3 to 11.
Sumerian was one of the very earliest written forms.
The Sumerians lived in the plains of the Fertile Crescent, below the
Ararat Mountains where the Ark came to rest at the end of the Flood.
Shortly thereafter, people moved farther south into Egypt and began
another picture writing: hieroglyphics. Still others moved eastward, and
the Chinese began their picture—like writing, which is also one of the
most ancient of language scripts. Within a few centuries, simplified
scripts began to be used, such as the Greek and Roman alphabets.
You have just finished
Chapter 19 EFFECTS
OF THE FLOOD Part 1
19 EFFECTS OF THE FLOOD Part 2