ADAM CLARKE PORTRAYED -- Volume III By James Everett
"Half a word fixed upon, at, or near the spot, is worth a cart-load of recollection." -- Gray, in a Letter to Pelgrave.
London: Published By Hamilton, Adams, & Co., Paternoster-Row.
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ADVERTISEMENT TO VOL. III.
The opening sentence of the Advertisement of the preceding Volume of the present Memoir, stands thus; -- "While the biographer has to apologize for delay in the appearance of the second volume, he has to state, that it has not been because of any indifference as to its completion, but solely on account of other engagements over which he had no control; the enumeration of which -though of some importance to himself -- is not at all calculated to interest the reader." He regrets to have to repeat this in reference to the present case; in repeating it, however, he has to state, that, though often laboring under severe indisposition, his time, in the interim, has not been Spent in listless inactivity -- having, within the last three years, traveled nearly twenty-seven thousand miles, for the purpose of preaching the gospel, attending public meetings, and making collections in aid of Christian Missions, the Education of Youth, embarrassed Chapels, &c., -- even at the hazard of life, by denying repose to a constitution unfit for the regular toil of an itinerant Minister. Add to this, accessions were constantly being made to the mass of biographical material already possessed, leading to further inquiry, and a wish -- by delaying the period of publication, to render the work as perfect as possible.
Four volumes were at first contemplated; but the writer having ultimately decided on three, while the work was yet in progress, found it difficult, without injury to his subject, to compress his materials, so as to equalize the size of the volumes; and has, therefore, rather than not give the necessary finish to the Portrait, presented his readers with between one and two hundred pages more than in the preceding volumes, without additional cost.
A studied care has been taken throughout, to trench as little as possible on the " LIFE," in 3 vols., 8vo., published " By a Member of his (Doctor Clarke's) Family;" a Life which the present biographer would regret as much to injure in the sale, as to write depreciatingly of its character. As the works abound with varied and distinct matter, they will be found to be somewhat necessary to complete, in the esteem of the reader, if not a full length portrait -- a varied and deeply interesting view of the entire MAN, in all his phases, feelings, opinions, principles, and actions.
J. E. York, July 24, 1849.
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1810 -- 1817.
"Men will be apt to call it pulling up the old foundation of knowledge: I persuade myself that the way I have pursued lays these foundations surer."- -- Anonymous.
"A knowledge of the truth is equal to the task both of discerning and of confuting all false assertions and erroneous arguments, though never before met with, if only they may be freely brought forward " -- Augustine.
"Is not from hence the Way that leadeth right To that most glorious house that glistereth bright With burning stars, and ever-living fire, Whereof the keys are to thy hand behight?" [sic] -- Spencer.
We have now arrived at a period in the life of Dr. Clarke, in which the stores and endowments of his mind were to be concentrated upon a subject of universal importance, and universal interest. The light which had for many years been gathering and expanding within him, was now to break forth in all its purity, brightness, and usefulness, upon the world: what had been read, observed, and acquired, was to be eminently consecrated to the service of God, in the contemplated benefit of mankind; and as he had never either preached or written for the sake of signalizing himself, so now he was eager to scatter around him the rich fruits of a diligent and successful seed time, for the purpose of benefiting others. The nature of the great work in which he was about to engage, (a Commentary on the Sacred Scriptures,) required great labor and research. The acuteness and strength of his intellect, the character of his studies, his deep and enlightened piety, and the preparations already made, will enable the reader to form some idea of his qualifications for the task now to be undertaken.  Instructed in the Scriptures from his youth, and deeply imbued with their spirit, he dived into the more hidden mysteries of the things of God. His extensive knowledge, too, of oriental literature and usages; his taste for all that was curious and scientific; his spirit of intelligent inquiry, which led to obtaining an insight into subjects which would escape the observation of most persons; his general philosophic knowledge; and above all, his familiarity with the varied character of men, -- with the springs and motives of action, and the intricate windings of the human heart; -- all combined to constitute him an able commentator upon a book which required the above qualifications for its proper elucidation. His object in studying the inspired volume, from beginning to end, was to discover the mind of God towards man, in reference to his restoration to the divine image. He knew the Bible was not a creed but a revelation, -- that it was not a dry analysis -- a rigid summary, in which Truth, though it looked a body, was indeed but a dead body. To his extended and ever deepening survey, truth lay there in mountain masses -- in depths, lengths, breadths, and heights, which disdained all formal, scholastic, and sectarian admeasurements. In it he saw revealed the depth, the breadth, and the fulness of God's mercy to a fallen world, glorious with the mighty theme of its redemption by the Son of his love; and this view of the sacred volume inspired his mind with a power, and energy, and elasticity of thought, which " traveled through eternity;" and thus was his intellect richly freighted for all the purposes of the vast undertaking; -- acquiring buoyancy and light as he proceeded; growing more consciously great as he became more divinely fitted for the work; and nobly surmounting the difficulties, and overcoming the discouragements, which occasionally opposed his progress. His prime object was to leave no insurmountable difficulty in the sacred word, and to set every doctrine in as full and clear light as possible. With this feeling of the importance of his work, he read the whole Hebrew Bible, so weighing every fact and word as to be able fully to enter into the spirit and design of the different writers in the inspired volume, and to see on what ground those doctrines stood which are generally received among Christians, -particularly the doctrines of the atonement, influence of the Spirit, justification by faith, purification of the heart, and duration of final rewards and punishments; and all others collaterally connected with them. He sat down to this work with an anxiously inquiring mind, determining to form his judgments as the issue of this inquiry might be; and that he might make no false conclusions, he earnestly implored direction from the "Father of Lights." Few men ever examined the Hebrew Bible as he did at this time: he had, it is true, comparative leisure; that is, he had nothing to do but to preach in the evenings, and attend to the Record Commission. As he proceeded in the examination, he noted down in proper books, every thing of importance which occurred in the examination of facts and words, and especially such things as commentators had left unnoticed, or perverted through their ignorance of the original language, or their attachment to their different theological systems, Many difficulties and perplexities attended such investigations; but he would not proceed till he had done the utmost in his power to make everything plain. This led to the close examination of all the original texts and versions, from which (especially the Samaritan, Chaldee, Targum, Septuagint, and Vulgate,) he derived much assistance. When this work was finished, he found himself in possession of some thousands of notes on every part of the Bible, all produced in regular order; and these he occasionally revised and improved, up to the period of which we now speak. And thus, as he rose above common discouragements, so he did likewise above common engagements, in the progress of this undertaking. He "viewed the Scriptures as a rich mine, which he wished to dig to the bottom of;" and while, on the one hand; we find him complaining that his "instruments were not good, nor his strength sufficient for the task," we hear him, on the other, expressing himself as " experiencing great delight in examining and illustrating the Holy Scriptures, and as having no relish for any other kind of work; believing that God, in the course of his providence, had called him especially to this one, for which he had spent many years in qualifying himself, and which had cost severe thought, in tense anxiety, and great labor."
The somewhat perilous situation of the Church in the present day, renders the study of the Scriptures binding, irrespectively, upon all; and while we feel a tribute of grateful acknowledgment to be due to those fathers of the early Church, to whom reference is ever and anon made, and who by their learning and piety threw such a halo of light on the sacred volume, and gave so much perspicuity of interpretation to many "things hard to be understood," no less tribute is due to a man of piety and letters in our own day, who comes forward and lends his hand and his heart to such an undertaking. As we would see the Scriptures universally disseminated, so would we wish them fairly interpreted; and we should as much dread the principle which would deprecate a lucid and unreserved exposition of the doctrines of the inspired volume, as we should the one which would hinder or circumscribe its circulation. The fathers of the Nicene church, to whose expository tomes we have just adverted, would afford a bright example, in this respect, to those of our own day, who, while they profess to revere their characters, and imitate their actions, choose rather to follow them in disputable points, than take them as guides in this one. Gregory, Augustine, and Chrysostom, would no more have thought of keeping back the great doctrines of the Bible from the common people, than of denouncing the twelve apostles as enthusiasts, who neither knew nor understood the things whereof they affirmed.
If the statements of Taylor, in his " Ancient Christianity," be correct, the Nicene church was far from being apostolical, or that model of perfection to which the Tractarians would fain have the modern Church to conform itself. Indeed, it is singular and melancholy to observe, that Christianity had scarcely alighted upon our world, ere it was disfigured and corrupted in various ways by the depravity of men. Nothing can present a greater contrast to the manly wisdom of the apostles, than the puerile, senseless rites prescribed by some of the fathers! But we recur to our inestimable source of consolation, " The word of the Lord liveth and abideth for ever!"
Notwithstanding the repeated entreaties of his friends, Dr. Clarke delayed, until the close of the year 1809, to appear formally before the public, to solicit attention to his forthcoming Commentary, which, however, he then announced in the following manner:-- "The HOLY BIBLE, containing the Old and New Testaments: the Text carefully printed from the most correct copies of the present Authorized Translation; including the Marginal Readings, and Parallel Texts. With a Commentary and Critical Notes; designed as a help to a better understanding of the Sacred Writings." But even then, the probability was against its appearance, had it not been for a trifling incident which occurred, and which may be classed with many other apparently insignificant forerunners of important events. Supping one evening in company with Messrs. Butterworth, Bulmer, Middleton, and some other friends, conversation turned upon the subject in question; when the Doctor was induced to mention the progress he had made in the work. This led to a renewal of the entreaties of the party, that he should immediately proceed with its publication; when Mr. Butterworth proposed to take upon himself the whole of the responsibility. The result was, the immediate issue of a prospectus, a copy of which will be found in Dr. Clarke's " Miscellaneous Works," vol. xi. p. 466, in which he gives a minute narrative of his labors. On this followed a letter from Mr. Butterworth, dated January, 1810, addressed chiefly to the Wesleyan body.
"I lately published a prospectus of Dr. Adam Clarke's Commentary on the Old and New Testament, which will, I expect, be stitched in the Methodist and Evangelical Magazines, the Christian Observer, and the Eclectic Review, for the next month. I now beg leave to solicit your kind assistance, in giving further publicity to the work in the circle of your acquaintance; and as it is very desirable to ascertain the probable number of copies which may be wanted, I shall esteem it an additional favor, if before, or during the month of April next, you could, through the superintendent preacher of your circuit, oblige me with information of the number of copies likely to sell in your class or neighborhood. An impression has been received, that this will be merely a critical, learned, voluminous, and expensive Commentary: it may, therefore, be necessary again to refer to the advertisement, in which Dr. C. expressly states, that in his work, 'the great doctrines of the Law and Gospel of God, are defined, illustrated, and defended;' and that 'the whole is applied to the important purposes of practical Christianity and vital godliness:' and for a more particular view of the leading objects of the work, I beg leave to refer you to the third page of the prospectus. Most certainly, much learning, original information, and sound criticism may be expected from Adam Clarke, and that his work should not consist of mere common-place remarks, nor of unworthy compilation from other authors: but it would be injurious to his character, and to the cause he has so deeply at heart, to suppose that he should merely present a collection of dry, learned criticisms to the Christian world, and not intend his work for the particular benefit of families, and private individuals; when it is so well known, that to labor zealously, not for the display of his learning, but for the salvation and edification of souls, has been the chief business of his life. With respect to his criticisms, Dr. C. states in his Prospectus, that he has endeavored to render them as 'plain and intelligible as possible;' so that 'the most uninformed reader cannot stumble at anything of this kind he may meet;' and that 'nothing is introduced from foreign languages without a translation.' Instead of the work being 'very voluminous,' Dr. C. pledges himself in his prospectus, 'that it shall not:' and adds, 'I labor with all my might and skill, to say as little as possible on each part, as far as is consistent with perspicuity; and to avoid, as much as possible, even the appearance of encumbering the sacred text.' It remains for me to say a few words on the expense. All who are acquainted with Dr. Clarke, are well aware of the noble generosity, and entire disinterestedness of his character; and that to make money has been the furthest object from his thoughts. He states, in the note to the second page of his octavo prospectus, that he has given away four different collections of Notes and Observations, which he had made on different parts of Scripture: and it was in consequence of some of his notes appearing in print, that he was at length persuaded to hasten the publication of his present work. As to myself, it is true I have undertaken to get it printed; but I can assure you, I do not intend to gain any profit by it whatever. My great objects are, to give the work a wide circulation, in order that it may do as much good as possible, and that some little provision may be made from it, towards the support of our friend -- his wife and six children, as his state of health renders him unable to take the usual labor of a circuit. It is expected that the whole of the Bible and Commentary will be published at about six, but not to exceed eight guineas; and as it will be published in parts, at distant periods, price only 10s. 6d. each, and also in shilling numbers, to be taken in once a week, fortnight, month, or whenever convenient, it is presumed that the generality of people may be able, in due time, to accomplish the purchase. But, as the cheapness of the work must in a great measure depend upon the number of copies printed, it becomes very important to enlarge the number as much as possible. A larger number, as all know who are acquainted with the printing business, can be executed at a much less expense in proportion, than a small number: and it is intended, in the course of publication, to give a larger quantity of letter-press for the money, than is stated in the proposals, if the charges of the work should admit of it.
" I am, with much respect, your affectionate and obedient servants -- JOSEPH BUTTERWORTH.
"P.S. The names of subscribers will be received by any of the Methodist preachers in town and country; but no money to be paid till the delivery of the work."
Though Dr. Clarke objected to subscriptions, as noticed in another case, he was not opposed, as a prudential measure, to the act of canvassing for subscribers, though one of the last men to appear himself in the Work. From this he was saved, through the voluntary and kind intervention of Mr. Butterworth, who was, in a brief space, favored with a list of 1600 subscribers, among whom were some of the nobility -- Lord Teighmouth being among the foremost, several members of the Established Church, Dissenters, and others. With this anticipatory tribute paid to the author, the work was sent to press nearly with the commencement of the year, and such were the sanguine hopes of success entertained by Mr. Butterworth, that 10,000 copies were ordered to be struck off, on common paper, 4to demy; and 1000 of the fine, or large paper copy: nor were his expectations too enlarged, for 750 additional copies had to be printed of the Pentateuch, and also of St. Matthew's Gospel, of the common copy, as well as an additional number of the large paper impression. With all the Doctor's anxiety and care to moderate the size and price of the work, the common paper copy was published at £14., and the fine at £23. It was found necessary, also, to vary the price of the different parts, by way of preserving the books, gospels, and epistles commented on, entire; and hence some were somewhat above, and others below the standard price originally proposed by Mr. Butterworth.
Another reason why the Commentary was published in parts, besides that of suiting the convenience of purchasers, was, the Doctor's state of health -- scarcely daring to calculate on its completion; observing to the writer, that he never considered himself pledged to the public to complete it, and that it was less necessary to do so, from the fact of each book being distinct and perfect in itself. So far down as 1816, he stated to the biographer, that it was not his intention to publish anything either on the Song of Solomon or the Apocalypse; not only because of the difficulty he had to satisfy his own mind on several points, but from a fear that he should not be able to render these books sufficiently instructive to general readers. After making up his mind to furnish notes on both, the Rev. W. Jay of Bath, who met him at Mr. Butterworth's, said, " Allow me, Dr. Clarke, to request you not to disturb the Song of Solomon; many devout persons consider it to be a conversation between Christ and his Church; that opinion, to say the least, is pious and harmless, and it is a pity to unsettle their faith." The Doctor replied, -- "To such interpretations I can attach no degree of credit; the book cannot be considered in any other light than that of a poems -- a point which is capable of being illustrated by expressions, &c., employed by the Eastern poets; and unless a direct revelation from God stated this to refer to CHRIST, and that to the CHURCH, I could not adopt the mode of interpretation given to it by several of our expositors."
 On the publication of the Doctor's prospectus, a writer in the Christian Observer, whose initials were T. S.,  took exception to the following passage, " the Septuagint was the version to which our blessed Lord and his apostles had constant recourse, and from which they made all their quotations." In a letter to the conductors of that excellent periodical, dated May 26, 1810, and which is inserted in Dr. Clarke's " Miscellaneous Works," vol. x, p. 368, he not only established his position, but with fine temper, smartness, and scholarship, removed the ground from beneath the feet of his opponent. Since then -- though not precisely in the same way, or to the same extent, both Sir Lancelot C. L. Brenton, Bart., and Dr. Wall, have rendered good service to biblical students. One great question connected with it, and which, as a critic rightly observes, is to be decided, is the extent to which Hellenization was carried in central and western Asia, under the Macedonian empire of Alexander and his successors. Egypt, under the Ptolemies, is the portion of that empire of which we have the most perfect account, and there can be little doubt that the language and literature became perfectly Greek. There is evidence that the Seleucidæ endeavored to bring about the same change in their Syrian kingdom; and though they were not equally successful, we find, from the New Testament, that the Greek was the commonly spoken language in Palestine itself; so that when Christ on the cross made an exclamation in Syrian, (Eli, Eli, lama sabacthani,) the bystanders did not understand his words, (they said, "He calleth for Elias.") It is noticed as a remarkable circumstance, that St. Paul on one occasion addressed a Jewish mob in the Hebrew tongue; and far the greater part, if not the whole of the New Testament was written in Greek. Then comes the fact, that the quotations made from the Old Testament in the New, as shown by Dr. Clarke, are taken from the Septuagint, or, if even driven to that, some other Greek version, and not in any demonstrable case from the original Hebrew. It is not necessary to extend this inquiry further, else it would be easy to show, that the Jews who settled in Alexandria exercised a very decided influence over their brethren in Palestine, and that this influence increased the tendency to Hellenism, which it was the policy of the Macedonian rulers to establish.
In addition to the original Hebrew and Greek languages, with others, ancient and modern, Dr. Clarke made free use in his notes of a fine old M. S. Bible, attributed by some to Wicliff, and by others to an older translator, and which he highly valued for its simplicity -- as being in many cases, (though in the main taken from the Vulgate,) much more faithful to the meaning of the Hebrew text, than our own version -- and as one of the finest specimens of our mother tongue, spoken in these countries in MCCCLX, which was about the period assigned for its translation. This black-letter treasure was purchased for him by Mr. Baynes, when in London, in 1795, at the sale of the library of Dr. Fell, Principal of the Dissenting College of Hackney, at a mere nominal price. Mr. Baines had only one competitor -- a gold-beater, who wished to have it merely for the sake of its parchment leaves. On the day of sale, though weighing several stones, the Doctor shouldered it with joyous heart, and with equally joyous step, carried it from Paternoster-Row to Spitalfields -- observing, that he "sweat under the heavenly load." He took great delight in directing the attention of the writer to different passages in this venerable specimen of a student's toil. 
The first part of his Commentary issued from the press in the summer of 1810, Comprising the whole of Genesis; -- and the "General Preface" which is an elaborate composition, and shows an unusual range of severely critical reading, bearing date, July 2nd of that year. Though exceptions were taken to detached portions of the work, yet, no one (which he expressed as affording him great satisfaction) ventured to object to his plan. One of the subjects on which he was the most fiercely assailed was that of the nachash, chap. in; but even here, objection was more frequently employed than argument, ridicule than fair criticism. On opposition assuming a somewhat serious and scholar-like form, in the " Classical Journal," he stepped forward, and, in the sixth number of that work, published what he entitled, " A Reply to various Critiques on the First Part of Dr. A. Clarke's Bible," which has since been transferred to his " Miscellaneous Works," vol. x, p. 383. He disliked controversy, and rarely entered into it; but he never appeared more the victor, than in this argument. His reply not only shows his learning, discrimination, force, and tact, but also affords ample proof that he never advanced an opinion without good ground upon which to rest it; and never maintained one, which he had not skill to defend, -- whether, in every instance, satisfactorily to others, is another thing. But a man is always entitled to respect, who can furnish a reason for his belief.
The reader will be gratified by the introduction of the following spirited and characteristic letter on the subject of the critique upon the nachash: it was written to Mr. Butterworth, immediately after the Doctor's receipt of a proof sheet of the review sent to him by Mr. Valpy, the editor of the " Classical Journal."
My very dear Brother, -- Mr. V. has sent me the accompanying sheet, with which I have been so long threatened. And what is it? A vast deal of apparent learning to prove that a snake is a snake; and that nachash signifies a serpent, which I have never denied. And after all his quotations in Latin, Greek, Spanish, Samaritan, Hebrew, Ethiopic, and Syriac, he has not removed a single difficulty, nor given one solid answer to even the weakest of my objections; and what is most curious of all, he concludes with the absurd story from an idle Rabbin, and echoed by an apocryphal gospeller, that "the serpent once had feet, but God cut them off!" Against his Hindoo stories, what a noble set off I could make, by the worship of the ape in Egypt, -- one of the most ancient of all their objects of idolatry; and this worship, in a country contiguous to the place where the awful catastrophe happened, and a country where almost all the ancient usages of the inhabitants of the earth had taken refuge. I believe the piece was never written in Oxford: I am pretty sure it is the offspring of Great Goram-Street disguised: it convicts itself by the acknowledgment that the writer had not the Apocryphal Gospel at hand: a misnomer surely, in the presence of the Bodleian and Radcliffe libraries! However, if he had sent to me, I would have lent it to him. Instead of signing his name, he puts the Arabic word altefteesh, which signifies Investigator or Inquirer. For all HIM, nachash keeps his place.
Yours affectionately, -- A. CLARKE.
His veneration for the word of God was rarely exceeded, -- extending to its simple typography. A servant wishing to prop the door of a room open one day, where the writer was seated with him, took a Bible and placed it on the floor. "Poor Margaret," said the Doctor, "has no religion, or she would have paid more respect to the book of God, than put it to that use. When I was a boy, Bibles were comparatively scarce; but of the scores who possessed them, not one would have been found to treat the word of God with disrespect." After some remarks on the subject, in which notes were compared and found to harmonize, he intimated that he could not endure any portion of the Bible to be devoted to any mean use, and was in the habit of treating paper with respect, that had upon it the names of any of the persons of the Holy Trinity.  While preaching in his usual style at Wigan, in Lancashire once, he paused a few seconds, and without the least air of ostentation, said -- his eyes beaming meanwhile with benignant pleasure on an attentive and rapt auditory, -- "Some of you may have seen Adam Clarke before; -- more of you may have heard of him, -- and among other things, you may have been told, that he has studied hard, and read much; but he has to tell you, that he never met with but ONE book in his life, that he could hug to his heart, and it is this blessed Book of God," (taking up the large Bible at the time, which had lain open before him, and placing it to his breast, with the endearing embrace of a mother clasping her child to her bosom.) The effect was electrical; a simultaneous burst of half-stifled applause was heard through the whole congregation, -- men, women, and children weeping, while his own eyes were brimmed with tears. All was simple, natural, touching, sublime!
An opportunity has been afforded, vol. ii., p. 124, of noticing his "Succinct Account of Polyglott Bibles." That account, though published in his Bibliographical Dictionary, was slightly remodeled, and printed in a separate form for private circulation, -- from seventy to one hundred copies in all. One of these copies was presented to the Bishop of Peterborough, who, in his Lectures, pronounced it the best work extant on the subject. Another copy -- though the Doctor knew not by what means, -- found its way into France, and was characterized by a French critic, who regretted its limited circulation, as a work of uncommon value. Though the Doctor had long been impressed with the desirableness of a new edition of the London Polyglott Bible, and would have been ready to aid such an undertaking, it was not till now, (1810,) that he entertained sanguine hopes of such a work being seriously entered upon and accomplished. Having been brought into an intimate acquaintance with the Rev. Josiah Pratt, in consequence of their union with the British and Foreign Bible Society, it was often the subject of conversation. And besides, he knew that Mr. Pratt had long been before the world on the subject; stating in the first volume of his
Bibliographical Dictionary, p. 239, which was published in 1802, -- "The Rev. J. Pratt has lately issued proposals for a new edition of a Polyglott Bible; in which he promises, that with the greatest exactness the text of the Septuagint will be printed from the original edition, published in folio at Rome in 1587, by order of Sixtus V., under the care of Cardinal Carafa:" adding with regret, "but this work of Mr. Pratt's does not appear to go forward." The following conversations at a subsequent period, will throw some light on this interesting subject.
Dr. Clarke. -- "Did I ever furnish you with a tract, entitled 'A Plan and Specimen of Biblia Polyglotta Britannica, or an enlarged and improved edition of the London Polyglott Bible, with Castell's Heptaglott Lexicon?' "
J. Everett. -- "No, Sir." Dr. C. -- "One was sent to the British Museum, with a view to preserve it; another, to one of the Scotch Universities, the receipt of which was acknow-ledged by the professor with a vote of thanks."
J. E. -- "By whom was the plan drawn?" Dr. C. -- "Mr. Pratt drew one plan on imperial paper, and I drew another on a smaller scale -- measuring, as I proceeded, the quantum of room required in a given space -- some languages requiring more than others, as the Hebrew, Greek, Latin, Persian, Arabic, &c., &c. -and noticing with precision the proportions which the several languages bore to each other."
J. E. -- "It must have been a heavy tax on your time, viewed in connection with the Government Records, reading and correcting the proof sheets of your Commentary, together with other engagements, among which the demands of the Bible Society were not the least." Dr. C. -- "Industry, order, and early rising, will enable a man to go through a great deal of work. To Mr. Pratt, the work was comparatively easy; his mind was of a highly analytic order, and adapted to such pursuits."
J. E. -- "Were the prospectuses widely circulated." Dr. C. -- "They were confined chiefly to the literati at home and on the continent. A professor on the continent engaged to take the Arabic, and I pledged myself to the superintendence of the Hebrew and the Persian." J. E. -- "Were you well supported at home?" Dr. C. -- "Our first meeting, after having talked the matter over with a few literary friends, and made the way plain by a few preliminary measures, was held in the house of Lord Teignmouth. In addition to his lordship, Mr. Pratt and myself were met by Dr. Burgess, Bishop of St. David's, Archdeacon Wrangham, Professor Shakespeare, and Dr. Williams of Rotherham: at this meeting, it was agreed that a specimen sheet should be sent to all the lay lords of the land, to the bishops, and to the different members of his majesty's government; the first to be furnished with specimens by Lord Teignmouth, the second by Dr. Burgess, and the third by myself, through the right honorable Charles Abbot, Speaker of the House of Commons."
J. E. -- "Can you form any idea of the length of time such a work would take to complete it?" Dr. C. -- "Seven years."
J. E. -- "Great expense would be incurred from the mere lapse of time." Dr. C. -- "The sum required was calculated at £100,000. Several gentlemen came forward with munificent offers, some of whom you know. Mr. Butterworth promised £500 towards the expense of the first volume, and £50 per annum for a period of seven years. Mr. Robert Speare also promised £50 per annum during the same period, and Dr. Williams £30."
J. E. -- "Were any of the Bishops in favor of the project, besides the Bishop of St. David's?" Dr. C. -- "The Bishops of Durham and Carlisle were both disposed to assist, and to be members of the committee; but the others, though they saw and felt the desirableness of it, were unwilling to work; and being addressed by some influential men to defer it awhile, in order to see whether parliament would be induced to take it up, with a view at the same time to prevent an application to His Majesty, who was supposed to have too many works in hand to support it, the undertaking was checked. At one time, I had serious thoughts of going to the throne myself; and I have some reason to believe, that His Majesty would have sanctioned it."
The Doctor then enumerated the different languages in which the work was proposed to be published, and furnished the names of several persons who had engaged to assist in the literary department; expressing his confidence in securing the aid of his Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. The object of the Doctor and Mr. Pratt was, as expressed by them in the plan published on the occasion, to render the work a repository of the purest copies of the original texts, and ancient versions, which could be formed from all the accessible sources of criticism at the respective periods of publication, constituting, in consequence, standard texts; exhibiting, at the same time, the texts and versions in such order and connection, as to supply the best means of interpreting the Scriptures. One argument instituted in favor of the object was, the more recent discovery of invaluable copies of the originals, together with ancient versions not known to exist, the one having been diligently collated with the other, and thus correcting and illustrating the sacred text. They further observed, in developing their plan, that, "In such an undertaking, besides the additions which may be made to the LONDON POLYGLOTT, and the correction of the texts and versions from all the authorities hitherto discovered, the Latin translations of the ancient versions, well known to be very faulty, and often to have misled students, must be entirely revised, and the arrangement of the whole may be so much improved as to exhibit, on a single opening of the book, all matters connected with the texts, versions, and various readings of any passage; instead of having to turn to different volumes, as is the case in preceding Polyglotts." Desirable, however, as the work was, and honorable as it would have been to the projectors, and even to the nation itself, it was finally abandoned, -- an event regretted by no one more deeply than Dr. Clarke.
Mixed up with the conversations on the London Polyglott, were some remarks on the close attention paid to it by the Rev. Samuel Wesley, (Rector of Epworth,) whose copy was destroyed on the burning of his house in 1709, and who himself projected an edition of the Holy Scriptures, including the original texts and principal versions on a more contracted plan, and in a more portable form; of which he gave some account to his son John at Oxford, in 1725. What the full nature and extent of his scheme was, the Doctor was unable clearly to ascertain: but his language is, "It seems he had contemplated a copious list of various readings; intending particularly to show how the Vulgate Version (proposed by St. Jerome to be taken from the Hebrew text) differed from the original; and how the Alexandrian and Vatican copies of the Septuagint differed from each other; and also to point out the variations between them and the ancient Greek Versions of Symmachus and Theodotian, together with other existing fragments of the Hexapla of Origen. He appears to have intended also to show the variations between the Hebrew and Samaritan Pentateuch. He tells us he had, in the space of one year, gone four times through the Pentateuch. By this I suppose he meant, reading -- i. The Hebrew text; 2. The Chaldee paraphrases of Ben Uzziel and Onkelos; 3. The Septuagint; and 4. The Vulgate; and to read each of these critically, and the whole in twelve months, was no mean labor." 
He stated that the one projected by Mr. Wesley was similar to the Polyglott published by Mr. S. Bagster, in a 4to, 8vo., and 12mo. size; the Old Testament comprising, at one view, first, the Hebrew text, with points; secondly, the authorized English version, with various readings and parallel texts; thirdly, the Greek version of the Seventy; and fourthly, the Vulgate Latin: and the New Testament comprehending, first, the Greek text; secondly, the ancient Syriac; thirdly, the Latin Vulgate; and fourthly, the authorized English version as above. Being asked by a friend his opinion of Bagster's publication, he said, "To answer you catachrestically [catachresis n. (pl. catachreses) an incorrect use of words. -- Oxford Dict.] -- applying a molehill to a mountain--the miniature to magnitude -- and covering the earth over with a white surplice, it may be called a POLYGLOTT." The same person speaking of Lexicons, the Doctor observed, "The one published by Junius is excellent; Dr. Johnson preferred Stephens, but he was not sufficiently acquainted with Junius."
Inseparably connected with Dr. Clarke's acquisition of various languages was his appropriation of each to its own use, and his affixing to each its just amount of value. A writer quoting Pococke, Hunt, Ockley, and Schultens, as authorities in support of an opinion of his own, -- viz., that a knowledge of the Arabic was necessary to a thorough understanding of the Hebrew, and that a complete knowledge of the Scriptures could be obtained only by a familiar acquaintance with the Arabic prose and verse writers, -- the Doctor replied, "However respectable the names may be by which this opinion is sanctioned, I feel no reluctance in pronouncing it rash and unsupported. A man may understand the whole phraseology of the Hebrew Bible, who knows not a letter of the Arabic alphabet; and though I readily grant that a knowledge of Arabic may be of considerable service in supplying deficient roots, whose derivatives alone remain in the Hebrew Bible, yet, as to the general understanding of the Hebrew Scriptures, I must maintain, that a knowledge of Hellenistic Greek, and especially that of the version of the Septuagint, will avail more toward a thorough understanding of the sacred text, than all the Arabic in Hariri or the Koran. Of all the books in the Old Testament, the book of Job is the only one to which Arabic learning can be successfully applied, from the number of Arabisms which it contains; yet even here it does comparatively little, as is pretty evident from the excessive labors of Schultens and Chapelow on this book, both eminent Arabic scholars and critics, who nevertheless, in the judgment of those best qualified to form a correct opinion on the subject, have contributed little, very little, toward the elucidation of the abstruse parts of this very ancient book."
Difficult as it may appear, for a man in the midst of literary labors, and crowned with literary honors, to maintain the dignified simplicity which marked a comparatively obscure period of his life, we yet find the subject of our memoir holding his onward course with precisely the same affability of deportment, and the same singleness of purpose, as formerly; "integrity and uprightness preserved him," and "the fear of the Lord was his confidence." Simplicity was a characteristic of his intellect; the supreme object of his life was the glory of God, and to this, all his studies, and his thinkings, were made tributary. He was ever erect to seize on things spiritual and eternal; instead of panting for wealth and fame, and creeping to gather the dust of the earth, we find him longing to become acquainted with those mysteries which now only astonish and perplex; his mind ever intent on the realities of things eternal, and its energies employed in the discovery of truth, moral and divine -- grasping after the indefinite and the infinite -- -living amid forms of perfect beauty -- delighting itself in contemplations certain of being realized, and the realization certain of exceeding not only all the honors and highest pleasures of this state, but of all the imaginings his intellect could form in this confined and obscure region! It was this elevation of mind which kept him out of the profitless and harassing arena of controversy, when in several instances challenged to the battle. "I have a great work to do and cannot come down to you," was the usual frame of his mind. "In the genuine spirit of ruthless bigotry" he observed to a friend, "Mr. H. has been attacking me, finding abundance of faults with my Commentary, not one of which has he proved; but my maxim, you know, is always to answer such persons kindly, -- - -- having reason to believe that by this method some have not only been softened but made ashamed of themselves. I find it is not only impossible to please everybody, but that it is scarcely possible to please anybody. Woe to him who writes a Commentary, and consults his own judgment and conscience in the work! How different a temper does real Christianity exhibit! All hail, thou truth of Jehovah, be thou established for ever!" "Doctor," observed a fair friend one day, "your Doctorate does not appear to have made any change in your manners, you are just as kind and condescending as ever to us." "I feel neither the better nor the worse for it," he replied, with a mixture of cheerfulness and more deeply-toned feeling; "even if it may have been the occasion of procuring an increase of notice in some quarters, I could have done very well without it; I have more honor than ever I expected, and have no desire to go further; to secure the honor which comes from God, and which will alone stand me in stead when the heavens and the earth are passed away, is that which I am striving after; I wish ever to be guided by God, and to take no steps but those pointed out by his providence; I might now get both wealth and honor, but I dare not take the path which leads to them; I have stood in the day of adversity, but prosperity might bring overwhelming temptations; from the love of money I have hitherto been saved, and honors I never sought, -- they have been pressed upon me, while endeavoring to escape them."
How admirably in keeping with our foregoing remarks, is this beautiful exhibition of Christian feeling!
In 1810, the Doctor was requested by the Committee of the British and Foreign Bible Society to look out for such works as would be useful to the Society's translators in India, while proceeding with their important labors; when he drew up a list of more than fifty articles, which he classified under nine distinct heads, stating them to be works that would. come into every question of general sacred criticism, and which works were approved by the committee, though two -namely, Herodotus and Diodorus Siculus, were afterwards omitted at the request of the Rev. Joseph Hughes. 
It was about this time also, that Dr. Clarke became personally acquainted with Miss Mary Freeman Shepherd, -- a lady, at this period, well stricken in years -- possessed of a masculine mind -- considerable acuteness -- a vivid imagination -- a thorough knowledge of several languages -- eccentric -- noble spirited -- and, withal, a liberal member of the Church of Rome. She was co-partner, in early life, with the famous Alexander Cruden, in correcting Woodfall's Public Advertiser, of which eleven thousand copies were published daily; she also translated the foreign mails, from 1754 to 1759. Previously to Miss Shepherd's personal acquaintance with Dr. Clarke, which was brought about by Miss Sarah, the daughter of Mr. Charles Wesley, she had, in different instances, owing to her high regard for Mr. John Wesley, rendered good service to the Methodists. Dr. Coke, in the autumn of 1791, visited Paris, at the request of Lady Huntingdon, who had received a letter from two English schoolmasters, informing her ladyship, that if a preaching-room could be procured, it would soon be filled with attentive hearers. The Doctor, accompanied by Mr. Gibson and Mr. De Quetteville, engaged to purchase a suppressed church, capable of containing about 2000 or 2500 persons, for £120, and hired a room for a month, close by the Seine, till it should be ready for the reception of a congregation. He soon found that he had been deceived by the representations of the schoolmasters, who had adopted this expedient to awaken attention to the English language; and not being able to obtain hearers, was compelled to abandon his intention of benefiting the Parisians. But how to procure, in an honorable way, a revocation of the bargain he had entered into for the church, was beyond his ken. It providentially turned out, that when he advertised in the public prints, his intention to preach in Paris, the advertisement caught the eye of Miss F. Shepherd, who had known something of Dr. Coke in London, and who for some time resident in France, had retired to a convent, in order to escape the miseries and dangers that accompanied the Revolution. On recollecting his name, she sent him and his companions an invitation to dine with her at the convent, in the Fauxbourg St. Germaine. Of this they accepted; and on their arrival, were received with the utmost politeness, and entertained according to the established manners of the place.
In the course of conversation, Dr. Coke named to her his disappointment on visiting Paris, arising from an inability to procure a congregation; and stated also his wish to have the church, which he had purchased, taken off his hands. On hearing this, she caused a letter to be written, addressed to the principal agent of the convention, who, with many others, had the management of the suppressed churches, abbeys, and convents, committed to his care. In this letter, the peculiar embarrassment of her countryman -- (for Miss F. S. was born in England, though descended on the maternal side from the ancient and noble house of the Falletti of Piedmont, formerly sovereign princes in Italy, and herself educated in a convent at Rome) -- respecting the church was set forth; who, it was stated, had been deceived by a letter that had promised to a Protestant minister a congregation, which could not be procured. And finally, as it would not be to the disadvantage of the agent to annul the bargain, he would oblige the writer, and all who were interested in the issue, by again taking the church into his possession. Furnished with this letter, Dr. Coke repaired to the agent, and soon found that it had not been written in vain. With a degree of politeness that could scarcely have been expected, the latter made no difficulty in retracing his former steps, and complying with the wishes which Dr. Coke expressed. Instead of demanding money, he only requested his attendance a few times at the office, that he might ratify by his signature the various formularies through which they were obliged to pass. This circumstance is recorded, as one instance among many, of the catholicity of this noble minded woman, from whose intelligent, literary, and racy correspondence, Dr. Clarke derived so much pleasure.
Well would it be, if the same catholic feeling were also displayed by some of the members of the Anglican Church, from whom the Wesleyans are now experiencing much annoyance in cases of burial and baptism: and which annoyance is the more remarkable, when it is known, that at this period of the Doctor's personal history, it was determined, by Sir John Nicholl, in the Ecclesiastical Court, Doctors' Commons, that all Dissenters and Methodists and their children, who had been baptized either by laity or clergy, were legally entitled to Christian burial, according to the RITEs of the CHURCH OF ENGLAND; and all clergymen refusing to bury, were liable to certain heavy penalties. This decision ought to have some influence upon men who hold the sacred office, in bridling an intolerant feeling. But even apart from the respect due to the laws of the land, a moderate share of human sympathy and common decency, ought to prevent men from carrying any litigious feeling -- any little ceremonial differences, to the verge of the grave, where parents, friends, and relatives, have the cup of sorrow dealt out to them to the full, -- even running over, in the act of committing "bone of their bone and flesh of their flesh" to the dust. Let the reader imagine what the feelings of such a father as the subject of the memoir would have been, on finding, as he approached the grave, that the clergyman refused to bury his child, because of its having been baptized in a Methodist chapel: a man who, many years after burying a lovely boy named after himself, could say -- as if passing through a part of the process on every revived recollection of the occasion, -- "I have buried many another person's child with resignation, and exhorted the bereaved parents to look to God; but, ah! it is not so easy to bury our own children; I felt as though I was committing myself to the grave, on committing my ADAM to it: old Adam seemed to enter it with young Adam -- the one only a brief space before the other." This cost him so much, that he would never name another child after himself, and confessed that he had a feeling on the subject bordering upon superstition. Without dwelling on what is otherwise a mere passing remark, and surrounding the subject with similarly painful associations, it is to be hoped, that a more charitable state of feeling will be cultivated among the different sections of the Protestant Church, when we have such an example of Christian charity presented to us in Mary Freeman Shepherd -- a member of the Church of Rome! 
Part of May, the whole of June, and the greater part of July, 1811, were spent on a tour through part of Wales, and a considerable portion of Ireland, -- the Doctor, Mr. Butterworth, and Mr. J. W. Clarke, the Doctor's eldest son, forming the party. Having rendered the tour subservient to his official engagement with government, in the examination of various diplomatic documents, and the writer having noticed some little incidents, as received from himself, in connection with this visit to his native land, in his summary remarks on the preparations for a Continuation of Rymer's Foedera, only such points of interest shall be embraced in this tour as may seem to justify a more special reference to some of its details.
On arriving in Dublin, the subject of the memoir was soon found in his old place of resort -- the Library of Trinity College. Here, ill connection with Dr. Barratt, he spent some time, as he had done on a former occasion, to which reference has been made, in an examination of the Codex Rescriptus, together with the Codex Montfortii, or Codex Dublinensis, cited by Erasmus, as previously noticed, under the title of the Codex Britannicus; the result of which examination he has given to the world in his "Sacred Literature," vol. 1, p. 71, 8vo.; and in a critique in the "Eclectic Review," on Barratt's "Evangelium Secutiduin Mathæum," since transferred to his "Miscellaneous Works," vol. x. p. 178, &c.; in both of which, but especially the latter, there is a great deal of curious, recondite matter, and fine manly criticism, the perusal of which will be mean treat to the reader. The conductors of the "Eclectic," were anxious, on the publication of the critique, to present a copy of it to Dr. Barratt; and naming their wish to Dr. Clarke, the latter said, "I have no objection." A Codex Rescriptus, as some readers may know, is a parchment from which the original writing has been partially or wholly erased, and on which a new work has been written in its stead; its legibility, therefore, necessarily varies; rarely happening, however, that the former writing is so completely erased, as not to leave some traces; and in a few instances, both writings are legible. Montfaucon found a MS. in the Colbert library, which had been written about the eighth century, and originally contained the works of St. Dionysius; new matter had been written over it, three or four centuries afterwards, and both continued legible. The first of the manuscripts here noticed, as examined by Dr. Clarke, contained the gospel according to St. Matthew, which had been partially obliterated to make way for a work of Isidore. "Some of the characters," said the Doctor, "were scarcely perceptible to me; but Dr. Barratt had a peculiar eye for these things, and could take in the whole." The Anatomy House in the Park, and the Library, comprising 68,946 volumes, formed a fine range for him while in Dublin. In addition to his occupying the pulpit in his own chapel, he attended divine service, and received the sacrament at St. Patrick's Cathedral.
The travelers took in their way to Armagh, Drogheda, Dundalk, the district distinguished for the Battle of the Boyne, and Newton Hamilton. The battle-field, in consequence of various associations, noticed in the early part of the Doctor's history, was like enchanted ground. Here he lingered -- ruminated -- measured distances -- and dilated on the struggle and its results. After leaving the field, he observed to the writer, that they overtook a poor woman, with a little boy, about six years of age, who was anxious to proceed to Dundalk. The travelers commiserating her circumstances, took them into the carriage. On paying the driver at the end of the stage, he touched his hat, and said, "There are two more to pay for, please your honors." "What," it was pleasantly replied, "did we not hire the conveyance, and had we not a right to do with it as we pleased, as to the number of passengers? We took in the poor woman and her boy, it is true; but that concerned us more than you, as we submitted to inconvenience through it." "It is no matter, your honors," it was responded, "it is customary to pay." They then took him on another tack, to try his sympathies. "We did it as a matter of charity," said they. "Ah, your honors, and sure the Lord Almighty will settle with you for that same." Here the travelers were posed; and however they relished the wit of the driver, they were not at all disposed to push him any further, when referred to such a source for requital.
At Armagh, anciently the metropolis of the county, and still the seat of the consistorial court of His Grace the Archbishop, who is the primate and metropolitan of all Ireland, the travelers remained a few days -- finding the accommodations agreeable. Being importuned by the friends to give them a sermon, and the Wesleyan chapel being small, the Doctor preached in the large Presbyterian meeting-house, which was obligingly lent for the occasion. The congregation was large, and several ministers and persons of condition were present. The text was taken from 1 Thess. v. 16, 17, 18. The germ of this discourse is to be found in his notes on the passage. On this occasion, he defined, expounded, and enforced the whole, with uncommon freedom, energy, and unction, -- an unction, of which, a hearer adverting to it more than twenty years afterward, had a vivid recollection. This same gentleman, dilating on this visit of the Doctor to his native land, stated, that himself and many others followed the party to Charlemont and Portadown, to which places they proceeded from Armagh. At both of these towns he preached; but the chapel in the former was unable to contain one-fourth of the assembled multitudes, and a respectful request was forthwith sent to the commanding officer for permission to preach in one of the yards, which was courteously granted. The day was stormy, and the place itself not one of the most religiously promising, yet the people assembled, -- many of them coming a distance of fifteen and twenty miles. One circumstance annoyed the Doctor, -- he was announced as "The religious and learned Dr. Adam Clarke;" at a fitting period of the service, with a view of checking the inconsiderate flattery, he told the people, that a person had been announced to preach who, in the proper sense of the terms used, was not now standing before them; then proceeding to define the terms, and giving to each its highest sense of meaning, he told them, that so explained, they would not apply to himself; while, at the same time, he thanked God for the portion of each which he possessed, and urged his hearers to strive, at any rate, after a higher state of religious privilege and attainment than they at present enjoyed. Leaving these and other intermediate places, we proceed to the scenes of his birth, and of his childhood, and behold him perambulating the grounds and villages adjacent, such as Magherafelt, Desart Martin, Maghera, Garvah, &c., This, and two subsequent visits, furnished some conversational remarks, which may here be introduced.
J. Everett. -- "Did you find any person resident on the spot, Doctor, who knew you in childhood?" Dr. Clarke. -- "An aunt was still living, nearly one hundred years old, from whom I elicited several little incidents respecting early history. She was at the expense of annually painting the tombstones of my uncle and other relatives, which, through her care, presented inscriptions as entire as they were fifty years before, when I saw them. These tombstones I was somewhat puzzled to find at first, though I had a recollection of their form, and how they lay, -- only, I took one side of the ground instead of the other, which excited the surprise of my aunt, to whom every thing was familiar, and who forgot to make allowance for childhood and the lapse of years between."
J. E. -- "Was the tombstone whose Latin inscription you interpreted, when a boy, still entire?" Dr. C. -- "Of the situation of that I had a correct impression, and had the Latin inscription in my mind when I inquired after the graves of the family."
J. E. -- "The house in which you were born would, no doubt, be an object of curiosity?" Dr. C. -- "Scarcely a trace of it remained; and but a small vestige was left of the house to which my father removed when I was about four years of age. Somewhat more of the house at Maghera was standing, though most of it was also in a state of ruin. The people there rarely mend their houses, but permit them to wear out, and then build others. Even respectable persons have been known, on the rain finding its way into one room, to go into another; and have thus suffered themselves to be driven from room to room, till dislodged by the weather and decay."
J. E. -- "The church, I hope, was found in tolerable repair?" Dr. C. -- "There was slender room left for boasting: I borrowed the keys, and, on entering, felt strange emotions, in looking back on early days, when my uncle held me a babe in his arms, and dedicated me to God in baptism. On casting my eye round, I found myself within two or three yards of the tablets of my godfather and godmother; and recollecting the promises of my sponsors at the font on my behalf, and how little I owed them, as to any religious concern they appeared to manifest toward me, I felt at the moment as though I had communion with the dead, and would gladly have exonerated them from all their engagements: under this impression, and as though the vows of others were pressing upon me, I stole into the communion -- knelt down -- took them all, as if made by myself -- and, solemnly renewing them, dedicated myself once more to my Maker."
J. E. -- "Had you access to any of the parish registers?" Dr. C. -- "I tried in vain to find the register of baptisms, which, if in existence when I was takers to church, had been destroyed; and I am yet only enabled to make out the time of my birth and baptism from collateral circumstances."
J. E. -- "There is but little cleanliness, we may be allowed to conjecture, among those persons who are so indifferent to the repair and comfort of their houses." Dr. C. -- "Very little. My aunt belonged to an opposite class. She would never allow a servant, on entering her service, to go into a bed belonging to her, till first put into a large vessel of water, in order to receive a thorough washing. All had to pass through this ordeal; this is to be outrageously clean."
The Doctor was not quite satisfied with himself for having preached in a Socinian chapel at Garvagh, owing to the circumstances in which a minister of a different persuasion is placed, being either driven to conceal his own views on the occasion, or unhandsomely to oppose the principles of the party to whom he is laid under obligation for the loan of the chapel: and not having had the fact communicated to him, till after the service, prevention -- could he even have charged himself with any indiscretion, came too late. After preaching in the court-house, at Londonderry, and visiting his old friends at Coleraine, to whom also he preached, he proceeded to Ballyaherton, where he had spent his boyhood, and from thence to Dunluce Castle and the Giant's Causeway. Independently of his own relatives, he had met, up to this time, but few persons whom he knew among his youthful associates, with the exception of Captain Church and Captain O'Neil, both of whom had been school-fellows. At Ballymena, the chapel, as at other places, being too small for the congregation, the rector was asked by some of the friends, with whom he was on terms of intimacy, for the loan of the church, to which he readily consented; stating, that though he had no personal acquaintance with Dr. Clarke, yet from what he had heard and read, he believed him to be a pious and learned man, and he should have the use of the church on the occasion. On the party arriving at Grace I-Jill, a Moravian establishment, the minister showed them over the house, and pressed the Doctor to preach; observing that a congregation would be present within the space of five minutes. Consent being gained, the bell was heard, and in a few minutes all capable of attending, were found in the chapel. Speaking of this visit afterwards, he observed that he was indebted to his ignorance of the Moravian hymns for his discourse; for not being familiar with its contents, he gave the hymn book to the resident minister, who selected a hymn in which the Holy Ghost was invoked upon the congregation: this at once fixed the Doctor's mind as to subject, and he addressed the people on the Witness of the Spirit; and twenty years after, when the writer was with him at the same place, he was reminded by the minister, his good lady, and a few other friends, while at the social meal, of the season of refreshing enjoyed from the presence of the Lord, -- the circumstance being employed as an argument in favor of another address, in 1830.
Having had his attention directed to the ROUND TOWERS, which are found at Swords, Munster Boyce, and Antrim, he embraced the opportunity of examining the latter the day after he left Grace Hill, as he did others on his way to Dublin. An interesting paper on these antique remains is inserted in his "Miscellaneous Works," vol. xi. p. 78-91; which will well repay a perusal, and which paper -- after much reasoning and minute observation, he concludes by presuming, "that they were introduced by the Asiatic missionaries, who first preached the gospel in the land, -- serving the same purpose as the Oriental Minarets, and possibly some of them at first as a sort of Atush Khaneh, or fire temples in the time of Irish heathenism, but afterward converted to a sublimer use, when the nation had embraced the Christian religion."  He visited successively Belfast, Lisburne, Lurgan, Portadown, Newry, and Drogheda; at the last of which places he laid the foundation-stone of a new chapel, having preached either within or without doors at the other places, to immense concourses of spectators. The late Rev. Matthew Langtree, observes in his "Biographical Narrative," p. 216, that he was present at Portadown, on this occasion, and that the Doctor, contrary to his usual custom, was present at a large tea-party, invited to meet him, though, of course, without partaking. To render the meeting as useful as possible, as it was in compliment to himself and his friends, the Doctor touched a chord which he knew would vibrate with pleasure on the ears of all present, -- he dwelt on the leading doctrines of Methodism, and their intimate connection with experimental religion; together with the direct tendency of the whole economy to promote holiness and happiness among its professors, and to diffuse the same unspeakable blessings throughout the world.
One object of the Doctor's return to Dublin was, (agreeably to previous arrangement,) to preside at the Conference, whose sittings commenced July 4th. On the advantage of his presidency, Mr. Langtree thus observes, -- "The examination of characters was conducted with great strictness: our doctrines, discipline, and ministry, after a lucid explanation of them by the president, were faithfully, as in the sight of God, brought home to the bosom and business of every preacher." The subject of the increasing deficiencies of the Irish Connection, had become a matter of serious investigation among a number of respectable friends, who were at this time in Dublin, in which Mr. Butter-worth also took a lively interest. An address, unsolicited, and unthought of by the Irish preachers, was prepared, and a subscription opened toward the liquidation of the debt. This was signed by the Dublin leaders, and influential friends, and sent through all the circuits in Ireland. The hearts of a Clarke and a Butterworth, the former of whom could plead better for others than himself, are seen in the concluding remarks, -- "The preachers themselves have borne their difficulties in secret, and silently submitted to their numerous privations: but their embarrassment must necessarily depress the work; for how can a preacher properly pursue his private studies, and go on with spirit in his public ministry, whose family is in circumstances of distress and want?" Mr. Butterworth, in a select meeting of preachers and friends, gave, at the suggestion of Dr. Clarke, an account of Lord Sidmouth's Bill, which was, happily for the Wesleyan body, thrown out, and respecting which another opportunity may be afforded to look at its detail.
Hard labor, during the Doctor's Irish tour, rendered the visit less advantageous to health than was anticipated; and on his return to England, he was met with the tidings of the death of his mother at Bristol, whom he had seen but a short time before he left for Ireland. This stroke was keenly felt; and the more so, as he was deeply indebted to his mother for much of what he was, as a man and a Christian.  The effective education of the reason, (as Heraclitus well observes,) is not to be supplied by multifarious acquirements; for there is but one knowledge fitly called wisdom, -- that knowledge Mrs. Clarke possessed, and communicated to her son; and by her teachings instrumentally he became what for a long series of years he was, -- a burning and a shining light. She did not possess, it is true, the varied acquirements of our modern education; but she was well furnished in the law of the Lord; and, like the mother of Timothy, she so ably instructed her son, that from a child he knew the Holy Scriptures; and Adam Clarke is an illustrious instance of the established axiom, that truth, falling from the lips of a judicious mother, on the ear of the listening child at her knee, becomes the great moral force, whose momentum, increasing in every succeeding generation of men, bears along with it the eternal interests of nations yet unborn; and whose constantly accumulating power, ceases only when and where the great purpose of all human teaching shall be consummated!
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