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    BOOK 14.

    THE SPANISH MARTYRS.

    CHAPTER 1.

    THE AWAKENING IN SPAIN. (1520-1535.)

    Torquemada—The Alumbrados—Lutheran Books in Spain—John d’Avila—The secret of his eloquence—His manner of speaking of the Savior—His pastoral activity—His influence over St. Theresa— Sancha de Carile—Agitation of men’s minds—The first Spanish Reformer, Rodrigo de Valerio—His conversion—His asceticism— His study of the Scriptures— John de Vergara and his brothers—A Theological Disputation—Peter de Lerma—His departure from Spain—Departure of Louis of Cadena—Pursuit of John d’Avila— Alfonso Virves—His imprisonment—His rescue from the Inquisition by Charles V

    CHAPTER 2.

    REFORMATION AND INQUISITION.

    Rodrigo de Valerio—John Egidius, a scholastic preacher—Valerio and Egidius—Conversion of Egidius—Trial and release of Valerio—Eloquence of Egidius—Ponce de la Fuente and Vargas — Intimacy of the Three Friends—Their harmonious activity— Uncontroversial preaching — Their influence — Opposition— Advance of Spiritual Religion—Eloquence of Ponce de la Fuente — Desire of Charles V. to hear him—Attached to the Emperor’s household—Death of Vargas—Egidius left alone at Seville— Condemnation of Rodrigo de Valerio—His Death in Prison

    CHAPTER 3.

    SPAIN OUT OF SPAIN. (1537-1545.)

    The Three Brothers Enzinas—Their character and their studies—Their friendship with George Cassander—Their reading of Melanchthon’s Works—Francis Enzinas—Translation of New Testament—Friendship with Hardenberg—Letter to Alasco—Visit to Paris—James Enzinas—A Martyr at Paris—Heroism of Claude Lepeintre—John Enzinas— Conversion and zeal of San Romano—His Letters to Charles V.—His arrest—His indignation—His release—Journey to Ratisbon— Interviews with the Emperor—Second arrest—In the Emperor’s suite— His sufferings and his steadfastness

    CHAPTER 4.

    PRESENTATION OF SPANISH NEW TESTAMENT TO CHARLES V. BY ENZINAS. (1542-1545.)

    Enzinas at Louvain—The Spanish New Testament—Enzinas at Antwerp—The Printing begun—Debates on the Title—Completion of the Work—Pedro de Soto, Confessor to Charles V.—His instigation to persecution—Abuse of the Confessional—Dedication of Enzinas’s Work to the Emperor—Enzinas at Brussels—His feeling in the Emperor’s presence—Presentation of the Spanish New Testament to the Emperor—Reply of Charles V.—The Book submitted to the judgment of De Soto—Enzinas in the Convent of the Dominicans—The Doctrines of De Soto—Treason—A Snare— The Mask dropped by De Soto—Argument of Enzinas—Excitement in the Convent—Arrest of Enzinas—His Dejection in the Prison— Consoled by Giles Tielmans—The Examination—The Defense— Intercession—Spiritual Consolations —A Preacher in Bonds— Hopes deceived—A Horrible Persecution—The Queen’s Chaplain—His Trial and Flight—Escape of Enzinas—The walls of Brussels cleared—His arrival at Mechlin — At Antwerp—A legend— Another legend— Correspondence with Calvin—Enzinas at Wittenberg—James Enzinas at Rome—His arrest, trial, and condemnation—His martyrdom—Grief of Francis

    CHAPTER 5.

    FANATICISM AND BROTHERLY LOVE, JUAN DIAZ. (1545-1547.)

    Studies of Diaz at Paris—His friendship with James Enzinas—Visit to Geneva—Representative of the Reformed at Ratisbon—Meeting with Malvenda—Discussions—Threats—Denunciations —Alonzo Diaz in Germany—His interview with Malvenda—Discovery of his brothers place of refuge—Intercourse between the two brothers— Hypocrisy of Alonzo—Fratricide

    CHAPTER 6.

    SPANIARDS IN SPAIN. (1534-1542.)

    Bartholomew Carranza—Don Domingo de Roxas—Confession of the True Doctrine by de Roxas—Augustine Cazalla—Don Carlos de Seso—The Marchioness of Alcagnices—Carranza’s Progress—The Reformation spread by his Books — Carranza, Primate of Spain—His imprisonment—San Romano in Spain—Led to execution—His glorious death—The Martyrs of the Reformation—Death of San Romano not fruitless—Growing boldness of the Evangelicals

    CHAPTER 7.

    QUEEN JOANNA. (BORN 1479—DIED 1555.)

    A shameful Captivity—Joanna’s Youth—Her Marriage—Her Opposition to the Catholic Rites—Isabella’s Scheme for excluding her from the Throne—Intrigues of Ferdinand—Meeting of Ferdinand and Philip—Conspiracy of the Two Princes—Death of Philip—A Mournful Journey—Confinement of Joanna at Tordesillas—Her aversion to Romish Ceremonies—Ill treatment — Bitter Complaints—Was Joanna a Lutheran?—Her Christian Death—A Victim of the gloomiest Fanaticism

    BOOK 15.

    ENGLAND.

    CHAPTER 1.

    THE THREE PARTIES WHICH DIVIDED ENGLAND. (1536-1540.)

    Birth of Edward VI.—Death of the Queen—A new wife sought by the King—Relations of Henry VIII, with the Swiss—English students in Switzerland—A Letter to Calvin—Works of Swiss Theologians—The King’s opinions on these Works—Reginald Pole—Made Cardinal—Legate beyond the Alps—Anger of Henry VIII.—Pole in France and Belgium—Failure of his Mission—His return to Rome—German Divines in England—Protracted discussions—Ill-will of some of the Bishops—Fruitless attempts at conciliation—Departure of the German Doctors—Melanchthon’s Letter to Henry VIII

    CHAPTER 2.

    HENRY VIII, SUPREME HEAD OF THE ENGLISH CHURCH. (1538.)

    Gardiner—His return to England—Instigation to persecution— Sampson, Bishop of Chichester—A Conspiracy against the Reformation—A return to old usages—The Minister John Nicholson— His Treatise on the Lord’s Supper— His Appeal to the King— Appearance before the King— Examination— His Confession of Evangelical Doctrine—His resolute Declaration on the Sacrament— Cranmer’s Answer—The King’s anger—Nicholson condemned to be burnt—His Execution—Flatteries addressed to the King

    CHAPTER 3.

    THE SIX ARTICLES, (1538-1540.)

    Negotiations for the King’s Marriage—Their failure—Printing of the Bible at Paris—The Printing stopped—Completion of the Work in London — Divisions— Attempted Compromise—Its failure— The King’s fears—The Six Articles—Cranmer’s Opposition— Latimer’s Resignation of his See—The King’s advances to Cranmer, Cromwell, and Norfolk—Cranmer’s Time-serving — Five Hundred sent to Prison—Feeling in Germany—The Articles condemned at Wittenberg and Geneva—Melanchthon’s Letter to the King of England—The King appeased—Puerile Games

    CHAPTER 4.

    HENRY VIII. AND ANNE OF CLEVES. (1539-1540.) Anne of Cleves—Praises uttered of her—Her simple character—Her arrival in England—The King’s disappointment—His desire to get rid of her—His fear to break off the engagement—The Marriage celebrated at Greenwich—Henry’s Complaint to Charles V.—Ill-will of Charles— The King’s distrust—Preaching of the Gospel ordered by Cromwell— Gardiner’s Sermon—Barnes’s Sermon—His boldness—His imprisonment—Numerous editions of the Bible

    CHAPTER 5.

    DISGRACE AND DEATH OF CROMWELL, EARL OF ESSEX. (1510.) Cromwell threatened—Loaded with honors by the King—The King’s intention — The King’s Letter to Cromwell — Arrest of Cromwell — Foolish charges — The real motive of the blow— Cromwell abandoned by all his FriendsDefended by Cranmer alone—Cranmer’s Letter to the King—The Bill of Attainder— Heresy—The Accuser—No Trial—The Examination—The Bill carried in both Houses—Condemnation—Cromwell’s Letter to the King—The King’s hesitation— Catherine Howard—The Queen sent away—Cromwell on the Scaffold—His profession of Faith— His Confession and Prayer—His Death—His Character.

    CHAPTER 6.

    DIVORCE OF ANNE OF CLEVES, (1540.)

    Singular impartiality—A Procession of Martyrs, three Evangelists, three Papists—Preparations for Divorce of the Queen—A shameful Comedy—The King’s hypocrisy—Convocation of the Clergy—The Marriage declared void—The Divorce accepted by Anne of Cleves

    CHAPTER 7.

    CATHERINE HOWARD, A CATHOLIC QUEEN. (1540.)

    Marriage of the King with Catherine Howard—His return to Catholicism—Royal infallibility—Catholic reaction— Bonner, Bishop of London—A young Martyr—The Prisons filled—The King praised by Francis I.—Martyrdom of a Reader of the Bible —Conspiracy against Cranmer—The Archbishop’s firmness—Charges against him—The King’s hesitation—His determination to save him—Cranmer before the Privy Council—The King’s Ring—Cranmer’s Enemies confounded— The King’s love for the Queen—Terrible Revelations— Guilt of the Queen— Cranmer’s Visit to her—Frenzy of the Queen—Cranmer’s Emotion—Condemnations and Executions—The Queen Executed—Her Guilt undoubted—Convocation of the Clergy—A sharp blow struck at Convocation by Cranmer—Remarkable Progress of the Reformation

    CHAPTER 8.

    CATHERINE PARR, A PROTESTANT QUEEN. (1542.)

    Richard Hilles, a London Merchant—His Studies and Readings— Cranmer’s cautious promotion of the Reformation—Amendment in Doctrine—Catherine Parr—Her Character—Another Plot against Cranmer— His Forgiveness of his Enemies—Several Martyrs— Marbeck’s English Concordance—Henry’s Complaints against France—His Alliance with Charles V.—War with France— Sympathies of the Italians—Persecutors punished

    CHAPTER 9.

    THE LAST MARTYRS OF HENRY’S REIGN. (1545.)

    Session of Parliament—The King’s Speech—The Rod and the Royal Schoolmaster—Anne Askew—Her Trial— Examinations— Her Release—Again Imprisoned—Her Steadfastness—Her Discretion—In Prison—Condemned to be Burnt—A Royal Proclamation—Anne Askew tortured by the Lord Chancellor—Led to Execution —Death of the Martyrs—Approaching triumph of their Doctrines

    CHAPTER 10.

    QUEEN CATHERINE IN DANGER OF DEATH. (1546.)

    The Queen’s piety—Her rash zeal—Conversations with the King— The King offended—Conspiracy of the Catholic Leaders—The King’s distrust—A Prosecution ordered—The Bill of Indictment — The Queen unsuspecting—The Indictment in her hand—Her Distress—Her Interview with the King—Her Declaration— Rescue—Astonishment of her Enemies—Her Forgiveness of them

    CHAPTER 11.

    CLOSE OF THE REIGN OF HENRY VIII. (1546—JANUARY 1547.)

    Disgrace of Gardiner—Two Parties at the Court—The Howards and the Seymours — Ambition of the Howards— Proceedings against Norfolk and Surrey—The King’s impatience—Searches—A Divided House—Execution of Surrey—Humble Appeal of Norfolk—Inflexibility of the King—Last Hours of the King—His Death—His Will Henry VIII. to be condemned as a Man, a King, and a Christian

    BOOK 16.

    GERMANY.

    PROGRESS OF THE REFORMATION IN GERMANY. (1520-1536.)

    The Reformation a Resurrection—Pretended Unity of Rome—All kinds of Progress produced by the Reformation—John Bugenhagen—His Conversion— Named ‘Pomeranus’— The Reformation embraced by German Towns—Magdeburg, Brunswick, Hamburg—Pomeranus at Hamburg—Lubeck

    CHAPTER 2.

    THE PRINCIPALITY OF ANHALT. (1522-1532.)

    The Princes of Anhalt—Duke George—His Anxieties—His Resolution — Luther’s Letter — Prince Joachim— Wurtemberg—Westphalia— Paderborn—Hermann, Elector of Cologne—Peace of Nurnberg

    CHAPTER 3.

    TRIUMPH OF THE ANABAPTISTS OF MUNSTER. (1533.)

    Melchior Hoffmann—Bernard Rottmann—Rottmann’s Marriage— John Matthisson of Haarlem—John Bockkold of Leyden—Bernard Knipperdolling—Disorders at Munster—The Visionaries in power—Their Enemies expelled—Destruction of Books and Works of Art—John of Leyden in power—Terror

    CHAPTER 4.

    THE ANABAPTISTS OF MUNSTER. EXCESSES. (1535.)

    The King of the Universe—Pride and Luxury—A Supper—An Apostolate—Cruelty

    CHAPTER 5.

    THE ANABAPTISTS OF MUNSTER. CHASTISEMENT. (1630-1636.) Siege and Famine—Vain Efforts—The Assault—Capture of Munster—Executions—Luther’s Opinion—Three Causes of the Disorders—The Finger post

    TRIUMPH IN DEATH.

    DEATH OF LUTHER. (FEBRUARY 18, 1546.)

    Luther at Eisleben—Sense of his approaching end—Serenity of his Faith—His last testimony—His last breath

    APPENDIX.

    Transcript of ‘Indulgence’ of Leo X... 435

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