FACTS AGAINST EVOLUTION
DESIGN - # 2
EAR MUSCLES OF
THE BAT-We mention the bat in chapter 28, but here is more
information about this incredible creature:
they have good eyesight, it is wellknown that bats fly by sonar. They
emit highfrequency sounds which the human ear cannot hear. The returning
echo of those sounds places "sound-print" pictures in
their minds. Using this technique, a bat can "see" and catch a
tiny, fastflying insect.
there are more wonders here than we would otherwise have imagined: A bat
can vary the pitch of that sound. The higher it is, the smaller the
surface its echo can reveal. Some sounds are so high that they can enable
the little bat to detect the presence of a wire no thicker than a human
hair stretched across its pathway.
there is the intensity of that sound. The louder it is, the more distant
the object that can be detected. So these calls are generally loud; so
loud, in fact, that they would strike our ears as though they came from
air‑hammers, except that, by design, they are so high‑pitched
that we cannot hear them. God designed these noises, as loud as a
pneumatic drill, to be in a range which would be soundless to us.
wait! If it is necessary for a bat to make such a loud sound, in order to
have it echo back from a distant object,-how can the bat possibly
hear the echo with its ears, in the midst of all the racket it is making
with its mouth?
is a good question, for it would, indeed, be a very real problem. The ear
of the bat was designed to be extremely sensitive, so that it can hear
very faint sounds. Yet just a few of its screams would quickly deafen it!
The Designer solved this problem also: There is a special muscle in the
middle ear of the bat. It is attached to one of three tiny bones which
transmits the vibrations of the eardrum to the tubular . organ in the
skull that converts them into nerve signals sent to the brain. Just as
each scream is on the verge of being emitted, this muscle instantly pulls
back that bone, so that it does not transmit sound from the outer ear to
the inner ear. The eardrum is momentarily disconnected! Then, after the
scream is ended, that muscle relaxes‑and the bone moves back into
place, and faint sounds can be heard. This back‑and‑forth
motion of that bone occurs more than a hundred times a second! And it
always occurs in perfect alignment with the sending of the
there is still more: The faster these sounds are emitted, the more
up-to-date information the bat will receive. Fast reception of
information is especially needed when the little fellow is flying around
the curves inside the cave, or is flying among the branches of a forest.
Some bats can send out 200 quick screams a second. Each sound lasts only a
thousandth of a second, and each is spaced just the right distance from
the other so that each echo is clearly heard.
about the amazing honey bee; who designed the bat! This creature is
astounding. Frequently in this set of books, it is stated that Creation
is a proven fact, not a possible alternative theory as some suggest. It
is the laws of nature and the things of nature which prove Creationism;
no other possibility could suffice. God made us. Accept the fact, for it
is true. Not to accept it is to lie to yourself, and soon you are enmeshed
in a habit of believing fanciful, foolish theories which, in reality, are
GREENHOUSE PLANT-The fenestraria
is not a plant in a greenhouse, but a plant which makes its own
in the southern African deserts, the fenestraria grows underground and
only a small transparent window is exposed above the surface. This window
is made of translucent cells and has two layers. Scientists were amazed to
discover that the outer layer blocks the most damaging ultraviolet rays of
the sun, and the inner layer reduces and diffuses the light to a safe
level for the green photosynthetic tissue of the buried plant. How could
the plant know how to do all that? Frankly, it couldn't.
you want to design a better greenhouse? Go study the fenestraria. Someone
may eventually do it, and produce far more efficient greenhouses than
we have today.
THE HOMING ANT-In
Sahara Desert there are great areas of trackless sand. How could you
travel on it and know where you were going? If you were less than an inch
tall, how could you do it and find your way home again? Well, the little Cataglyphis does it every day. This is a tiny ant which lives in
that great desert. Making its home in a little nest below ground, where it
is safe from sand lizards and birds, the tiny ant remains there till
that time, all its enemies have fled to shade rocks or burrows to escape
from the burning heat, and the little ant ventures out to find its lunch.
At about the same time, hundreds cf these little ants crawl out of tiny
tunnels and scurry off in search of dead insects. For an hour or so, they
run here and there, zigzagging across the hot sand dunes. What they do
must be done quickly‑before they are overcome with heat.
each ant travels, it pauses every few seconds, raises its head and moves
it around. Then it dashes off in a new direction. Eventually, mealhunting
time is over and the little fellow must return to its nest with the
collected food. But where is the nest? How can the little creature
possibly know where it is located? Yet, without a pause, the tiny ant sets
off in a certain direction‑and runs straight for a distance of up to
150 yards exactly to its nest hole!
making careful observations, researchers concluded that it was during that
moment of headlifting and turning that the ant oriented itself. The
scientists rigged mirrors which gave a false impression of where the sun
was located-and, at the end of the food-gathering trip, the
ant was not able to find its way back to the nests. Obviously, this means
that the little ant, with a brain smaller than a grain of sand, was
constantly memorizing directional locations as, every few seconds, it
looked up and then started off in a new direction. And it was able to use
the angle of an ever‑moving sun as the norm for making those
BIGGEST SEEDS IN THE WRONG
largest seed in the world is not, according to scientists, where it is
supposed to be. The double coconut (corn-de-mer), Lodoicea
maldivica, is a palm tree, the seeds of which require up to 10 years
to develop before they are ready to grow into a
new palm tree. They look like two coconuts joined together, and weigh
up to 45 pounds.
the wild they grow on hilltops in the remote Seychelles Islands. But
researchers are baffled by their location on hilltops. How did they get
there? Did the 45-pound coconuts roll uphill? The wind surely did
not blow them up there. One would expect
them to keep traveling farther and farther downhill, with each new
generation. No known native animal or bird would be capable of carrying
them up there. To add to the mystery, these coconuts sink in the water, so
how did they get to the Seychelles Islands in the first place?
moth lives in Australia. In the springtime the little caterpillars feed on
the grassy pastures of southern Queensland and New South Wales. Soon
they pupate and become little greyish-black moths. But by now it is
summertime and hot. What is a poor little moth to do in a place like that?
I am not sure I would know, but the little moth does.
of waiting around long enough to die in the heat, the little moths begin a
long journey. Northward they travel to the Australian mountains. Each year
they take exactly the same route that their ancestors took in previous
years. Yet, just like their ancestors, they themselves have never before
taken that trip-for they were born the same year they took it.
Arriving at the foot of the mountains, they begin flying up and up the
slopes, until they arrive at nearly 4,000-foot elevations. Some go
on up to 4,500-foot locations.
moths have arrived at piles of immense granite boulders near the summits.
They alight on the boulders-and crawl into shady cracks. Packing
close together, they look like tiles on a rooftop. In this high, cold
place they go into a state of suspended animation, and remain there until
the fall when they will return to lower elevatiions and lay their eggs
next spring in the sand. Then they will die, and a new generation of
moths will emerge in early summer-and soon thereafter wing their
flight to the high northern mountains.
LIVING WITHOUT WATER-In
12, we mention a plant in Israel which can live without water. Another is
to be found in America. It is called the bird's-nest club moss. This
little plant can survive for several months without moisture of any kind.
In a drought it rolls into a tight ball to minimize the area exposed to
drying winds and sun. As the water leaves the cells, it turns pale.
the plant is dampened, it unfurls and becomes green within 15 minutes.
PRAIRIE DOGS' VENTILATION SYSTEM-
dogs are small, rabbit-sized rodents with short legs and small ears.
They live together in very large social communities on the grasslands of
the American West.
together, they build underground houses which are 90 feet long, with
many side rooms. It is all something of a complicated apartment house. But
the ventilation is crucial; how are they going to get the air moving
through it? How would you do it? Admit it; using only natural materials
found on a prairie, neither you nor I would probably not know.
the prairie dog does it anyway-and quite successfully. Each tunnel
has two openings, one at each end. But they are not constructed the same
way. One opens flat on the surface of the prairie. The other rises up
through a foot-tall chimney of mud and stones. Why does the
prairie dog arrange the openings that way? He does not know why; he just
does it. The Master Programmer coded it into his DNA to build his house
that way; just as He coded his fur to keep him warm, eyes to see with, and
ears to listen to what goes on around him.
marvelous design factor is in that foot-tall chimney. Wind moves
faster a little above ground than it does at ground level. With one
chimney, the air inside the apartment house is sucked out, and fresh air
is drawn in through the lower entrance. But with no chimneys-or
with two, the air inside would remain stagnant.
MAKING BIRD NESTS-It
not easy to place sticks together and get them to "stick
together." Try it sometime. Watch a bird do it, and you will note
that the little creature works at the placement of every
twig-until thoroughly satisfied. Yet how can a bird know, just by
looking at it, when the location of a stick is satisfactory?
larger nesting birds tend to make rough stick nests. But many of the
smaller ones make delicate cup nests. Inside a twig cup, a lining of
softer material is placed. This might be dried grass, or something
similar. Thrushes use mud, the bearded tit prefers flower petals. The
house wren values pieces of sloughed snake skins. The honey guide of
Australia ,plucks hair from the back of horses. Some birds grow special
soft feathers on their chest, which they pluck off to line their nests.
This has the double advantage of permitting their bare chests, which will
be above the eggs, to keep those eggs warmer.
use spider's silk. They build their nests while hovering over them, since
the nest is too delicate for them to alight on till it is completed.
swifts have a special problem. Although very fast fliers, their feet are
poor and they rarely land on a branch-or anything else other than
their nest. How then can they build their nests? How would you do it if
you had to remain in the air all the time?
the swift collects twigs by flying at a branch and breaking off a piece in
flight. Then it flies to a wall and attaches it, using saliva. The swift
has been given amazingly sticky saliva! Outside the body, it acts like a
fast-drying glue. More sticks are brought, and soon the nest is
made. That is how the Asian chimney swift does it. The American palm swift
uses-not twigs-but cotton, plant fibers, hair, and feathers.
The African palm swift only uses saliva throughout the operation.
are called "palm swifts," because they attach their nests to the
underside of palm leaves. But what keeps the egg from falling out of the
palm leaf when the wind blows? No problem; the bird glues the egg into the
cave swiftlets of Southeast Asia also build with saliva-but they
make much larger saliva nests. These nests are deep within dark caves, and
may be attached to horizontal ledges, the vertical sides of the
caves-or even to the overhead roof!
can a bird make a nest out of saliva? How would he know how to form it in
the right shape as he prepares it? "Easy," you say. Well, try
dripping saliva onto a dinner plate-and make a bird nest out of
it! Here is how the bird does it:
he flies to the side of a cliff and repeatedly dabs saliva onto the wall
in a half-moon shape of what the wall-side part of the nest
will look like. Then he dabs more and more, and slowly builds it larger
and larger. Gradually, he moves the sides inward-and produces a
perfectly formed nest with a cup-like top! One nest takes several
days to make; and when completed, it has the inside of the cup just the
right size to hold two eggs. And that is exactly how many the swiftlet
always puts into the nest.
fungus Of tropical Brazil is one of the fastest -growing organisms
in the world. When the fungus is ready to begin growing, chemical changes
in its cells permit them to absorb water rapidly.
pushes out of the ground at the rate of an inch every 5 minutes, and grows
to full size in 20 minutes. This growth is so fast that a crackling
sound can be heard as the water swells and stretches its tissues.
soon as full size is achieved, it begins decomposing at the top. Flies
are attracted and, crawling over the surface, collect spores on their feet
which they carry elsewhere.
MITES IN THE EAR
as Small as a mite? These creatures are so tiny that one of the places
they live is inside the ear of the moth. Entire colonies of mites will
live inside a moth's ear. Separate parts of the ear are used for egg
laying, stacking their refuse, and feeding.
there is a problem: These little creatures so fill the moth's ear that he
can no longer hear properly with it. But he needs his ears, and with mites
in both of them, he wanders around erratically, and would be caught by
solution is simple enough: The mites only live in one ear! In this way the
moth can hear well enough to go about his business-with less chance
of being eaten. Thus the mites keep themselves from being eaten by bats.
who told the mites to do that? Surety no mite could be smart enough to
figure that out. The brain of a mite would be smaller than the smallest
speck you have ever seen.
MADE FOR EACH OTHER- It
an intriguing fact-and one evolutionists would prefer to
ignore-that living things are often designed with one another in
mind. Without the one, the other cannot survive. How then could they
originate in the first place, if they had to begin together? What outside
Power did the designing? The plants and animals themselves surely did not
confer together before they existed and figure it out.
Temple, an American biologist working in the Indian Ocean island of
Mauritius, noticed in 1970 that the seeds of the Calvaria major tree,
although fertile, had not germinated for 300 years (the age of the
youngest specimens still growing). Noting that the large, wingless bird,
the dodo, became extinct about that time, Temple brought in some
turkeys-in the hope that they could do what the Dodo probably had
done: swallow the seeds, thereby removing their hard outer coat and
enabling them to germinate.
fed some of the seeds to domestic turkeys, collected the seeds when they
had passed through the birds' digestive system, and planted them. For the
first time in three centuries, Calvaria major germinated, producing
healthy new plants.
DUET BIRD SINGERS-Did
know that some birds prefer to sing together? The bou-bou shrike
lives throughout tropical Africa in thick forests, where they can only
see a few feet at the most. A pair may not be far apart, but they cannot
see one another.
song of this bird is exquisite. It is clear, flute-like, with a long
melodic pattern. Yet, the truth is that it is two birds singing, not one.
One bird starts the song and then, it will suddenly pause and the other
will add a note or phrase, and then the first bird will instantly take up
the song again. Back and forth it will go-and yet it sounds as if
only one bird is singing! There is not the slightest hesitation or pause
anywhere in the song.
two birds are a mated pair. Scientists tried to study this in detail with
tape recorders and sonograms to analyze the sounds-and then made the
discovery that there are many other duet-singing birds in the wild. In a
square mile of South American rain forest there may be as many as a dozen
different species of birds singing duets. This is how they keep track of
the location of each other in those dense jungles.
it is obvious that the birds did not devise this. The intellectual
requirements for such a procedure are too great. It would be with the
greatest of difficulty that you and I could sing such a duet together,
even if we were the best singers in the world. The cue and mental
requirements for such instant stopping and switching over from one bird to
the other, at random points here and there in the
song are astounding. It has
been discovered that each bird in the pair knows the complete,
complicated song and, if solitary, can sing it alone. But that cannot
explain how they can know to instantly stop‑so the other can sing
part of it-and then return to the other.
the darkness of night in the forests of Europe, the tawny owl also sings
in duet. Its famous towhit to whoo
call has been heard by millions of Europeans. Yet few realize that it
is two birds uttering the call! One owl sings the to-whit,
and then, the other owl instantly gives the to-whoo.
It all sounds as if it is coming from one bird, but the call is being
made, alternately, by a pair of owls.
COLD LIGHT- Most
the energy used to light a light bulb is wasted, since it is changed to
heat. It takes energy to produce light, scientists cannot fathom how
lights in nature operate so efficiently. The man who ever solves this
problem will be a millionaire overnight, but, so far, no one has been able
to do so‑even though fireflies and other creatures do it all the
example, the tropical firefly, Photinus, makes light with 90 percent of
the energy used for that purpose. By contrast, only 5.5 percent of the
energy used to power an incandescent bulb emerges as light; the rest is
wasted as heat. The glow of a firefly contains only 1/80,000 of the heat
that would be produced by a candle flame of equal brilliance.
an ignorant speck-brained firefly can do that, why cannot man do it?
If a thinking man cannot do it, then what reason do we have to think that
an "accident" did it for the firefly? The firefly is enabled to
do it because of the advance planning of an Intelligence far greater than
that of mankind.
WATER ON FIRE
clear waters of the San Blas Islands, located in the Gulf of Mexico near
Panama, you will find that the ocean sometimes sparkles with fire.
you see are tiny fire‑fleas. Each is a small crustacean about the
size of a land flea, but with shrimp‑like bodies. The sudden spurt
of light in the dark water so startles a predatory fish that, even if it
has already snapped up the fire‑flea, it may swiftly disgorge it in
fright. These little creatures also use their light to locate and
attract one another, much as fireflies on land do.
type of firefly makes equally‑spaced spots of light as it swims.
Another only flashes as it swims vertically to the surface, ever flashing
faster as it nears the water line. Yet another flashes synchronistically
as the males, several feet apart, move through the water flashing together
in precise unison.
FISH THAT FLIES-Everyone
heard of the flying fish, but it is still a very unusual creature. Flying
fish do not actually fly; they glide. First, they leap into the air at
speeds up to 20 m.p.h. Then, using their wide pectoral fins as wings, they
begin their glide. Because they usually remain close to the water's
surface, they flick their tails occasionally to produce extra thrust and
keep them going longer.
fish have been known to soar as high as 20 feet and travel as far as 1,300
feet in one glide through the air.
more noise in the ocean than merely the lap of waves. You can dive down
into the sea and not hear these sounds. This is because the small plug of
air in your outer ear blocks them out. But, upon lowering a hydrophone
(an underwater microphone) into the ocean, you discover that the ocean is
full of sound.
grate their teeth together, sea horses rub their heads against their
back spines, and pistol shrimps dislocate their claws when enemies draw
near-and the resulting noise sounds like gunshots. When a conger eel
prepares to atack a spiny lobster, the lobster rubs its stony antennae
along a toothed spike that is on its head between its eyes. A rasping
noise is made, and all the spiny lobsters in the area quickly jump into
called dolphins) seem to talk more than anyone else living in the ocean.
Which is quite a thought.
have studied them in aquaria and in special shallow-water locations
off the coast of the Bahamas. Porpoises have a vocabulary of about 30
different vocalizations, but they can also change the significance of each
by the body position at the time the sound is made. A certain sound made
while nodding the head will have a different meaning than when not nodding
porpoise has a "signature whistle," which' is his unique call
identifying himself. Another porpoise only uses that call to catch the
attention of the owner of that special whistle.
of these sounds are totally different than the sounds they make when they
send out sonar (underwater radar). That system is discussed in chapter
32 and is used to locate distant objects.
third way in which porpoises communicate is by ultrasonic sounds which
people cannot hear, but which certain electronic equipment can receive
and record. A fourth way is by touching (nudging, stroking, and smacking)
porpoises click and make high-pitched sounds. But the whales sing. Would you
like to hear a whale sing? Recordings of these sounds can be purchased
from wildlife organizations.
humpback whale is the greatest singer of them all. Its songs consist of
vast roars and groans, interspersed with sighs, chirps, and squawks. That
description may not sound very exciting, but their songs are interesting
to listen to. And they go on for quite some time. Each song can last 10
minutes or so. Once completed, the whale will repeat it again-and
again-for hours. Each year the songs change somewhat, as the whales
experiment with changes in the tunes. We have learned a lot about these
songs, but no one yet knows why these whales sing.
BLASTS FROM THE BLUE
creature in the world is the blue whale. Some have been measured at 100
feet in length. It has the largest lungs and vocal cords in the world and
makes the most noise. Blasts of 188 decibels have been reported. This
would be equivalent to the, Saturn five rockets which launch the space
shuttle. But these sounds are extremely low in range. Scientists believe
that the calls of blue whales can be heard by other whales a thousand
grow up, but there is a frog which does the opposite. The paradoxical frog
(pseudis paraobxa) becomes smaller as it "grows up." Living in
the South American tropics, the tadpoles grow to as much as 10 inches in
length. But, when this particular tadpole turns into a frog, it shrinks
this process-as do other frogs-the tail is absorbed into the
body. But when the change is completed, the paradoxical frog is only 3
inches in length.
should this frog be so different than the others? Evolution could have no
answer. The difference is one of design, and only design. Any student
of DNA well-knows that hundreds of interrelated genes, located in
different chromosomes, would be involved. Chance could not change them,
without producing a monster which would be dead at birth.
THE RESCUE-Several species
Of birds in South America (caciques and oropendolas, for example) and
weaverbirds in Africa like an especially protected location in which to
build their nests. So they first go searching for the homes of the dreaded
wasp. No one wants to live near them! It will surely be
well-protected from all their enemies,-but what about the
found, these birds build their nests close to the wasps' nests. Yet, oddly
enough, the wasps do not at all mind having these birds nesting in the
trees just above their own nests. But let another bird even get near,
and the ferocious wasps buzz toward them threateningly.
the nests are constructed, the birds settle down to raise a family. Then
an enemy draws near to raid the nest, and instantly the wasps fly out and
go after him. The wasps have decided to protect not only their own nests
but those of the nearby birds also.
are still trying to figure out why wasps attack other birds but protect
these certain ones.
JUMPING FROGS IN MANY
Twain once wrote about a jumping frog. There are frogs all over the world,
and all of them surely can jump! Pick up a frog and look closely at it.
These little creatures are excellently designed for jumping. Yet they
could never work out the design themselves. It had to be done for them.
The back legs, folded into three sections, provide the leap; the front
legs are the shock absorbers when they land.
small North American frog, Acris gryllus, can jump up to 6 feet, which is
36 times its own 2 inch length. Many other frogs can jump somewhat
shorter distances. For a man to do this, the world's champion human jump
would be about 215 feet.
TIMERS- Mallee fowl of Australia lay eggs at random
times throughout the summer since, when each hatches, it is a
fully-formed small adult; well-able to fly off and take care
many birds which nest on the ground cannot do this. Their chicks are
born very feeble and must be given much care and a lot of food. It would
be very difficult if the eggs hatched and matured at different times.
For example, the female quail does not begin to incubate her clutch of a
dozen or so eggs until the entire number have been laid-which may
require two weeks. Then she begins setting on the entire lot at the same
told the mother quail to do this? Her parents surely didn't. Yet quail
regularly do not set on the eggs until the entire clutch has been laid.
that is not the end of the matter. The little quail sets on so many eggs
that the ones on the outer part of the nest do not receive as much warmth.
Also she has to regularly turn the eggs, or the membranes within them may
adhere to the shell. So many factors are involved that, as hatching time
draws near, some eggs are not as well-developed as others.
can this problem be solved, so that all the chicks will come out of their
shells at about the same time? Another miracle; listen to this:
have discovered that, as hatching time nears, the unborn chicks begin to
signal to one another. If you put a doctor's stethoscope to an egg at this
time, you may hear clicks coming from within. The neighboring eggs can
also hear them. If they have not yet reached the clicking stage, the sound
of neighboring clicks stimulates them to speed up their development!
Researchers played recordings of the clicks to batches of eggs-and
thus induced them to hatch well before others from the same clutch, which
had been kept alone and in silence.
BIRD BONES-In chapter 28,
discuss the amazing structure of birds. Here is more information on its
biologists tell us that birds have evolved their bones until they are now
very lightweight. But birds cannot change their bones any more than you
or I can. Also, if birds cannot fly with heavy bones; how did they survive
before they invented lightweight bones for themselves?
bones are truly unusual: They are so lightweight that a bird's feathers
weigh more than its entire skeleton! That is quite a thought, considering
how lightweight a feather is.
bones are very nearly hollow, with internal struts and honeycombed air
sacs to provide them with unusual lightweight strength. Modern airplanes
are built in a similar manner, but only after very careful planning by
flight, air flows into the sacs in the bones-and then to the lungs.
This enables the bird to have a much larger supply of fresh oxygen as it
flies. Even the beak is modified to save weight, and is constructed of
lightweight horn with no teeth.
golden eagle is a large bird; yet, although having a wingspan of nearly 8
feet, it weighs a total of less than 9 pounds.
DEVELOPMENTAL AGES AT BIRTH-
is born in just the best way. Some creatures, like baby mice, will have
a longer time to grow-since they are born in a cosy, hidden nest. So
they come forth blind, hairless, and unable to walk.
other creatures are born into a harsh environment, and must be able to
travel as soon as they arrive in this world. The guinea pig and agouti
has no nest, but lives on the surface of the ground. So their babies are
fully formed, fully haired, and can run as soon as they are born.
of the wildebeest, in east Africa, are born while the herd is migrating,
and can stand up and trot after their mother within five minutes of
dropping to the ground.
can make things in miniature. The smallest mammals are the 3-inch
Etruscan shrew, which only weighs about 0.09 ounce, and the 6-inch
Craseonycteris thonglongyai bat, which
weighs even less: about 0.06 ounce. How can all the dozens of specialized
organs, found in every mammal, be included in these tiny creatures? It is,
indeed, a great marvel of wisdom and craftsmanship.
BABY DISCOVERS ITS
NOSE- Females live together in groups and cooperate in caring for
the baby elephants, while the males spend their time alone, wandering
about. The little elephants are cared for by all the adults in the group.
If anything happened to the mother, the others would raise her little one.
In the care of so many protective adults, the youngsters happily romp
about and play.
who watch elephant herds, have found that when an elephant is only a month
or two old, it begins shaking its trunk, wondering what this strange thing
is. It will shake its head and notice how the curious object flaps back
and forth. Sometimes the baby trips over it. When the baby goes down to
the watering hole, it awkwardly kneels down and tries to sip with its
mouth. At about the age of 4-5 months, it discovers that water can
be sniffed up into its trunk, and then can be blown out into its mouth.
That discovery not only enables it to get a drink faster but can lead to
more fun: Baby finds it can blow water on the other elephants.
is the learning process so slow for an elephant, when some other
creatures are immediately prepared at birth for life's crises? This is
no failure in design. The baby elephant has many protectors and a long
childhood before it will becomes an adult. There is an abundance of time
for it to learn as it grows, so this factor was wisely provided for in the
PROLIFIC BUNNY RABBITS-Female
can breed when 4 months old, and every 30 days produce up to nine babies.
During the spring and summer, one can bear six litters. In three years
time, if there were no losses, one pair of rabbits could produce 33
million! Many young children would probably be happy if that happened.
There would be enough bunnies for all of them!
BIGGEST CONVENTION OF THEM ALL-The largest
gathering of mammals, held anywhere in the world, convenes every summer on
the Pribilofs, an island group in the Bering Sea off Alaska. Each year
1.5 million Alaskan fur seals assemble, and produce
it was a planned gathering. Seals on land are relatively defenseless, so
they gather together in order to have better protection from their
WHEN ENEMIES CALL A TRUCE-
woodpecker of India and southeast Asia likes to eat ants. Those stinging
tree ants, in turn, occupy themselves with vigorously attacking every
that comes near their nest.
surprisingly enough, when it comes time for the rufous woodpecker to build
a nest, it temporarily makes peace with the ants.
awesome fact is that this woodpecker flies to the football-size nest
of stinging tree ants, tunnels in, lays its eggs there, and then settles
down and incubates them-all the while with stinging ants all about
utterly impossible occurs. No one can figure it out, including the
scientists. The thought of a woodpecker setting on its eggs in a nest of
stinging tree ants-has the experts stumped. Or treed, should we
the little birds hatch, the dutiful parent feeds them till they are able
to fly away. Throughout that time, it has not eaten one of the ants in
that nest, nor have they disturbed it during its nesting season (although
they attack anything else that comes near their nest at that time, as well
as at any other time).
then what do you think the woodpecker does? It flies off-and again
does as it did earlier-eating ants in their ant nests.
much more information on spiders in chapter 16, but here is more about
spiders are such tiny things. Yet every one of them can produce a variety
of different silk. Some of it is thin, some of it thick. Some is designed
for temporary scaffolding, and Mme is stronger than steel of comparable
weight and is heavy‑duty building material. It is the strongest of
all known natural fibers.
can a little spider make this silk? It is a marvel. Yet each spider can
and does make different kinds of silk! It can automatically turn off one
spigot flow of this strange liquid (which, on contact with air, instantly
changes into an elastic solid) and turn on a different type of liquid. At
any given time, every spider can produce several different types of
silk. The type it produces will be exactly the right kind for the job it
is immediately working on. Watch an orb (circular) spiderweb in the
making. The little spider begins with one type of silk for the initial
construction, and then switches to another for the circular, sticky part.
silk is actually a liquid protein that is squeezed from little nozzles at
the rear of the abdomen. It hardens upon meeting the air. Spiders use
silk for all kinds of purposes: egg-sac cases, the lining of nests,
woven tents for their babies, safety lines when they jump, circular webs,
trapdoor wrappings and hinges, non‑circular webs, and airplane
lines which carry them to distant areas-and across oceans.
GUARDING A SHRIMP-Some people
have guard dogs, but there is a shrimp which has a guardfish. The goby (Cryptocentrus
coeruleopunctatus) is a 6-inch fish which lives in the ocean.
It acts as a sentry for a tiny shrimp, called the snapping shrimp, with
which it shares a burrow on the seabed.
shrimp makes the burrow, and keeps it clean. The fish, in turn, has the
better eyes of the two and guards the shrimp when they are outside the
the entrance to their burrow becomes clogged with rubble, the shrimp comes
out to clean the entrance and the area around it. It uses its claws like a
mechanical digger. While it is working, the goby is on guard duty. It is
nearby watching for enemies. Yet it remains close enough that one of its
antennae touches the shrimp at all times. The moment the goby senses any
danger, it wriggles its body. Instantly the shrimp jumps back into the
burrow, and the goby immediately follows. Who told the shrimp and goby to
work together like that?
MAGNETIC PIGEONS-Of course,
we have all heard about the phenomenal homing abilities of pigeons.
Ancient Roman emperors would use them to send messages across long
distances. These birds tend to stay at home, not traveling more than a few
miles from it at a time. Yet, if taken to a distance of several hundred
miles, they will be able to find their way back home-and do it
within a few hours.
experiments have shown that homing pigeons take note of geographical
features below them; and, when leaving their home, they initially circle
overhead to get their bearings, and then head off
to feeding locations not far away. So visual observation is a
factor. But birds carried hundreds of miles away cannot see the ground
from the air, and will soon travel over terrain they have never before
seen. So how do they find their way home?
were fitted with glasses which prevented them from seeing the ground, and
yet they found their way home anyway. Obviously, sighting the land below
them was not the key. There is good evidence that the birds check the
angle of the sun as they fly. Yet, on overcast days, they still find their
researchers took birds to a distant location on overcast days, tied tiny
magnets to their heads, and turned them loose. They could not find their
way home. So the answer is a combination of all three: visual observations
of the ground, the angle of the sun, and mental readings of the location
of the magnetic north pole. But, of the three, the magnetic readings are
the most important for distance flying. This is a feature which does not
small magnets on their heads were strong enough to keep them from sensing
earth's magnetic pole. But how are they able to sense earth's magnetism?
This is not known, but it has been discovered that birds are born with a
tiny piece of magnetic rock in their heads! This is a little magnet in
their brains. Where did that particle of rock come from? How did it get
inside their heads?
Everything in nature about
us is filled with mysteries, which can only be explained by the presence
of a Creator who made everything.
CONTINUE - WONDERS OF DESIGN # 3