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    CHAPTER - 1 Janus, according to heathen fable, was the most ancient king, who reigned in Italy. Some authors make him son of Apollo, some of Coelus and Hecate, and others, a native of Athens, Janus is represented with two faces, because he was acquainted with the past and the future; or, according to others, because he was taken for the sun, who opens the day at his rising, and shuts it at his setting. He was chiefly worshipped among the Romans. His temple, which was always open in times of war, was shut only three times, for the space of seven hundred years, for during that long period of time the Romans were continually employed in war. Classical Dictionary. 2 Robinson’s Ecclesiastical Researches, p. 13, 14. 3 Vol. 1. p. 318. 4 Vol. 2. p. 57. 5 Robinson’s Ecclesiastical Researches, p. 117. 6 The manner in which the pope obtained the title of Universal Bishop, is very ingeniously described by Mr. M’Gowan in his Dialogues of Devils. Fastosus, that is, the proud or haughty devil, is represented as speaking. This devil was the author of all the ambitious projects of aspiring ecclesiastics. He had set up a work shop near the throne of St. Peter, and had already furnished many bishops with medals, inscribed withFATHER,PATRIARCH, and so on. “Long (says Fastosus) and very successfully had I followed this medallion trade, when a famous and worthy prelate of Rome, who was a great admirer of my productions, came into my office. After doing obeisance to me, and turning over my pretty devises, he asked me, “If I thought, with all my ingenuity, I could produce a genuine medal with this inscription,PAPAS SUPREMUS; orEPISCOPUS UNIVERSALIS.” I told him that if all the artists in hell were to unite their wisdom in one mechanical head, it would be utterly impossible; for, said I, the whole creation doth not furnish sufficient materials. But if it please your holiness, I can make you a. sham medal of that sort, which may, perhaps, answer all the ends you have in view, as well as if it were real. “Oh ! (said he) I care not, for my part, whether it is real or counterfeit, if I can only, by your assistance, my worthy Fastosus, impose upon the credulity of mankind, and make the world believe that I am supreme pope and universal bishop; then I should reign, with despotic power, over the estates and consciences of all christians. My good friend, please you to make me the medal, and I will cause the world to believe that I had it from the Almighty, with letters patent under the broad seal of heaven, for the sole use of it to me and my successors forever.” I well know, returned I, that your holiness means no more, than in a pious manner to impose the cheat upon the world, the better to fill your coffers, and aggrandize your name; in which laudable undertaking your adored Festosus shall be ever ready to direct and assist. To work I went, having called in the assistance of several of our friends, and made a counterfeit medal, in the likeness of a treble crown, with certain inscriptions of the cabalistic kind upon it. They were short but pithy sentences, as you shall hear. On the one side of the first crown was inscribed, “He that is honored as the wearer of this medal, is possest of infallible knowledge.” Opposite to that was carved in fine Italian, “He is supreme over all laws, divine and human.” On the right side of the second crown were these words in large capitals, “This is the Head of the Church.” On the left were these, “This is the vicar of Christ, and successor of Peter.” On the third and uppermost crown were the following, “The keys of Heaven, Hell, and Purgatory, are in his possession, and used only at his pleasure.” Round the edge was this writing, “He reigneth supreme over all the kings of the earth, putteth down one, and exalteth another at his pleasure.” Dialogues of Devils, p. 217-219. 7 Trial of Antichrist, p. 14. 8 Millot’s History, Vol. 4. P. 279. 9 Moshelm, vol. 2. p. 216. 10 Trial of Antichrist, p. 41. 11 Robinson’s Ecclesiastical Researches, p. 262. 12 Mosheim, vol. 1. p. 13 Millot’s History, vol. 3. p. 171. 14 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 311. 15 Mosheim, vol. 2. p. 16 Millot’s History, vol. 4. p. 22. This account is given by a zealous Catholic, who does not, however, hesitate to censure, in the severest terms, the vices and enormities of his own community. 17 Trent was the rendezvous, for prostitutes from every quarter, during the sitting of the council, Trial of Antichrist, p. 139. 18 Mosheim, vol. 3 p. 19 The pardon-mongers collected immense sums from every nation they were sent to, as appears by one friar Samson, who collected 120,000 crowns among the Swiss only. Trial of Antichrist, p. 138. 20 Trial of Antichrist, p. 21. 21 In the second volume of Saurin’s sermons, Mr. Robinson, the translator, has inserted an extract from the tax-book of the Roman Chancery.

    There we meet with such articles as these: “Absolution for killing one’s father or mother, 1 ducat, 5 carlins.

    Ditto for all the acts of lewdness committed by a clerk, with a dispensation to be capable of taking orders, and to hold ecclesiastical benefits, etc. 36 tournois, 3 ducats.

    Ditto for one who shall keep a concubine, with a dispensation to take orders, etc. 21 tournois, 5 ducats, 9 carlins.

    As if this traffic were not scandalous enough of itself, it is added, Take notice particularly, that such graces and dispensations are not granted to the poor; for not having wherewith to pay, they cannot be comforted.

    The zeal of the reformers against the church of Rome ceaseth to appear intemperate in my eye, when I consider these detestable enormities.” 22 Many of the Waldenses and Albigenses are included in this number. 23 Trial of Antichrist, p. 134-5. 24 Trial of Antichrist throughout. 25 Notwithstanding the cruelties and abominations of the church of Rome, it is charitably hoped that amongst the millions of this community, there always have been many humble and pious souls; but I cannot gain the least evidence, that any one of the popes was acquainted with the power of godliness, and many wonder that any real christian should remain in a church so superstitious and vile. But we can have but a faint view now of the darkness in which all were involved, and of the danger to which dissenters were exposed. All who dissented from popery were denounced heretics, and the thunder of excommunication followed them, and they were immediately excluded from all civil rights. Heretics could make no wills, nor acquire anything by the testaments of others. They could not be admitted to any dignities, offices, or communities. They could not avail themselves of any courts, or derive any benefits from laws. Their friends could not obtain decent burial for them. They were exposed to popular contempt and hatred; in some cases to banishment, in others to imprisonment, confiscation of property and ignominious deaths. Robinson’s Ecclesiastical Researches, p. 144. 26 According to the papists, the bread and wine employed in the sacrament of the supper, are, by a miraculous operation, changed into the real body and blood of Christ. This is called the doctrine of transubstantiation. This doctrine Luther rejected, but still he would not admit, that the elements of bread and wine were merely symbols, but maintained that the body and blood of Christ were really present in the sacrament, the same as two elements are united in red hot iron. This he called consubstantiation. This nonsensical doctrine was strenuously maintained by this famous reformer, and occasioned violent disputes between him and Carolostadt, Zuinglius, Bucer and others. 27 It was not indeed to perform the sanguinary office of a soldier that Zuinglius was present at this engagement, but with a view to encourage and animate by his counsels end exhortations, the valiant defenders of the protestant cause: A lame cause that needs the defense of the sanguinary soldier. In a note, Dr. Moshiem has given a much more satisfactory apology for Zuinglius, than the above, which is found in the body of his work. “At this time the Swiss were universally obliged to take the field. Neither the ministers of the gospel nor the professors of theology were exempted from military service.” Vol. 4, p. 353. 28 The denomination Reformed was given to those protestant churches, which did not embrace the doctrine and discipline of Luther. The title was first assumed by the French protestants, who were often called Hugonots, and afterwards became the common denomination of all the Calvinistical churches on the continent. This great body of dissenters from Lutheranism, Mosheim describes under the general denomination of the Reformed Church. But this church was at first composed of many parts, which preserved a nominal union for a time, and then split into a multitude of sects and parties. Out of the Reformed Church arose, among other sects, the Arminians and Quakers. The Arminians were so called from James Arminius, who died at Leyden in Holland, in 1609, just a hundred years after Calvin was born. Arminius warmly opposed Calvin’s notions, respecting predestination and absolute decrees, but he did not carry his system so far as many of his followers have done. The doctrine of falling from grace he left doubtful, but his followers soon determined it in the affirmative. Arminius met with severe treatment from his reformed brethren. His party flourished for a time, and then dwindled away. But his peculiar sentiments have prevailed extensively, and are now imbibed by multitudes in every sect of protestants.

    The Church of England, since the time of the intolerant Laud, has generally embraced the doctrines of Arminius. The Lutherans are also more inclined to Armenianism than Calvinism. Episcopalians and Lutherans subscribe their Augsburg confession and thirty-nine articles, and immediately preach and write directly against them. Calvin and Arminius have their partisans in every country and thousands spend much time, in disputing about these favorite chiefs, (of whom they know but little) which they might devote to a much better purpose.

    CHAPTER - 1 The Catholics have paid the most extravagant veneration to the memory of John the Baptist; and the most ridiculous fables are told respecting him. John himself lies all over the Catholic world. His head is in the city of Amiens, in France. That finger, with which he pointed to Christ, when he said, “Behold the Lamb of God,” is at Florence: his others are at different places. The knights of St. John have his right hand, with which he baptized Jesus, enclosed in one of the richest and most elegant shrines; it is made of solid gold, and adorned with a profusion of jewels. A piece of the stone, on which Jesus stood when he was baptized, is at Chiusi, in Sienna. And there is another at the Lateran at Rome. It is a fact, that of all the saints in paradise, St. John the Baptist bore the bell in the middle ages of the Catholic church.

    When no new baptisteries were wanted, old ones were enlarged with vestries, chapels, oratories, and adjoining houses. Then they were adorned with inscriptions, pictures, mosaic work, statues, bells, altars, plates, cups, vases, and all manner of utensils; John being depicted on every one. Next they were endowed with houses, lands, farms, and revenues of various kinds. Blessed John the Baptist was engraved on seals, public and private, cut in precious stones of all descriptions for rings and ornaments, exhibited on the crowns of princes, the altar cloths and other ornaments of churches, and chosen by towns, cities, and whole kingdoms as their patron. The multitude imbibed the delicious frenzy, and when the priest inquired at baptism, What is his name? not Jove: but John was the popular cry, and the baptismal hall resounded with John — John — John!

    To protestant gentlemen, who have not turned their attention to the history of this old-fashioned saint, it may, at first, appear improbable, but on examination it will be found very credible, that if a thesaurus of what relates to the subject were collected and published in one work, it would swell to the size of the Acta Sanctorum, which amount to sixty or seventy volumes in folio. Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 4, 93, 358, 359.

    It is presumed that no Baptist will be proud of the superstitious honors, which have been paid to their ancient brother, since it is evident, that all have, overlooked that which made him the greatest born among women. 2 Morse’s and Parish’s Gazetteer. — Robinson’s History of Baptism. 3 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 11, 12. 4 Dr. Reed. 5 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 14. 6 Baldwin on Baptism, p. 300-303. 7 Dr. Worcester, of Salem, in a late piece upon baptism, has the following interrogation: “Does not the idea, then, of following Christ into the water, which has unhappily so powerful an effect upon many minds, partake very much of the nature of delusion and superstition ?” “Christ’s baptism,” saith he, was designed regularly to introduce him into his priestly office, according to the law of Moses, under which he commenced his ministry, and which it behooved him to fulfill.” “There is no evidence that Christ was buried in the water; and even if he were, his baptism was of an import very different from that of the baptism, which he afterwards instituted for his followers. Are we to go into the water under the idea of following Christ into his priestly office? Ought we to call this delusion and superstition; or ought we to call it the height of impiety?” 8 Ecclesiastical History, Philadelphia edition, vol. 1. p. 126. 9 Backus’ History, vol. 2. p, 10 Robinson’s Hist. Baptism, p. 157, 158. 11 The word, here translated little ones, is, in the original parvulos, which we shall show presently, was used then for minors, who might be of every age under twenty-one. 12 Backus’ History, vol. 2. p. 26-33. 13 Baldwin’s Letters to Worcester, p. 167, 168. 14 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 197. 15 “An honest indication,” says Robinson, “rises at the sound of this tyranny, and if a man were driven to the necessity of choosing one saint out of two candidates, it would not be Saint Austin, it would be Saint Balaam, the son of Bosor, who, indeed, loved the wages of unrighteousness, as many other saints have done, but with all his madness, had respect enough for the Deity to say, How shall I curse whom God hath not cursed?” 16 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 269--282. 17 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 433 18 Robinson, p. 429, 430. 19 Dr. Wall’s Defence, p. 146, 147, 403. 20 Robinson’s Hist. of Baptism, p. 21 Robinson, p. 63. 22 Robinson’s Hist. Baptism, p. 65, 66, 67. 23 Robinson, p. 72, 73. 24 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 78, 79, 80. 25 In consequence of an accident of this kind, the Emperor Constantine, in the eighth century, received from his enemies the nick-name of Copronimus, which signifies that he did that in the sacred font, which he ought not to have done. Many others received nick-names on the same account. — Mosheim-Robinson. 26 A man always dreaming of sprinkling, concludes that the apostles could no where in Jerusalem, find places for immersion. He can imagine there was an abundance of pitchers and basins; but to think of dipping places in this great city, is altogether improbable and absurd. But Dr.

    Gill has shown that Jerusalem was not so destitute of this refreshing element as many Pedo-baptists suppose. “In the city of Jerusalem, (says he) in private houses, they had their baths for purifications, by immersion, as in the case of menstruas, gonorrhoeas, and other defilements, by touching unclean persons and things, which were very frequent; so that a digger of cisterns, for such uses, and others, was a business in Jerusalem. And in the temple there was an apartment, called the dipping-place or room, where the high-priest dipped himself on the day of atonement. And besides these were ten lavers of brass, made by Solomon; and every laver held forty baths of water, and each was four cubits broad and long, sufficient for immersion of the whole body of a man. Add to this that there was the molten sea also for the priests to wash in, 2 Chronicles 4:6, which was done by immersion; on which one of the Jewish commentators has these words: “The sea was for the dipping of the priests; for in the midst of it they dipped themselves from their uncleanness; but in the Jerusalem Talmud, there is an objection, is it not a vessel? as if it was said how can they dip in it, for is it not a vessel? and there is no dipping in vessels: R. Joshua ben Levi replied, a pipe of water was laid to it from the fountain of Etam, and the feet of the oxen, which were under the molten sea, were open at the pomegranates; so that it was as if it was from under the earth, and the waters came to it, and entered and ascended, by the way of the feet of the oxen, which were open beneath them and bored.” — And it may be observed, that there was also in Jerusalem the pool of Bethesda, into which persons went down at certain times, John 5:1, and the pool of Siloam, where persons bathed and dipped themselves, on certain occasions. So that there were conveniences enough for baptism by immersion in this place. 27 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 433, 434, 435. 28 Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Magazine, vol. 3. p. 207. 29 Baldwin’s Letters to Dr. Worcester, p. 201. 30 That learned Baptist, Dr. John Gale, has taken much pains in this matter. He hath traced the original word in profane writers, and hath proved by a great variety of examples, that with the Greeks, bapto signified to dip, baptai dyers, baphis a dye house, bapsis dying by dipping, bammata dying drugs, baphi kee the art of dying, dibaphos, double-dyed, baptisterion a dying-vat, etc. In these senses were bapto and its derivatives understood before they were selected to describe a christian institute.--Gale’s Reflections upon Wall’s History of Infant Baptism, Letter III.

    Mohammed, in the Alcoran, calls baptism sebgatallah, that is, divine dying, or the tinging of God, from sebgah dying and dallah God. A celebrated orientalist says, Mohammed made use of this compound term for baptism, because, in his time, christians administered baptism as dyers tinge, by immersion, and not as now (in the west) by aspersion. Robinson’s Hist. of Baptism, p. 7. 31 Defence, etc. p. 148. 32 Ecclesiastical Researches, p. 93. 33 It is said by an English historian, that St Petersburg, they sometimes baptize their children in a river or canal, by cutting a hole through the ice, upon which he observes, “I have heard that a priest, in immersing a child, (for baptism is performed by the immersion of the whole body) let it slip, through inattention, into the water. The child was drowned I but the holy man suffered no consternation. “Give me another,” said he, with the utmost composure, “for the Lord hath taken that to himself.” The Empress, however, having other uses for her subjects, and not desiring that the Lord should have any more in that way, at least, gave orders, that all children, to be baptized in a hole in the river, should henceforth be let down in a basket.” Baldwin’s Baptism of Believers, 2d edit. p. 100. 34 “Since my arrival in this country, I was once in the company of a gentleman, whose vernacular tongue was the Greek. One of the company asked him the meaning of the word baptizo, he said it meant baptizo, what else could it mean? After asking more particularly, he signified, that it meant immersion.” Dr. Staughton’s account of the India Mission, p. 35 Everything pertaining to baptism was marked with pomp and extravagance, and the preparations for a christening day, among the nobility, were as great as they are now for a public dinner in a populous town. The following is a bill of fare of a dinner at Tynningham, the house of the Right Hon. the Earl of Haddington, on Thursday the 21st of August 1679, when his Lordship’s son was baptized:

    Food Amount Fresh beef 6 pieces Mutton 16 do.

    Veal 4 dozen Legs of Venison Geese Pigs Old Turkeys Young do Salmon Tongues and Udders Ducks Roasted fowls 6 Boiled fowls Chickens roasted do. stewed do. frickaseed do. in pottage Lamb 2 sides Wild Fowl Pigeons baked, roasted, and stewed Hares roasted do. frickaseed Hams A puncheon of Claret, etc.

    No one will think it strange, after reading this account, that Dr. Wall accused many in this day, of regarding nothing at a christening but the dress, and the eating and drinking.

    In Venice, the meanest plebeian hath at least three god-fathers, the wealthy have twenty, and sometimes a hundred. 36 Some in Upper Saxony, a little before the Reformation, practiced baptism upon sickly new-born infants With only using the baptismal form of words, without the application of water in :my form whatever.

    There is an account of a Jew, who suddenly turned christian where there was no water, and at the point of death, was baptized with sand.

    Some of the Irish, in the twelfth century, baptized their children by plunging them into milk, and were superstitious enough to imagine, that every part so plunged became invulnerable. Robinson-Baldwin.

    How long must the Baptists be accused of holding, that baptism is a saying ordinance and essential to salvation, when they expressly and uniformly declare, that none but christians are entitled to it, and that it is not the putting away the filth of the flesh, but is the answer of a good conscience towards God? 37 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 476. 38 The following anecdote is related by Dr. Baldwin, in his Letters to Rev. Samuel Worcester, in a note, p. 183: “A few years since, I was called to attend the funeral of an infant in this town, in a family, which, I was informed, belonged to the Episcopal church. I asked where the Rev. Dr. was? and was answered he was out of town. Where is the Rev. Mr.? It was said, he was engaged. At length the gentleman of the house told me plainly, “The child was not baptized !” To this I replied, that I had the happiness to believe the child was gone equally as safe, as though it had been baptized.” 39 It was very customary, at this time, to introduce boys into holy orders for purpose of securing them a future living, and of laying an early foundation for promotion. 40 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 157. 41 Many articles which are largely and learnedly discussed by Mr. Robinson, have not been referred to in the preceding sketch; as baptism connected with Mouachism — with social obligations — with Human Creeds — with Judaism — with Chivalry — with Sacerdotal Habits — and with Witchcraft; The baptism of Bells, Tropical Baptism, the Christening of Fleets, and so on.

    CHAPTER - 1 Robinson’s History of Baptism, p. 459, 460. 2 Respecting the council at Jerusalem, Mosheim has the following note, vol. 1. p. 105. “The meeting of the church at Jerusalem, mentioned in the 15 chapter of the Acts, is commonly considered as the first christian council. But this notion arises from the manifest abuse of the word council. That meeting was only of one church; and if such a meeting be called a council, it will follow that there were innumerable councils in the primitive times. But every one knows, that a council is an assembly of deputies or commissioners sent from several churches associated by certain bonds in a general body, and therefore the supposition above mentioned falls to the ground.” Mosheim appears to understand the word council in a high ecclesiastical sense, and in this point of view his observations are doubtless correct; but according to the ideas which a Baptist would affix to the term council, I see no impropriety in applying it to this assembly. But I find our brethren differ in their opinions respecting the nature of this council, whether it was advisory or authoritative. Dr. Gill gives the decisions of this assembly no higher name than advice, sentiments, determinations, etc. and in this point of view, I think it proper to consider them. But it ought to be observed at the same time, that the advice of so respectable a body as the apostolic mother church at Jerusalem, assisted in its deliberations, by the apostles and elders, and all acting under the influence of the Holy Ghost, became a law or a rule of action to the church at Antioch, and to other christians in the primitive ages. “This advice,” says Dr. Gill, “was regarded as a laws,” etc. 3 Mosheim, vol. 1. p. 103, 104, 105, 126. 4 Mosheim has given a similar account of the Massalians or Euchites and the Waldenses, and Dr. Maclaine has explained the matter more fully in a note, vol. 3. pp. 105-6. 5 Mosheim, Vol. 3. Pp 105-6. 6 Robinson’s Ecclesiastical Researches, pp. 124-5. 7 Milner’s Church History, Vol. 2. p. 240. 8 Mosheim, vol. 1. p. 299, 301. 9 Mr. Robinson supposes that a church of the Novarians would address a candidate for admission in the following manner: “If you be a virtuous believer, and will accede to our confederacy against sin, you may be admitted among us by baptism, or if any Catholic has baptized you before, by rebaptism; but, mark this, if you violate the contract by lapsing into idolatry or vice, we shall separate you from our community and do what you will, we shall never readmit you. God forbid we should injure either your person, your property or your character, or even judge of the truth of your repentance, and your future state; but you can never be readmitted to our community, without, our giving up the best and only coercive guardian we have of the purity of our morals.” 10 Ecclesiastical Researches, p. 126-7 11 “Robinson’s Ecclesiastical Researches, p. 12 Researches p. 408. 13 Robinson’s Ecc. Res. p. 447-8. 14 See Alix’s History of the churches in Piedmont, and Perrin’s History of the Waldenses, as quoted by Hannah Adams, in her View of Religion, p. 304. 15 Ivimey, p. 57. 16 The Sylvester whose name thus frequently occurs, was the bishop of Rome in the time of Constantine, and the one, who, the Catholics contend baptized the emperor. 17 Robinson’s Res. p. 320. — Piedmont was, for a long time, subject to the dukes of Savoy. 18 “Certain writers, says Moshelm, give different accounts of the origin of the Waldenses and suppose that they were so called from the valleys in which they had resided for many ages before the birth of Peter Waldus. But these writers have no authority to support this assertion, and beside this, they are refuted amply by the best historians. I do not mean to deny, that there were in the valleys of Piedmont long before this period, a set of men, who differed widely from the opinions adopted and inculcated by the church of Rome, and whose doctrine resembled, in many respects, that of the Waldenses; all that I maintain is that these inhabitants of the valleys above mentioned are to be carefully distinguished from the Waldenses, who according to the unanimous voice of history, were originally inhabitants of Lyons and derived their name from Peter Waldus, their founder and chief.” “We may, says Mariainc, venture to affirm the contrary with the learned Beza and other writers of note; for it seems evident from the best records, that Valdus derived his name from the true valdenses, of Piedmont, whose doctrine he adopted, and who were known by the names of vaudois and valdenses, before he or his immediate followers existed. If the valdenses or waldenses, had derived their name from any eminent teacher, it would probably have been from Valdo, who was remarkable for the purity of his doctrine in the ninth century, and was the contemporary and chief counselor of Berengarius. But the truth is, that they derive their name from their rallies in Piedmont, which in their language are called Vaux, hence Voidois, their true name; hence Peter, or as others call him, John of Lyons, was called in Latin, Valdus, because he had adopted their doctrine; and hence the term valdenses and waldenses used by those, who write in English or Latin, in the place vaudois. The bloody inquisitor Reinerus Sacco, who exerted such a furious zeal for the destruction of the waldenses, lived but about eighty years after Valdus of Lyons, and must therefore be supposed to know whether or not he was the real founder of the valdenses or leonists; and yet it is remarkable that he speaks of the leonists, mentioned by Dr. Mesheim in the preceding page as synonymous with Waldenses, as a sect that had flourished above five hundred years; nay, mentions authors of note, who make their antiquity remount to the apostolic age. See the account given of Sacco’s book by the jesuit Gretser, in the Bibliotheca Patrum. I know not upon what principle Dr. Mesheim maintains, that the inhabitants of the valleys of Piedmont are to be carefully distinguished from the waldenses; and I am persuaded, that whoever will be at the pains to read attentively the 2d, 25th, 26th, and 27th chapters of the first book of Leger’s Histoire Generale des Eglises Vaudoises, will find this distinction entirely groundless. When the papists ask us where our religion ,was before Luther; we generally answer, in the Bible; and we answer well. But to gratify their taste for tradition and human authority, we may acid to this answer, and in the valleys of Piedmont.” Mesheim, vol. 3. p. 118, 119. 19 Robinson’s Researches, p. 307. 20 Milner’s Church History, vol. 3. p. 455. 21 That is, weavers . 22 Milner, vol. 3. p. 428. 23 Ivimey, p. 56-7. 24 Ibid, p. 55. 25 Ivimey, p. 55, 56. 26 Ivimey, pp. 60, 61, 62, 63, 64. 27 Ivimey, p. 25. 28 Robinson’s Researches, p. 476. Ibid. p. 311. 29 Ch. Hist. vol. 3. pp. 426-7. 30 Mosheim Vol. 4. p. 31 Mosheim Vol. 4. p. 424-429. 32 Robinson’s Researches, p. 310. 33 Robinson’s Researches, p. CHAPTER - 1 Crosby’s Hist. of the English Baptists, vol. 1, p. 20. 2 Ibid p. 19. 3 Crosby’s Hist. p. 20. 4 Robinson’s Researches, p. 541. 5 Johannes Bugerchagius Pomeranius, who was a companion of Luther, and succeeded him in the ministry at Wittemburg, a very pious and learned divine, tells us in a book he published in the German tongue in 1542, “that he was desired to be a witness of a baptism at Hamburg, in the year 1529. That when he had seen the minister only sprinkle the infant wrapped in swathling-clothes on the top of the head, he was amazed; because he neither heard nor saw any such thing, nor yet read in any history, except in case of necessity, in bed-rid persons. In a general assembly, therefore, of all the ministers of the word, that was convened, he did ask a certain minister, John Fritz by name, who was some time minister of Lubec, how the sacrament of baptism was administered at Lubec? Who, for his piety and candor did answer gravely, that infants were baptized naked at Lubee, after the same fashion altogether as in Germany. But from whence and how that peculiar manner of baptizing hath crept into Hamburg, he was ignorant. At length they did agree among themselves, that the judgment of Luther, and of the divines of Wittemburg, should be demanded about this point. Which, being done, Luther did write back to Hamburg, that this sprinkling was an abuse, which they ought to remove. Thus plunging was restored at Hamburg. Crosby, vol. 1. p. 22, 23. 6 Bishop Burnet in his history of the reformation, as quoted by Crosby, says, “At this time (1549) there were many Anabaptists in several parts of England. They were generally Germans, whom the revolutions there had forced to change their seats. Upon Luther’s first preaching in Germany, there arose many, who, building on some of his principles, carried things much farther than he did. The chief foundation he laid down was, that the Scripture was to be the only rule of Christians.”

    This maxim has been generally laid down by all evangelical reformers, and has ever proved dangerous to the cause of infant baptism. The famous Whitefield was a notable example of this kind. He appears to have had no design of undermining infant baptism, and yet I am inclined to think, by what I have learnt in my travels, that some thousands in this country, were led to embrace the sentiments of the Baptists by following his principles up to their legitimate consequences. It is reported of Whitefield, that he once pleasantly said many of his chickens had turned ducks, and gone into the water. 7 Ivimey, p. 17. 8 Menno was born at Witmarsum, a village in the neighborhood of Bolswert, in Friesland in the year 1505, and not in 1496, as most writers tell us. After a life of toil, peril, and agitation, he departed in peace in the year 1561, in the dutchy of Holstein, at the country-seat of a certain nobleman, not far from the city of Oldesloe, who, moved with compassion at a view of the perils to which Menno was exposed, and the snares that were daily laid for his ruin, took him, together with certain of his associates, into his protection, and gave him asylum. We have a particular account of this famous Anabaptist in the Cambria Literata of Mollerus, tom. 2. p. 835. See also Hemon Schyn Plenior Deductio Historia Mennonitarum, cap. 6. p. 116. The writings of Menno, which are almost all composed in the Dutch language were published in folio at Amsterdam, in the year 1561” Mosheim, Vol. 4. p. 9 Mosheim, vol. 4. p. 461. 10 Rippon’s Register, No 10, for April, 1795. 11 Morgan Edwards’ History of the Baptists in Pennsylvania, p. 93. 12 Ivimey, p. 143. 13 Morse and Parish’s Gazetteer, article of Geneva. 14 Ziska was probably slain in battle, but I cannot find any particular account of it. 15 Picards or Beghards was a term of very general meaning, and was applied in different ages to people of very different descriptions, to the pious and profligate, to monks in the church of Rome, and others who separated from it. These people were found in many different countries in Europe. They were sometimes called Adamites, and at others, the Brethren and Sisters of the Free Spirit, and many incredible tales are told about them. I am fully persuaded that the Beghards, properly so called, originated from France A. Beghard and a beggar were synonymous terms, and probably a scoffing world applied the name to a set of christians, on account of their poverty. They were undoubtedly a branch of the Waldenses, and of the same faith with the poor men of Lyons. The Bohemians, by a change in the pronunciation of the word, called them Picards; and it seems evident they were at different times very numerous in that kingdom. Two very pleasant anecdotes, with regard to the Picards, are related in the history of Maximilian II. Maximilian, after he became emperor, openly declared to Henry III of France, as he passed through Vienna, that such princes as tyrannize over the consciences of men, attacked the Supreme Being in the noblest part of his empire, and frequently lose the earth by concerning themselves too much with celestial matters. He used to say of Huss, they very much injured that good man His physician, Crato, was one day riding with him in his carriage, when his imperial majesty, after much lamenting the contentions of mankind about religion asked the doctor, what sect he thought came nearest the simplicity of the apostles? Crato replied, “I verily think the people called Picards.” The emperor added, “I think so too.” During this reign every body enjoyed liberty of conscience, and when it was attacked, the effort came to nothing, A faction of catholics at Prague, envying the happiness of the Picards, formed a cabal of senators, who sent the chancellor of Bohemia to Vienna to entreat the emperor to empower them to restrain these heretics. By some means the chancellor succeeded, and set out for Prague with the instrument; but attempting to pass a bridge over the Danube, the bridge gave way, and he and his company fell into the river and were drowned. His corpse was taken up by some fishermen, but the diploma was never found. Robinson. 16 Robinson’s Researches, p. 577. 17 Mosheim, vol. 4. P. 491. 18 Mosheim, vol. 4. p. 496. 19 Robinson’s Researches, p. 630-1-2. 20 Robinson’s Researches, p. 348. 21 Robinson’s Researches, p. 348. 22 Servetus’ notion of the Trinity according to Mosheim was as follows: “The Deity, before the creation of the world, had produced within himself, two personal representations, or manners of existence which were to be the medium of intercourse between him and mortals, and by whom, consequently, he was to reveal his will, and to display his mercy and beneficence to the children of men; that these two representatives were the Word and the Holy Ghost; that the former was united to the man Christ, who was born of the virgin Mary by an omnipotent act of the divine will; and that on this account, Christ might properly be called God; that the Holy Spirit directed the course, and animated the whole system of nature; and more especially produced in the minds of men wise councils, virtuous propensities, and divine feelings; and finally, that these two representation, were to cease after the destruction of this terrestrial globe, and to be absorbed into the substance of the Deity, from whence they had been formed. 23 History of Baptism, p. 556.

    CHAPTER - 1 Ivimey, p. 56. 2 We do not contend that he was one at first. 3 Ivimey, p. 71-2 4 See earlier in this work. 5 I find Dr. Ripport, on the cover of No 8, of his Register, under the head of Materials wanted, makes mention of a Confession of Faith, published, as early as 1611. 6 Baxter’s Plain Scripture Proof, p. 134-137 7 Pedobaptism Examined, vol. 1. p. 263-265. 8 These accounts relate to the Baptists in the country. Their sufferings in London are related in those numbers of the Magazine which I have not obtained. 9 Neal, in his history of the Puritans, vol. 2. p. 759, mentions that the damages sustained by the non-conformists, were two millions in three years And if they were ill the same proportion from the restoration to the revolution, Crosby is not mistaken when he computes the sum total at near twenty million. 10 English Baptist Magazine, No. 21, p. 187. 11 Crosby, vol. 4. p. 248. 12 I know not as there is now any Baptist minister in Rhode Island. that opposes singing, or any Baptist congregation that neglects it; but their posterity remain in different parts of the State, by whom I have been asked if I was a Singing Baptist. 13 “The people of this persuasion” says Neal, in his history of the Puritans, vol. 2. p. 112, “were more exposed to the public resentment, because they would hold. communion with none but such as had been dipped. All must pass under this cloud, before they could be received into their churches; and the same narrow spirit prevails too generally among them even to this day.” (1733) 14 Rippon’s Register. 15 The following statement is found in Rippon’s Register, No. 14.

    A Copy of the Table of Benefactors, in the Museum belonging to the Bristol Education Society.

    Those marked thus (*) subscribed annually 1l. 1s. The sums directly after the names were also annual subscriptions; the larger sums were original benefactions.

    Date Benefactors Pouns S. 1700 Frederick Bull, Esq. London, 5l. 5s. annually 150 ““ Thomas Sparry, sen. Upton 100 ““ Rebekah Lippincott, Wellington 50 ““ Robert Houlton, Esq. Grittleton, 5l. 5s. 21 ““ Joseph Tomkins, Esq. Abingdon, 5l. 5s. 25 ““ William Tomkins, Esq. do. 5l. 5s. 25 ““ Joseph Butler, Esq. do. 5l. 5s. 41 ““ John Bull, Esq. Bristol, 2l. 2s. 15 ““ Francis Bull, Esq. do. 2l. 2s. 10 ““ John Collett, do. 10l. 10s. ““ John Stock, do. 5l. 5s. 10 ““ Thomas Bunn, Frome* 10 ““ William Steele, Esq Broughton, 2l. 2s. 10 ““ Baptist Church, Lymington 10 ““ Rev. Hugh Evans, M. A.* Tutor to the Institution ““ Rev. Caleb Evans, M. A.* Tutor to the Institution 31 ““ Rev. James Newton, M. A.* Tutor to the Institution 1772 John Houlton, Esq. Seagry, 5l. 5s. 10 ““ Rev. Thomas Dunscombe, Coate* 10 1774 Ann Callwell, Chesham 50 00 ““ Susannah Callwell, do. 10l. 10s. 100 ““ Thomas Llewelyn, Esq. L. L. D. London 60 ““ Stephen Williams, do 10 ““ Rev. Samuel Stennett, D. D.* do. 20 1775 Ebenezer Hollick, Esq. Witser, 2l. 2s. 20 ““ Elizabeth Durban, Bristol 21 1777 Abraham Elton, Esq. Do 10 ““ John Crammont, Leicester, (a legacy.) 10 1778 Rev. Isaac Woodman, Sutton, (a legacy.) 40 1779 John Holmes, Esq. Exon 16 1780 Rev. Andrew Gifford, D. D. London 100 ““ John & William Parsons, Esqrs. Chichester, 2l. 2s. 10 1781 George Wilkinson, London 10 1782 William Deane, Plymouth, (a legacy.) 150 ““ John Reynolds, Barbican, 2l. 2s. 20 1783 Rev. Andrew Bennett, Barbadoes 10 1784 Diana Munt, Tiverton, (a legacy.) 20 ““ James Hewardine, Arnsby, (a legacy.) 10 ““ Hester Bull, Bristol* 10 ““ Thomas Llewelyn, Esq. L. L. D. London, (a legacy) consisting of his Library, which cost more than 1500 ““ Rev. Andrew Gifford, D. D. London, (a legacy) 1000 00 consisting of his library, pictures, coins, etc. estimated at ““ Frederick Bull, Esq. the reversionary Bequest of 1000 1785 John Thornton, Esq. Clapham 10 ““ John Austic, Esq. Devizes 10 1787 John Davis, Calne, a reversionary legacy of 50 1789 John Cook, Bristol, (a legacy.) 50 1790 Rev. James Newton, M. A. do. (a legacy.) 50 1791 William Thomas, Hutchin, (a legacy) 50 ““ John Edmunds, Fairford, a Reversionary legacy of 200l. 3 per cent. Consols-Stock 200 1792 Ann Moore, Bristol 20 ““ Rev. John Poynting, Worcester, (a legacy.) 200 1793 Rev. Abraham Booth, London 5 1794 Mrs. Simpkin, Balby 5 1795 Rev. Peter Reece, Warwick, (a legacy.) 100 16 Rippon’s Register. 17 The Hindoos from time immemorial have been divided into tribes or casts The four principal casts are the Bramins, Soldiers, Laborers, and Mechanics, and these are divided into a multiplicity of inferior distinctions. The Bramins are the most noble tribe, they alone can officiate in the priesthood, like the Jewish tribe of Levi. All the different casts are kept distinct from each other by insurmountable barriers; they are forbidden to intermarry, to cohabit, to eat with each other, or even to drink out of the same vessel with another tribe. Every deviation from these points subjects them to be rejected by their tribe, renders them polluted forever, and obliges them from that instant to associate with a herd who belong to no cast, but are held in utter detestation by all others, and are employed only in the meanest and vilest offices. The members of each east adhere invariably to the profession of their forefathers; from generation to generation the same families have followed one uniform line of life.

    To lose cast is to become subject to an excommunication of the most terrible kind, and for this reason a superstitious Hindoo will suffer torture and even death itself rather than do it.

    From this we see that the infernal cast, as Dr. Fuller calls it, was a most formidable barrier against the introduction of the gospel among the heathen in India. Well might the missionaries exult when the chain of the cast was broken by Kristno and the door of faith was opened to these perishing Gentiles. 18 The College of Fort-William at Calcutta was founded in 1800, about a year after Mr Carey was honored by Marquis Wellesley with an appointment of teacher of the Bengalee, Sangskrit and Mahratta languages in that institution. His salary was 500 rupees a month, that is, 3000 dollars a year, When the College was new modeled in 1807, Mr. Carey was made professor of Bengalee and Sangskrit, with a salary of six thousand dollars a year. Calcutta is fifteen miles from Serampore; at this place there is a Baptist church, and here My. Carey mostly resides, pursuing with unwearied assiduity his professional and missionary duties, which so harmoniously correspond with each other.

    Well might he say “The earth helpeth the woman.” 19 Morse’s Geography, Vol. 2. p. 555. 20 Researches in Asia, p. 197.

    CHAPTER - 1 Vol. 5. p. 319. 2 Ivimey in a note p. 561. 3 Vol. 5. p. 357. 4 The American war terminated in a glorious manner, and all who were concerned in it were loaded with applauses, and hailed as the deliverers of their country. But the grievances of the american people were trifling compared with those of the German peasants But suppose the fortune of war had turned against the struggling Americans, how different would have been their fate! What, in such a case, would have been said of those Baptist brethren, who enlisted under the revolutionary standard, whose eulogium was pronounced by the immortal Washington? What character would have been given of those ministers, who promoted the war by every means in their power, who became chaplains in the armies, and dwelt in the camps of the warriors? Backus, Gano, Stillman, Manning, Smith, Rogers, and others, instead of being the subjects of eulogium for the part they took in the war, would have been loaded with infamy, and branded with the odious names of rebels, fanatics, and the ring-leaders of a seditious multitude. They would have been the Muncers, Stubners, Storks, Bookholds, Phiffers and Knipperdolings of America.

    The American people took up arms in defense of their civil rights, but it is well known that many of our Baptist brethren had their eye upon advantages of a religious nature, which actually arose to them, especially in New England, out of the principles and agitations of the war as will be more fully illustrated in the next chapter. 5 Milner, Vol. 5. p. 320. Ibid, p. 327. 6 Ivimey, p. 16. Mosheim in a note, Vol. 4. p. 438. 7 Milner, Vol. 5. p. 327. 8 Mosheim, vol. 5. p. 381-2. Ibid. p. CHAPTER - 1 Backus’ Church History, Vol. 2. p. 194. 2 Vol. 1. p. 47. Vol. 2. p. 29. 3 Backus, Vol. 1. p. 98. 4 This statement is paraphrased a little, but the sense is retained.

    CHAPTER - 1 This account is found in Backus’ History, vol. 3. p. 146. Mr. B. says, this emigrant church settled at the head of the Bay of Fundy; but Mr. Manning assures me, that Mr. Mason settled at Saekville, which is on the Cumberland Bay. But still, both of these statements may be correct. Mr. Backus is general, Mr. Manning particular. As near as I can understand by maps, at the head of the great Bay of Fundy, are two other smaller Bays; one is called the Bason of Minas, and the other Cumberland Bay. Mr. Mason and his company, therefore, sailed up the Bay of Fundy to its head, and then entered the Bay of Cumberland, and on its north side made their settlement. The place was then called Tantarramar. 2 I have given the history of this church a place here, for I supposed it was amongst the oldest in the country. Morgan Edwards, in a Catalogue of American churches, which he wrote in 1764, mentions one in this town. Mr. Edwards probably had his information from Mr. Sutton, who had. preached in the place. But since writing the account, Mr. Manning has informed me that Mr. Edwards’ Catalogue must be incorrect. He is positive there never was a Baptist church in this town until 1800. I have, therefore, corrected the statement, which I at first made, but left the article to stand in its present place. 3 Secretary’s Office, Frederick-town, 17th July, 1792.

    I do hereby certify, that David George, a free negro man, has permission from his Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor, to instruct the black people in the knowledge, and exhort them to the practice of the Christian religion. JON.ODELL, Secretary. 4 The substance of this account was communicated by Mr. Burton. 5 Mr. Ennis. See an account of him towards the close of this chapter.

    CHAPTER - 1 Backus, vol. iii. p. 201-212.

    CHAPTER - 1 Backus’ History of New England, vol. iii. p. 278. 2 His Excellency William Plumer, Esq. Governor of New Hampshire, who lives in Epping, was formerly a minister in this church. 3 Backus’ History, vol. iii. p. 284, 285. 4 Bill of Rights, Article 6.

    CHAPTER - 1 Morse’s Geography, vol. i. p. 361. 2 Backus’ History, vol. iii. p. 296. I find the account of Mr. Willoughby’s being a leader, etc. is disputed by some, and supposed probable by others. And so I must leave it. 3 Mr. Garner died at Pownal, in the autumn of 1793, in the 78th year of his age. For a long time before his death he was, to use his own words, “A poor object of despair.” But a little before he died, he manifested some comfortable views in the prospect of eternity, and once said to a friend “That he believed that all the punishment he should ever endure would be in this life.” 4 This information was communicated by Cephas L. Rockwood, Esq. of Chester.

    CHAPTER - 1 Backus, vol. i. p. 56. 2 Backus’ History, ect. vol. i. p. 113, 114. 3 Winthrop’s journal as quoted by Backus. 4 Backus’ History, etc. vol.i. p. 115 and 145, 146. 5 Backus’ History, vol. i. p. 147, 148. 6 Hubbard, as quoted by Backus, vol. i. p. 155-6. 7 Cotton’s Grounds and Ends of Children’s Baptism, p. 3, 4, as quoted by Backus, vol. i. p. 176. 8 Backus, vol. i. p. 184. 9 “The sentence of Obadiah Holmes, of Seaconk, the 31st of the fifth month, 1651.

    Forasmuch as you, Obadiah Holmes, being come into this jurisdiction about hte 21st of the 5th month did meet at one William Witter’s house, at Lynn, and did here privately (and at other times, being an excommunicate person, did take upon you to preach and baptize) upon the Lord’s day or other days, and being taken then by the constable, and coming afterward to the assembly at Lynn, did, in disrespect to the ordinance of God and his worship, keep on your hat, the pastor being in prayer, insomuch that you would not give reverence in vailing your hat, till it was forced off your head, to the disturbance of the congregation, and professing against the institution of the church, as not being according to the gospel of Jesus Christ; and that you, the said Obadiah Holmes, did, upon the day following, meet again at the said William Witter’s in contempt to authority, you being then in the custody of the law, and did there receive the sacrament, being excommunicated and that you did baptize such as were baptized before, and therby did necessarily deny the baptism that was before administered to be baptism, the churches no churches, and also other ordinances, and ministers, as if all were a nullity, and did also deny the lawfulness of baptizing of infants; and all this tends to the dishonour of God, the despising the ordinances of God among us, the peace of the churches, and seducing the subjects of this commonwealth from the truth of the gospel of Jesus Christ, and perverting the straight ways of the Lord, the court doth fine you 30 pounds, to be paid, or sufficient sureties that the said sum shall be paid by the first day of the next Court of Assistants, or else to be well whipped, and that you shall remain in prison till it be paid, or security given in for it.

    By the Court, Increase Nowell” 10 A wampum peague is the sixth part of a penny with us. 11 In a manuscript of Governor Joseph Jenks, wrote near one hundred years ago, he says, “Mr. Holmes was whipped thrity stripes, and in such an unmerciful manner, that in many days, if not some weeks, he could not take no rest but as he lay upon his knees and elbows, not being able to suffer any part of his body to touch the bed whereon he lay.” 12 What an evasion is this! Sir Richard spoke of compelling persons into their worship, and Cotton here turns it as if he meant compelling persons out of one government into another to worship in their own way. 13 “Although the paying of a fine seems to be but a small thing in comparison of a man’s parting with his religion; yet the paying of a fine is the acknowledging of a transgression; and for a man to acknowledge that he has transgressed when his conscience tells him he has not, is but little, if anything at all, short of parting with his religion; and it is likely that this might be the consideration of those sufferers.

    Governor Jenks” 14 If the reader will look back to page 369 and read Mr. Clark’s letter to the magistrates, he will see how contrary this is to truth. 15 Backus, vol. i. p. 284, 320, 821. 16 Charlestown is separated from Boston by Charles River. 17 Backus, Vol. 1 p. 355. 18 Neal somewhere mentions that an English Bishop got so exasperated against the dissenters around him, that he appointed a day in which he would dispute with them, and prove them all heretics, etc. When the day came, a vast concourse assembled, and when the bishop began to raft, the Quakers paid him in his own coin, and browbeat him so hard that he was forced to yield; as he was going to his house they followed him with shouts, “The hireling fleeth! The hireling fleeth!” 19 His benefactions to this Institution were astonishingly great: for besides making large additions to its library, he founded two professorships, one of Theology and one of Mathematics and Experimental Philosophy, with a salary of eighty pounds each. In addition to these, he endowed the College with funds to the amount of a hundred pounds a year, to be distributed among ten scholars of good character, four of them should be Baptists, if any such were there. He also provided ten pounds a year to the College Treasurer for his trouble, and ten pounds a year to supply accidental losses, or to increase the number of students. Thus it appears, that this worthy and munificent Baptist must have bestowed upon this Pedobaptist University, funds to the amount of almost five thousand pounds. A philosophical apparatus which cost 150 sterling was sent over in 1726.

    These endowments have doubtless been of much use to the college; but the advantage which Mr. Hollis expected the Baptists to derive from his unexampled generosity, have never been realized.

    What a pity that this generous Baptist had not appropriated these princely endowments exclusively to his own brethren; as they would have founded an institution from which they could have derived peculiar benefit!

    Mr. Hollis held to open communion, and the account of Dr. Mather the then President at Cambridge, together with two other Pedobaptist minister uniting with a Baptist church in ordaining a pastor, doubtless opened to his imagination a pleasing prospect of an extensive union between the two denominations, and moved upon his benevolent feelings to afford the College the astonishing patronage already mentioned. 20 These communion vessels have been given away to churches in the country, but the church has supplied their place with an elegant new set consisting of twelve cups, two large flaggons and four plates, which together are reputed to be worth 600 dollars. 21 Dr. Baldwin’s Sermon at the opening of the New Meeting House, in 1811, p. 25, 26. 22 This installation will need some explanation to our brethren abroad, as we read nothing of it in the New Testament, nor in the history of the Baptists in other countries. It is nothing more nor less than going over the same ceremonies with an ordained minister, when he takes the pastoral care of a church, as were practiced when he was first set apart for the ministry. If a minister has not been a subject for the ordaining ceremony, he is ordained into office; if he has, he is installed into it.

    Both is the same thing in form, although called by different names.

    This sacred installing is practiced uninformly by the New England Pedobaptists, and from them the Baptists seem to have borrowed it. It was, however, never practiced but by a comparatively few churches; among some of them it is going into disuse, and by all it is hoped it will soon be laid aside. If those, who practise installation, are not Rebaptizers, they are constantly Re-ordainers. 23 The reason assigned by the seceding party for their separation, was, that the church retained in her bosom a number of members who held doctrinal errors of different kinds. The leaders of the church acknowledge that they were then infested with errors, but they also contend that they had previously commenced a course of discipline, which after some interruptions was carried through, and those erroneous members who could not be reclaimed were excluded, so that they are now united in the faith and fellowship of the gospel. 24 This lot extends to the tide water, which furnishes a delightful place for baptizing, immediately back of the meeting house. The lot is 250 feet to high water mark, probably 500 or 600 to low water. 25 A short time since, this township was divided into two, and the new one was called Seekhonk, after the name of a very large singular plain, which is within three or four miles of Providence, and on which, it appears by ancient records, Obadiah Holmes and his little company of Baptists, set up their meeting in 1649. This was but about four miles from the village of Pawtucket, a part of which was formerly in Rehoboth, but is now in Seekhonk. 26 Mr. Moulton, for preaching here, was seized by the constable, dragged out of the town and thrust into prison, as a stroller and vagabond. In 1750 and 1751 the assesors took from Abraham Bloyce a spinning wheel; from deacon Fisk, five pewter plates and a cow; from John Pike, a cow; from Jonathan Perry, a saddle and steer; from Mr. Blunt, the pastor, a trammel, andirons, shovel, tongs, etc. and a heifer; from John Streeter, a kettle, pothooks, etc. from Benjamin Robbins, a warming-pan, quart pot, broad-axe, saw, and other tools; from Henry Fisk, ruling elder, five pewter plates and a cow; from John Perry, a cow; from David Morse, ruling elder, a cow, in 1750 for a tax of pounds. 4d, and in 1751 a yoke of oxen valued at not less than thirtysix dollars, for a tax of less than five dollars; from Phineas Coller, a kettle, two pewter plates, a tankard, and a young cow; from John Newel, deacon, all his pewter plates, a cow, and a flock of geese; John Draper’s goods were distrained, but the kind is not mentioned. And besides this despoiling of goods, deacon Fisk, John Cory, Jeremiah Barstow; Josiah Perry, and John Draper, were imprisoned in Worcester gaol, twenty miles from their homes. This havock of property was made for the support of Reverend Caleb Rice, the minister of the town; and if that greedy divine received all these spoils of his neighbors, his house must have been well furnished, his nest well feathered; and his flocks and herds considerably increased. Edwards’ MS. Materials for a History of the church in Sturbridge. 27 Backus, vol. i. p. 248, 261. 28 The author saw one in this town a few years after, which weighed fifteen hundred pounds. It was, if I am rightly informed, sold for a large sum, to be put into a Museum. 29 Backus, vol. i. p. 63. 30 Hannah Adams’ History of New England, p. 34, 35. 31 According to Captain Johnson the seven nations or secretaries were Gortonists, Papists, Famalsists, Seekers, Antinomians, Anabaptists, and the Prelacy. Backus, vol. iii. p. 238. 32 Backus, vol. i. p. 100. 33 Backus, vol. i. p. 310, 311. 34 Backus, vol. ii. p. 85. 35 Backus, vol. ii. p. 88. 36 Backus, vol. ii. p. 87. 37 At this time they broke over their own law with particular reference to the Church in Sturbridge. Backus . 38 Backus, vol. ii. p. 193. 39 Laws of Massachusetts. vol. i. p. 327. 40 See A Blow at the Root of Aristocracy, vol. i. p. 14, etc. 41 Laws of Massachusetts, vol. ii. p. 931. 42 Laws of Massachusetts, vol. i. New Series, p. 227. 43 Most of this lengthy article has been compiled from Backus’ History, and though references are not always made, the reader may rest assured that all important statements are grounded on authorities which admit of no dispute.

    CHAPTER - 1 I have followed Mr. Backus’ dates in describing these events. Some historians have dated Mr. Williams’ settlement in 1634; but no one has investigated this subject more thoroughly than Mr. Backus, and I am inclined to think he is the most correct. 2 Morgan Edwards observes, that Mr. Clark was properly the founder of the Rhode Island Colony, although Mr. Codington has run away with the praise of it.” 3 “The sin of the Patents, Williams says, lay heavy on his mind, especially that part by which Christian kings (so called) were invested with a right, by virtue of their Christianity,to take and give away the lands and countries of other men.” His sentiments on this subject, Mr. Cotton informs us, formed the first article in his indictment. Backus, vol. i. p. 57, 58. 4 vol. i. p. 72. 5 The Mooshausick River empties into Providence cove from the north, a little below the Mill Bridge; the Wanaskatuckett is that on which Olney’s Paper Mills are situated. The Pawtucket river rises in, or near Rutland in Worcester county, Massachusetts, and empties into the Narraganset Bay at India Point, Providence. The Pawtuxet rises near the borders of Connecticut, and falls into the Bay five miles below the town. On the fields of Pawtucket the author is now writing, but he is not sure where the town of Mashapauge stood. 6 “Of these I find Williams (brother to Mr. Roger) among the Massachusetts freemen, but no more of their names upon those records. Perhaps most of them might have newly arrived; for Governor Winthrop assures us, that no less than three thousand arrived this year in twenty ships; and Mr. Hubbard tells us that those, who inclined to the Baptists ’ principles, went to Providence; others went to Newport.

    Seven of the first twelve, with Angell, I suppose began the settlement with Mr. Williams in 1636.” Backus. 7 Backus vol. i. p. 94. 8 Backus’ History, vol. i., p. 89. Callender’s Century sermon, p. 30. 9 Century Sermon, p. 31, 32. 10 The name of this famous Indian chief is spelled many different ways, but Myantinomy seems the most proper, and according to Mr. Callender it was by the Indians pronounced Myantino`my. Cent.ury Sermon, p. 1. 11 This was then computed at forty pounds, sixteen shilling sterling.

    Backus 12 Backus, vol. i. p. 126-129. 13 Callender’s Century Sermon, p. 37, 38. Backus, vol. ii. p. 95. 14 Backus, vol. i. p. 96. 15 Edwards’ MS. History of Rhode Island, p. 10. 16 Edwards’ MS. History of Rhode Island, p. 12, 13. Backus, vol. i., MS. of Governor Jenks. 17 Magnalia, Book viii. p. 20. 18 Be it observed that the same liberty was granted the Massachusetts people by their charters first and last. Edwards. 19 Only nine miles from Providence. 20 About twenty miles from this town. 21 Backus, vol. ii. p. 103, 105, Edwards’ M.S. History of Rhode Island, p. 15-32. 22 A Reverend Doctor of Massachusetts, a few years since, was invited to preach in the Baptist pulpit at Providence, but when the same favor a short time after was asked of him, it was denied. 23 Some accounts state his ministry in the church to have been but a few months. 24 His grave is not certainly known, but tradition makes it to be near some trees to the west of this street. 25 This Coleman became the subject of a Farce called The Cutter of Coleman Street. Edwards. 26 Now in Kentucky, and is one of those who are known by the name of Emancipators. 27 Century Sermon, p. 61. 62, 28 Towards the close of Mr. Snow’s ministry, his church was divided; the larger part has for its minister, Mr. James Wilson, who also immerses those, who prefer that mode. The part to which Mr. Cornell preached, is under the care of Mr. Thomas Williams, from Connecticut who chooses not to go into the water. 29 Providence Gazette for March 16, 1765, article, History of Providence. 30 The house built by Governor Jenks is now owned by his greatgrandson, George Jenks and Dr. Manchester. The part owned by Dr.

    Manchester is the oldest:. In this the Governor died The other part was built while he resided at Newport by one of his sons. The one built by Elder Ebenezer is now owned by James Mason, Esq. Judge Williams’ house is that near to Samuel Slater’s, and is now owned by Friend Moses Brown of Providence. Nathaniel’s house is now owned by the widow and heirs of the late Ichabod Jenks In this house the Pawtucket Church first covenanted together. It is said, that the old part at the east end of it, which is now in tolerable repair, is the very house built by Joseph Jenks, the planter of Pawtucket; that it first stood not far from where Mr. Timothy Green’s house now stands, and was removed from that place to its present situation. From Governor Jenks descended the Honorable John Andrew, the Honorable Peleg Arnold, and the wife of James Fenner, Esq. late Governor of Rhode Island.

    From Elder Ebenezer Jenks descended, as we have seen, Judge Daniel Jenks, Ebenezer Jenks, Esq. Mr. Esek Esten, who furnished these accounts of this family, and the widow of the late David L. Barns, Judge of the District of Rhode lsland.

    From Judge William descended Jonathan Jenks, one of the members of Providence church, who died at Brookfield, but was brought down and buried at Pawtucket. His sons were Gideon, Judge Jonathan, who died at Winchester, and Nicholas, now of Brookfield, the father of Hervy Jenks, now pastor of the church in the city of Hudson, New York.

    Samuel Eddy, Esq. Secretary of State, and one of the Providence Church, is connected by blood to both Judge William Jenks of Pawtucket, and Elder Chad Brown of Provldence.

    From Nathaniel descended a numerous family, many of whom are in Pawtucket and its vicinity, and many have removed to other parts.

    The descendents of the late Captain Stephen and Mr. Ichabod Jenks all sprang from Major Nathaniel, the second son of the ancient and Honorable Joseph. Of his posterity also is Nicholas Branch, who has lately been approbated as a preacher by the old Providence church.

    One of Governor Jenks’ grandchildren, namely Joseph, belongs to the Pawtucket church, and a great number of the great-grandchildren of him and his three brothers, and some of the fifth generation, belong to the churches and congregations of Pawtucket and Providence.

    Thus from the ancient and Honorable Joseph Jenks, who was one of the Senators of the colony, or as they call them Assistants of the Governor, have descended a most numerous posterity, which it is supposed would, counting them in the male and female lines, amount to eight or ten thousand.

    Among his grandchildren were ten widows of remarkable character: namely Catharine Turpin, ancestor of a gentleman of that name, now in Charleston, South Carolina. At her house the General Assembly of the colony was held for many years. She died at the age of 88. Second, Catharine Jenks, widow of Captain Nathaniel, who died in his 96th year. Third, Bridget, widow of another Nathaniel, who lived to the age of 89. Forth, Experience, widow of Ebenezer Jenks, Esq. who lived to be more than 90. Fifth, Joanna, widow of Judge Daniel Jenks, who died in her 93rd year. Sixth, Rachel, widow of Cornelius Esten, who lived to be 71. Seventh, Mercy, widow of Philip Wheeler, who lived to her 80th year, and died a member of the Swansea church. Eigth, Freelove, widow of Jonathan Jenks, who lived also to the age of 80.

    Ninth, Mercy, widow of Thomas Comstock, she was a Quaker and lived to the age of 90. Tenth, Patience, widow of John Olney, Esq. who died at the age of four score. These ten widows were all first cousins, seven by blood, and three by marriage, were all eminent for piety, and most of them were members of the Providence Church.

    Some of the eighth generation from this ancient Joseph, are now settled in the State of Ohio. 31 Century Sermon, p. 16. 32 Backus, vol. iii. p. 228. 33 Backus, vol. ii. p. 66, 111. 34 See earlier in this work. 35 Morgan Edwards. 36 Stratagems of this kind were very frequent in these times. 37 Backus, vol. ii. p. 70, 73. 38 According to Mr. Comer, a Mr. Carpenter was baptized by immersion in this town by Reverend Mr. Usher, an Episcopalian minister, in 1725. The year after, five persons in Rehoboth were baptized in the same mode by Mr. Piggot of that denomination. The year after that, a woman was immersed in Newport by Dr. M’Sparran, of Narraganset. Backus vol. ii. p. 112. 39 Mr. Backus has not mentioned their names. Dr. Jones and Morgan Edwards were probably two of them. 40 We know not what other urgent calls these deeply-impressed missionaries have to travel in Rhode Island. It is certain the Baptists do not call them, for they have but little faith in their commission—the Quakers will not hear them, because they do not think they are moved by the Spirit to teach—and it cannot be that there are any of Dr.

    Worcester’s Pedobaptists in those “deserts, those affecting widespread deserts” which they visit, for their influence would soon, convert them into celestial regions. We will not dispute about their urgent calls, but we know well enough, that they roam around the rocks and forests of Burrillville, Gloucester, etc. the most destitute parts of the state, and from their scanty survey represent the whole of it as sunk into the most deplorable condition of profaneness and barbarism. 41 In this list of churches, we do not reckon a number, which, by deaths and removals, have so far declined, that they have in a measure lost their visibility, although many worthy members remain to mourn over the broken walls of their Zion. We may add to this account of meeting houses, that there are many new commodious school houses, in the neighborhood of the factories, built by their owners on purpose for the accommodation of meetings as well as schools. Public worship is also maintained either stately or occasionally in academies, courthouses, and halls of different kinds, in divers parts of the state. Besides the meeting houses we have reckoned in good repair, there are a considerable number which are not so. But it ought to be observed that within this present century, many new houses have been built, and of the remainder a number have been built anew, enlarged, or repaired, since the last war. Of the houses of worship belonging to our churches in some of the principal towns, we have already given brief descriptions, the first which were erected in the country were mostly small, and the structure and finishing of them varied according to the means of the builders. It was not uncommon for churches, as they branched out, to have two or three meeting houses for their use. Many of these have either fallen or are falling into decay. First, because they were built too slightly to be worth repairing, or were not well contrived for enlargement. Second, because, in process of time, they were left out of the center of the congregations. But while they have been left to decay, others more spacious and durable, and in more eligible situations have been erected in their stead. But when Dr.

    Worcester’s missionaries pass one of these old houses, they look, they wonder, they sigh, and in their memorandums write against the whole State,MENE,MENE,TEKEL,UPHARSIN. These memorandums doubtless furnished materials for the affecting picture of this ungenerous adversary. Where houses of worship are erected, churches gathered, and ministers supported by the aid of law, they may all remain in a permanent and splendid form. It would be sad case indeed if some benefits did not arise from the evil of ecclesiastical establishments in those parts of the United States, where houses of worship are built and ministers supported, not by legal taxes, but by the voluntary contributions of their patrons, changes, similar to those we have described in Rhode Island, as the Author knows from observation, have been, and are now taking place, not only among the Baptists, but all other denominations. 42 See earlier in this work. 43 Providence Gazette, March, 1765. 44 Were a serious Baptist from Rhode Island,” says Dr. Baldwin in reply to Dr. Worcester, “to visit the metropolis of Massachusetts, the headquarters of good principles,” would he not be led, from your observations, to suppose that no person would be seen in the streets on Lord’s day, unless going or returning from church or meeting! But while he could scarcely credit his senses, would he not be ready to ask. What meaneth this prancing of the horses, and this rattling of the carriage wheels in my ears? And should he be informed, that more horses and carriages of every kind were let to visiting and other parties of pleasure on that day than on any other in the week, what would be his astonishment? What would he think of the “influence of Pedobaptist principles?” Would he not suppose there were some besides the ancient Pharisees, who could strain at a nat and swallow a camel” 45 The manufacturing of cotton on Arkwright’s plan was begun in Pawtucket in 1790, by Samuel Slater, Esq. from England. There are now in this village, and near, almost 7000 spindles in operation, and within a mile and a quarter of it, including both sides of the river, are buildings erected, capable of containing; about 12,000 more. In 1810, according to an account taken by Mr. John K. Pitman of Providence, in the State of Rhode Island only, were 39 factories, in which over 30,000 spindles were running, and the same factories were capable of containing about as many more. The number of spindles in operation in this State only, is now (1813) probably not far from 50,000.

    In 1810, the gentleman above mentioned ascertained, that within thirty miles of Providence, which includes a considerable territory in Massachusetts, and a small portion of Connecticut, there were factories, capable of containing 111,000 spindles. The number of spindles now in actual operation within this circumference are said to be 120,000. The amount of yarn spun each week, is not far from 110,000 pounds, or 5,500,000 a year. This side of the river Delaware the number of cotton factories of different dimensions, built and in building is estimated at 500. 46 Laws of Rhode Island, edition of 1767, p. 194. 47 The following is a brief statement of the Governors of Rhode Island.

    Under their first charter, which lasted nineteen years, their chief magistrates were called Presidents, of these there were seven; some were Baptists, some Quakers, the religious opinions of a number are not known. Three years of this time, the Presidential Chair was filled by Roger Williams. From the time the second charter was obtained, necessarily, in 1663, is now a period of 150 years. During this period there have been 25 Governors, counting his Excellency the present Chief Magistrate. Eight of these were Quakers or Friends, about the same number Baptists by education or profession, and of the remainder some were Episcopalians, some Congregationalists; the religious opinions of a number are not known. Governor Cook was baptized by immersion, but belonged to a Congregational church, and the same may be said of the present Governor Jones. For more than a century the Baptists and Quakers had the lead in the affairs of government. They at first had some disputes about ordinances and inward light, but these soon subsided, and they have, with very few exception, from time immemorial, harmoniously agreed to differ. While they feared the introduction of the religious laws of the surrounding governments, they endeavored to keep a preponderating balance of power in their own hands. For Pedobaptism and law-religion they both disbelieved, and have ever strenuously opposed. The Quakers now in many places serve as judges, magistrates, legislators, etc. but their pretensions to the gubernatorial chair they have long since resigned, on account of the danger of its subjecting them to military duties, incompatible with their views of religion and morality. The Baptists still fill many offices of different kinds, but more native citizens of the other States hold offices and have influence in governmental affairs, than formerly.

    CHAPTER - 1 Backus, vol. ii. p. 89, 90. 2 Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Magazines, vol. i. p. 180-8. 3 By Mr. Royce the Author was baptized in 1798. 4 Statutes of Connecticut.

    CHAPTER - 1 Among Mr. Backus’ papers I found a letter addressed to the church in Providence by Elder James Brown, soliciting some assistance towards defraying the expense of this house. In this address it is stated that the brethren in New York had purchased a lot and built them a place of worship which cost them dear. That one of their company, a man of property, on whom they much depended, had left them, and the rest being poor, they were now incumbered with a debt which they were utterly unable to discharge. It is furthermore stated that contributions had been made for these people among the Rhode Island brethren the year before, but as further aid was still needed, it was thought that about five and twenty or thirty pounds would be a suitable proportion to be raised by the church in Providence. At the close of this address there is subscribed by Mr. Brown one pound, and by a number of others thirteen barrels of cider, which was then valuable in that market. 2 Morgan Edwards’ MS. Materials, etc. For a further account of Mr. Eyres, see Newport, Rhode Island. 3 Jubilee Sermon, etc. 4 M.B.M. Magazine, vol. iii. p. 172-3. 5 For a part of the information respecting this western region, the author is indebted to a work published in 1794, by Elders Hosmer and Lawton, entitled, A View, etc. of the Otsego Association. All the late information was furnished by the same Elder Lawton and Elder John Peck, who travelled extensively and took much pains to collect it.

    CHAPTER - 1 In Cohansey graveyard is a stone with this inscription upon it: “Here lies Deborah Swinney, who died April 4, 1760, aged 77 years. She was the first white female child born at Cohanse.” If we take her age out of 1760, it will appear she was born in 1683, the time fixed, by Mr. Kelsay, for the settling of the place by Irish Baptists; and Swinney was an Irish man. 2 This transaction coming to the knowledge of Robert Calver, a Rogerene Baptist, induced him to publish an advertisement in the newspaper, offering twenty dollars reward to any that would produce a text to prove infant baptism. Reverend Samuel Harker took him up, and carried a text to the advertiser; Calver would not allow that infant baptism was in it; Harker sued him; it seems the courts were of Mr. Calver’s mind, for Harker was cast and had court charges to pay. After that, Calver published another advertisement, offering a reward of forty dollars for such a text; but none took him up, as Mr. Harker’s attempts failed.”

    Infant baptism has been ten thousand times condemned by argument, but this is probably the first time it was ever condemned in a court of law.

    CHAPTER - 1 Respecting Mr. Dungan, Morgan Edwards has the following note in his history of the Baptists in Pennsylvania: “Of this venerable father, I can learn no more than that he came from Rhode Island about the year 1684; that he and his family settled at Coldspring, where he gathered a church, of which nothing remains but a graveyard and the names of the families which belonged to it, namely the Dungans, Gapduets, Woods, Deyles, etc. that he died in 1688, and was buried in said graveyard; that his children were five sons and four daughters, namely William, who married into the Wing family, of Rhode Island, and had five children; Clement, who died childless; Thomas, who married into the Drake family, and had nine children; Jeremiah, who married into the same family, and had eight children; Elizabeth, who married into the West family, and had four children; Mary, who roamed into the Richards’ family, and had three children; John, who died childless; Rebecca, who married into the Doyle family, and had three children; Sarah, who married into the family of the Kerrels and had six children; in all 38. To mention the names, alliances, and offspring of these, would tend towards an endless genealogy. Sufficeth it, that the Reverend Thomas Dungan, the first Baptist minister in the provinces now (1770) existeth in a progeny of between six and seven hundred. 2 Edward’s Materials for Pennsylvannia, p. 6-17. 3 Edwards’ Materials, etc. p. 41-7. 4 Retrospect of the 18th Century, note, vol. ii. p 354. 5 This, with much other information, was communicated by Dr. Rogers. 6 The plan of this house within is a rotundo, ninety feet diameter, surmounted by a dome, crowned with a lanthorn or cupola, upwards of twenty feet diameter. The walls, with the dome, are elevated upwards of fifty feet above the ground, built of brick, and the dome constructed of short pieces of plank, upon the principle adopted in that of the Halle de Bled, at Paris. From the top of the walls, three steps encircle the building before the swell of the dome appears, the rise of which is at an angle of forty-five degrees. In front and rear of the rotundo, square projections, of sixty feet extent, come forward; that in the rear to provide space for vestry rooms; rising only one story; that in the front, to accommodate the stair cases of the galleries, rising on a marble basement to the common height of the walls.

    The front projection comes to the line of the street, in form of wings, separated by a colonnade, and are crowned by two belfries or cupolas. “The principal entrance, into the house is by a flight of marble, steps into an Ionic colonnade; on either hand are doors leading to the staircases of the galleries; from this colonnade you pass into the grand aisle, leading direct to the baptistery and pulpit; two other aisles run parallel with this, and one main aisle crosses the whole in the diameter of the house. At the termination of all these aisles, are doors of outlet from the building. The baptistery is situate in the center of the circle, in view of every part of the gallery, and is surrounded by an open balustrade, and when not in use for the ordinance of baptism closed over by a floor to accommodate strangers.

    The galleries, which are described concentric with the great circle, circumscribe the nave of the building, except in that section occupied by the pulpit, and are supported by twelve columns. The pulpit, which is placed to front the grand aisle, is a continual, on of the galleries, and comes forward supported by a screen of columns. The space under the pulpit is closed and thrown into the vestry rooms behind, but may at any time be opened, the screen being constituted of folding doors.

    The circumference of the building is lighted by large square windows below, and a ring of semi-circular windows above the galleries. The great lanthorn of the dome, immediately over the baptistery, lights the center and ventilates the whole house, being encircled with sashes, which open and shut; at pleasure. The height to the apex of this lenthorn, from the floor, is upwards of fifty feet.

    The foot of the dome is encompassed by a broad moulded band, above which two other bands run round. The lanthorn has its soffit enriched with mouldings.

    The pews below are so disposed as to run parallel with the transverse diameter of the room, the number of which, together with those in the galleries, exceed three hundred and twenty, and with the public seats contain, with comfort, upwards of two thousand five hundred people.

    The design of this building was furnished by Mr. Mills, a pupil of Mr. Letrobe, and as the direction of the execution of his design has been wisely committed to him, the building does credit to his talents, and proves an ornament to the city. “Mr. Mills is the first American architect, regularly educated to the profession in his own country.” Picture of Philadelphia, p. 326-8. 7 Massachusetts Baptist Missionary Magazine vol iii p 8 Those who may wish for a further account of the sentiments of these Independent Baptists, may find them expressed in a Word, published by Dr. Horsey in 1810, entitled, “Experimental Views,” etc.

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