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  • ADAM CLARKE PORTRAYED
    Volume III, PART VI, SECTION IV.
    1826, Clarke's Commentary Completed


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    SECTION IV.

    1826.

    Now that the Commentary was brought to a close, and nearly all published, the public were pretty fully awake to all its faults and to all its excellencies; and free remark was the result. That conflicting opinions were entertained, might be expected: [50] but it would have been difficult, perhaps, for some of the severest critics to have adduced such a mass of classical elucidation of Sacred Writ, and of extensive Oriental and Rabbinical reading; and have united them with such pertinent and pointed bearing on the salvation of the soul, as are brought together in this great work. We might ask, whether, with all its faults, a Commentary has been published, which has poured such a blaze of light on Holy Writ, in modern days? Future ages, it is believed, will gratefully estimate it -- as an inexhaustible mine of Biblical illustration.

    The following letter to Doctor Morrison -- a man dear to every friend of Christian Missions, and whose Herculean toil is now beginning to be more fully appreciated in China, will be read with interest:

    Eastcott, Middlesex, March 19, 1826.

    Rev, and Dear Sir, -- I am sorry that I have not had the privilege of seeing you before your departure: but I have been confined to the house ever since the morning of New Year's day, when I caught a cold, which brought an inflammation into my face and eyes, from which I am but slowly recovering. All the COMMENTARY is printed off; and as far as the letter R, of the General Index; and I should not wonder, if the remaining sheets should be ready by the time you propose, God willing, to sail. At any rate, you shall have all the sheets that may be ready at that time; and should there be any -behind, I will order duplicates to be sent to you by separate conveyances, that you may have the whole complete. One thing you must indulge me in, else you will put me to pain. For some time, I have purposed to beg your acceptance of a copy of this work, for your own library. I am sorry it is not a large paper copy, but there is not one of them left -- they have been long out of print. I present this out of high respect for your labors, and affection to your person. I have ordered it in good boards, for it could not (a few parts excepted) be bound without being spoiled; as the ink of the latter parts, not being sufficiently dry, would set-off. Your prayer for me, at the conclusion of your Note, is worth a thousand copies of my Work. I return you mine in your own words; -" May the power of Christ rest upon your person, your family, and your abundant labors!" You had two lovely children -- I think the finest I ever saw -- I have borne them on my knees; kissed them often; and have carried them in my arms. It is many years since I saw them, and they can have no remembrance of me: please to tell them, however, that they have an old man's blessing, and his heartiest prayers. When you sail, may His presence go with you, and give you rest. Amen. -- I am, Rev. Sir,

    Your' s affectionately, -- ADAM CLARKE.

    The Doctor's heart was set on his voyage to Shetland through the whole of this spring: everything seemed to point to it. While on a visit to a friend and supporter of the Mission, he was not a little encouraged with present aid, and promises of additional support. In connection with this visit, a little circumstance may be noticed, which shows the admirable tact he had for improving passing occurrences. It was found, on the party being seated round the hospitable board, that the servant had neglected to put one of the legs of the table sufficiently out; the consequence was, the tableleaf gave way, and one of the ladies received the contents of a dish on her dress. Mrs. _____ felt a good deal discomposed by the carelessness of the servant; the Doctor immediately observed, -- "A mishap of this kind occurred in the presence of Mr. Wesley once: on perceiving it, he turned to the lady, whose lap was filled with the sauce, and, with a view to avert approaching wrath, observed, 'How fortunate, that it has happened here -- and to you, madam, for I know no one more able to bear it.'" The good lady of the house felt the delicacy of the Doctor's compliment, and all parties were instantly restored to good humor.

    The "Apocryphal Question" was at this time strongly agitated. This was a source of great uneasiness to Doctor Clarke, because of the influence it exercised on the peace of the Bible Society. He addressed his brother-in-law, Mr. Butterworth, on the general question: [51] he considered it remarkable, that, in all his conversations with Roman Catholics, they never appealed to the Apocrypha for the confirmation of their tenets, except to the Maccabees, in reference to intercession for the dead.

    It was about this time, too, that he expressed his views and feelings respecting the Established Church, and the position in which he stood to it, in two letters to G. W., Esq., Cumberland, afterwards published in the "Christian Guardian" for 1832; [52] and to which reference is made, not so much because of any literary merit attached to the correspondence, but as to its being a key to several allusions to the Establishment in his general writings,, as well as a reason for some points of conduct. A letter also to Mr. A. Wilson, on the education of his children, contains in it several nice points often overlooked by parents. The last of these was written at Edinburgh, June 7th, at which place he arrived on the 3rd, in company with his oldest son, on his way to the Shetland Isles.

    In consequence of some difficulties thrown in the way of a ready passage to the Islands, he had to remain in Edinburgh till the 14th 'of the same month, during which time he both occupied the pulpit himself, and heard others expound the word of life. Being asked whether he had seen Sir Walter Scott in the course of his stay, he returned, "No; nor was I anxious to see him:" subjoining pleasantly, "notwithstanding all his losses, he has £1500 for the office he holds, besides other things; and I know some greater men who could make a good living out of half of it." He had seen Jeffry previously to this, and heard him deliver the closing speech in an appeal from Adam Smith, by whom he was retained, against the Presbytery, Who had refused to induct him to a living, in consequence of inability on special points. On that occasion, the Doctor entered court at ten o'clock in the morning -- the time of its opening, and sat till six in the evening. He was exceedingly gratified by the speech in question. On retiring, he turned to Dr. Beaumont, observing, "And do they say this man is an infidel? I cannot believe it, and should like to shake him by the hand."

    To some friends, who proposed to accompany him on his voyage, he observed, "At present there is no mode of conveyance to those Islands, and I do not think God is bound to work a miracle to take us there. I was once at Southampton waiting for a passage to the Norman Isles: the wind was contrary for eight or ten days: I went out every morning to see whether there was any appearance of a change, and was very uneasy, fretting and repining. One morning, I met an old captain, and said to him, -- Captain, the wind is still foul; 'Yes,' said he, 'but it is fair for some body.' I was struck with the expression, and said, -- Adam, what is this you have been saying? How many fathers, husbands, brothers, sons, who have been long from home, will this same wind bring to those who have been anxiously expecting them? God must form a particular will relative to a particular object, and, to use a common saying, -- I have never thought it was worth God's while to form such a will in reference to any thing in which I was engaged." Though the Doctor thus expressed himself relative to his own plans and operations, yet he had no doubt, taking in the full range of a special providence, that God not infrequently stepped out of his ordinary course, in answer to the prayer of faith, for the accomplishment of objects in which his servants might be engaged, and to which, in the first instance, they might be led by the influence of the Holy Spirit upon the mind. In support of this, he related a remarkable interposition of providence in answer to prayer, which took place when Mr. Wesley, Dr. Coke, and Mr. Bradford, visited the Norman Isles, and when he himself was with them, beating about under contrary winds.

    There were, at length, three apparent openings for the voyage -- a vessel for cattle, a Revenue Cutter, and the Fidelity; the Norna having sailed just before the Doctor's arrival: but still he was in suspense in consequence of certain impediments connected with each. "I well remember," said he to his friends, "that God did not permit David to build a temple for him, though he said, 'it was well that it was in thine heart to do it.' So may it be with me. He may not permit me to go to Shetland, though he may say, 'Adam, it was well that it was in thine heart to go.' Now, I will not force my passage: God can do without me there; and I have an awful warning in the five Missionaries who were lately drowned in the West Indies, by the wreck of the Maria Mail-boat, not to force my way. [53] I had to correct our Chairman, Mr. Butterworth, the other day, at our Missionary Meeting in Birmingham, upon the subject. He, and some others, had been saying, What a mysterious providence the loss of the five Missionaries with their wives and children was -- Mrs. Jones excepted. By and bye, I was called to speak. I said, 'Mr. Chairman, I see no mystery in all this business. To me it all appears plain. I read in my Bible, 'He that believeth, shall not make haste.' These excellent men did make haste. They had hired a vessel of their own to convey the Missionaries to their different stations. They had left one in his place: the wind was contrary; they grew impatient; left their own vessel, and betook themselves to the Mail-boat. One was of this mind at first, and he ultimately brought the others to his own way of thinking. They left their luggage to come onward in their own vessel. In due time, it reached the desired port in safety; but they were lost. These men, Sir, though with the best intentions, but through too great anxiety to get to their several destinations, went out of the way of divine providence; they made haste; and there is the whole mystery.' Now, I am instructed by this: unless I can get a passage to Shetland in a providential way, not to go at all. Let us, then, examine the information we have obtained; -- here is this Bullock vessel: all filth, and no accommodation, save the bare deck to lie upon: that will not do. The Revenue Cutter I leave out of the question. Had I known before I left London, I could have procured a government order to have taken us to Shetland. In that case, there would have been extra berths made up, which would have been charged to government. Our only chance is the Fidelity. We will wait till she comes in; and say to her owners, -- -' Here are four gentlemen who wish to go to Shetland; and would willingly give something extra in order to get off without being detained; but they are not obliged to go; therefore, they will not make any great sacrifices. If, however, a few pounds additional to their regular passage-money will be an object with you, they will give them: if not, they will separate, and each pursue his own course. I would be willing to give twenty-five pounds in addition to our passage-money; but further, I would not like to go, as I should consider that as forcing a passage."

    At this time, the Doctor was allowed £100 per annum for his services in the first London circuit. Not being able to attend to his pulpit duties the former part of the year, he returned his quarter's salary, which the Stewards sent to him. "I would not," said he to a friend, "take their money, when I could not do their work; I could get on without it: but this quarter's salary," he added, smiling, "I have in my pocket, and it will help to pay my passage to Shetland, if I go." As he was not disposed to take the wages without the work, so he had no disposition to hoard up treasure on earth: he received it from the hand of God, in his providence, and it was expended on the cause of God, in the church. The intended voyage stood in connection with the cause of God among the Wesleyans in the Islands.

    He preached in Nicholson's Square, on the forenoon of the 11th. His text was Mark i. 15; and the sermon was distinguished for a rich vein of evangelical sentiment, and was accompanied with fine feeling.

    A friend passing along the street, saw a cart of hay upset: two or three carters assisted in extricating the animal, while several persons stood by, without the least inclination to lend a hand. This was noticed in illustration of national character; the friend observing, "If an Irishman had been there, and had been in danger of doing more harm than good by his rashness, still he would have jumped at it at once." The narrator being an Irishman, and forgetting that he himself had acted the part of a mere observer, and by that seemed to forfeit the character he was giving to his countrymen, the Doctor struck in, and said, "I'll tell you, then, what Pat did. I was going up Market-Street, in Manchester, and saw a poor fellow toiling up the street with a truck. The street was too steep for him. He angled it to get up, but made very little progress. An inward Adam said, 'Go, and help him.' But immediately another Adam said, 'This is a public place, and you will be seen." It is a shame of you,' said the inward Adam, 'go and help the man.' After some more reasonings, I yielded; went behind the truck, and pushed to the top of the ascent. The man went on more speedily; but knew not he had help, till he gained the summit, when he saw me coming from behind. I said to him, 'I believe you can manage the rest of the way yourself:' I left him staring, and marched onwards." This bore admirably on the propriety of imitating the character we praise. On. Mr. John Clarke lauding Herbert as "one of our best poets," the Doctor said, "he is as rough as a porcupine, but every word is full of meaning."

    The horizon seemed to be clearing on the 9th, for the voyage, at a moment when he was meditating a visit to the Hebrides, in order to go to the isle of Mull, the residence of his maternal ancestors; or to return to London, and from thence to proceed to Ireland with the President, -connecting with the latter the opening of a new chapel at Lurgan: the Woodlark, a cutter engaged, together with the Investigator, in a survey of the Shetland group, touched at Leith. Captain Frembly agreed to take the Doctor and his son, but could not take their companions, though they pledged them-selves to sleep upon deck. But as the captain had to go to Inverkeithing for coals and provisions, he promised to call for the Doctor on his return, which he hoped would be about noon on the 13th. Not arriving at the time, the Doctor observed to one of his companions, "My mind has taken a very unworthy turn relative to the Shetland business. If I do not get off, it will be said, 'Here is a man who began to build, and could not finish.'" Then, lifting up his heart to God, he emphatically said, "Thy will be done." The Woodlark at length hove in sight, while he was walking to and fro on the beach; and he was soon enabled to enter on board, where he was kindly received by the captain, his lady, and the officers. One thing which ingratiated the Doctor into the kindly feelings of Captain Frembly was, the fact of the latter having heard him preach, and been in a Missionary meeting, some time previously, in which the Doctor had taken a pare, and in which he felt deeply interested.

    As a pretty full account of his journey to Edinburgh -- his preparations -- the voyage -- his visit to the Isles -- his return -- and several circumstances connected with the whole, is to be found in his "Miscellaneous Works, [54] it is only needful to touch, as heretofore, on any little incident as yet unnoticed. His account of the storm through which the vessel passed on her way to Lerwick, is described with great force and accuracy, and shows the difference between the narration of a storm of which we have heard, and one in which we have actually been. As the preachers were unable to accommodate him, and there was no inn at Lerwick, a lodging was procured at the house of a person who was hostile to the Wesleyans. The man, however, was so won upon by the Doctor's spirit and demeanor, that he strove in every possible way to render his abode with him agreeable, and collected for him several curiosities to enrich his museum. The preachers dined with him at his lodgings, where they had an entertainment peculiar to the Island, at two shillings per head; which, in London, would not have cost less than ten shillings per man. His host even went so far as to go and hear him preach, and was much pleased with the discourse. When seated at the table, a subject leading to the remark being introduced, the Doctor said, "Persons talk about nations and character; there is my John, -- he is a Frenchman, having been born in the Norman Isles, -- I am Irish, -- Lewis, sitting there, is Welch, -- there is a fourth in the company, English, -a fifth Scotch, -- and there are others who are Shetlanders: here we are all met, and, I trust, we shall all meet again -- meet with Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, in the kingdom of God! but what would heaven be with all these? I would not go to heaven to see Abraham, much as I revere his memory! What would heaven be without Abraham's GOD?"

    Among other conversations with Doctor Edmondson, the historian of the Shetland Islands, the latter observes to Doctor Clarke, that as soon as the "PIRATE" was published, he was led into the secret of the "Great Unknown," and at once filiated the "Waverley Novels" on Sir Walter Scott: further adding, that he accompanied Sir Walter in his various rambles over the Islands, when he was collecting materials for the work; complaining, at the same time, of a want of accuracy in his description of scenery, -- having placed rocks, &c., where none were visible. [55]

    His introduction to Doctor Edmondson was somewhat singular; the latter being rather eccentric -- occasionally unceremonious, -- bold, -- independent, -- and highly original. He rushed into the room where Doctor Clarke was seated, being on familiar terms with its proprietor: the Doctor rose, and paid his respects to him, expressing a hope, that he had not obtruded himself into his room, when Dr. E. instantly satisfied him, by answering in the negative: and then, as if to test the temper of Dr. C., proceeded--

    Dr. E. -- "Many visit the Shetlands, who take away false reports, and labor to make the impression, that the people are destitute of the comforts of life."

    Dr. C. -- "I am not responsible for others; but as it regards myself, I came with no such intention."

    Dr. E. -- "What, Sir, are we to understand by the term comfort? take the French, for instance."

    Dr. C. -- "Take the word in French, soulage, that comes nearest to it."

    Dr. E. -- "I beg your pardon, Sir, but that is not the word; it gives no idea of it at all." Here Doctor C. observed to the writer, that he felt all that was Adam, with a portion of his countryman, rising in him.

    Dr. C. -- "I have no objection, Sir, to contest the point with you: take the verb from whence the word, which I have just quoted, is derived."

    Dr. E. continued in the same mood, after the debate was closed, and then quitted the house. Subsequently, he paid Doctor Clarke every attention, and went to hear him preach. Though he could not gain access to the chapel for the crowd, he went into a kind of cellar below, where he heard distinctly, and signed a petition, which was drawn up by the principal inhabitants, requesting that the sermon should be printed. As a further proof of his kindly feeling, he presented Dr. Clarke with a pair of lamb's-wool gloves, which were considered a great curiosity, being partly claret, ringstraked, and speckled, and perfectly natural; as if, in the language of the recipient, "Jacob's flock had reached the Islands." Dr. E. told him, that he had read his "Wesley Family," and was much pleased with it. The latter presented him with Moore's Life of Wesley: but on receiving it -

    though courteously accepted -- he observed, "That man has tried his hand at the work before, but made nothing out;" adding, "John Wesley was one of the greatest men that ever lived."

    When passing from Lerwick to Scalloway, on a Shetland pony, on his way to Walls, Doctor Clarke paused, and looked around him, and then observed with somewhat of pleasantry, "I cannot conceive what God made these Islands for, unless it was to be a kind of balance for some other part of the world." On reaching 'Walls, he preached to the people from the top of an old tar-barre1, [56] but forgot part of his text, which he candidly acknowledged; then observed, -- "To return to what I forgot: many people have spent a great deal of time in guessing the precise site of the paradise of the Bible; the wisest men have differed in their opinion on the subject; no one of them has been able positively to state where it was: but I can tell you." Here the innocent, scantily read, yet intelligent Islanders, were all attention; and when he had wound them up by two or three more exciting remarks, he exclaimed with animation, -- "Paradise is to be found at Walls: Where-ever God is, there is paradise. Show me where God is, and I will show you paradise. It is "His presence makes our paradise!" The effect was powerful; for a considerable unction attending the discourse; the people found, even in that dreary waste, with the God of the Bible, and in the ministry of the word -- "Paradise Regained."

    Though exceedingly cautious not to allow any thing to enter the pulpit, which did not in every way comport with its sanctity, its dignity, and its simplicity, yet one instance may be named in which his imagination, over which he exercised such sovereign control, while discharging the ministerial office, and his feelings which were under equal subjection, broke away from their usual restraint. When preaching at Lerwick on Romans xv. 4, [57] some remarks which he made, led him to observe that God is happy, and that he made man to be happy. Anxious that the people should feel what God intended them to enjoy, and some sweet emotions rising in the soul at the same moment -- bubbling up, in unison with the more hallowed influence of heaven, from the fountain of his own native benevolence, he gave utterance to a couplet which flashed like lightning through the soul-

    "When God, his First-born, into the world did bring, He said, My lad, don't cry, but laugh, and sing."

    It was the first time he had ever quoted Peter Pinder in the pulpit; he was astonished at himself afterwards -- and would gladly have recalled the expression, though in love with the sentiment: but it was too late. It came; it went; "or ever he was aware, his soul made him like the chariots of Amminadab;" the hurried emotion of the heart obtained the ascendency. True joy, is described by Seneca, as a serene and sober motion: but that is the joy of the closet and of philosophy, not of the pulpit: in the latter, Lavater -- who had tasted it -- tells us, that "he who can conceal his joys is greater than he who can hide his griefs."

    On his return from the Islands, where he had preached, visited several of the societies, and satisfied himself on the genuineness of the work of God among the people, he landed at Aberdeen, Monday, July the 10th. Here he called on J. Bentley, Professor of the Oriental languages, in King's College, but found he had left home. He next called on Dr. Kidd, O.LL.P., Marischal College, who took him over the University, with the state of which he was but ill-satisfied. The Professor, with others, dined with him at Anderson's Hotel. The conversation was varied and literary in its character.

    When Dr. Clarke reached Edinburgh, he was informed of the unexpected death of his brother-in-law, Joseph Butterworth, Esq., late M.P. for Dover; also of the death of another brother-in-law, Mr. James York; together with that of the Rev. Charles Atmore. The first especially, affected him much. The Rev. Richard Watson improved the occasion of Mr. Butterworth's death, in a sermon which was afterwards published; furnishing a calm and dignified exhibition of the excellent character of the deceased, in the true spirit of the short but expressive sentence selected as a text on the occasion -- "And they glorified God in me." The mind of the preacher appeared, through the whole of the discourse, to be under the hallowing influence of the great principle which he deduced, in the most natural and proper manner, from his text, -- Of honoring 'God in man, and man in God. On this principle Mr. Watson proceeded to a general view of the character and conduct of the venerated Butterworth; commencing with an account of his conversion to the true knowledge of the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, he passed to what he called his habitual religious character; and showed it to have been devotional, social, truly catholic, zealous, and benevolent; and concluded with an interesting view of his public character, both as a member of the church of Christ, and that of the British Senate. It is to be regretted that a full Life of this excellent man has not been published, as such a work would throw considerable light upon the religious history of this country for a period of at least between twenty and thirty years; for nearly with the whole of the Philanthropic Institutions he was in one way or another connected; and he would have presented to the view of mankind one of the most remarkable instances upon record of the blessing of divine Providence upon Christian industry and liberality. His correspondence with pious persons of all denominations was, perhaps, as extensive as that of any other man in Europe, and would no doubt furnish selections of very superior value. He died at his house in Bedford-Square, Friday, June 30th. The Wesleyan Conference adopted the following Resolution, expressive of their esteem and affection for him:

    "The Conference deem it their mournful duty to record in their minutes, the recent and lamented death of Joseph Butterworth, Esq., late General Treasurer of the Wesleyan Missionary Society; and they cannot make this record without expressing their deep sense of the zeal, attention, and liberality, with which he fulfilled the duties of that office, as well as of the distinguished excellences of his general character. The large advances of money which he often cheerfully made to our Missionary Society, when its funds were under temporary pressure; the spiritual and interesting manner in which, when called to the chair of its Annual Meetings, he conducted the proceedings of that Society; his exertions in visiting many of the Auxiliary and Branch Societies in the country, by which he consecrated the influence of his name and station to advance the interests of our Missions; and the advantages which the Committee derived from his judgment and counsels, and from the information which his extensive correspondence and connections enabled him to communicate; are subjects of grateful but affecting recollection. By his efforts in favor of religious liberty, in Parliament, and the zealous manner in which he exerted himself when applications to His Majesty's Government were rendered necessary, in order to obtain protection for our Missionaries in the Colonies, and to procure the modification or disallowance of restricting or prosecuting laws, the Conference was laid under additional obligations. Nor was there any thing which related to the stability, extension, or success of the Wesleyan Missions, into which he did not enter with an affectionate and permanent interest. Great is the loss which our Society has sustained by this bereavement. But it becomes us to bow with submission to the dispensations of Almighty God, and to commit the great cause, in all its departments, by a renewed act of faith, to his own special care, trusting in his promises, and remembering that, while the strong are not efficient without Him, the weak in his hand shall become 'as the Angel of the Lord.'"

    Dr. Clarke left Scotland by the Soho steam-packet, Saturday, July 15th, and, after a voyage of about 600 miles in forty-five hours, landed at Blackwall in safety. The entire journey was, at least, 2000 miles. On his return, neither the demands of others, nor his own habits of industry, would allow him any relaxation from labor. He had assisted in opening a new chapel in Islington, in the Spring of the year, and he re-opened another at Hackney, on his return. The effects of his labors in reference to the Shetland Mission, which commenced during his third presidency, being fully appreciated, the following note was appended to the Shetland stations, by order of the Liverpool Conference of this year:-- "Dr. Adam Clarke is requested to correspond regularly with the preachers in the Shetland Isles, and to give them such advices and directions as he may deem necessary. Dr. Clarke is also authorized to receive donations for the support of the preachers on those Islands; which donations shall be regularly paid, on account, to the treasurer of the Contingent Fund."

    Among other things from his pen, chiefly contributed to the periodical literature of the press, about this time, was a translation of the deeply pathetic, sublime, and beautiful Liturgy of St. Dioscorus, Patriarch of Alexandria, found in an ancient Ethiopic MS., formerly belonging to Dr. Pocock, and published by J. M. Wansleb, of Erfurt, at the end of Ludolph's Ethiopic Lexicon; -- an example of the simplicity of the Mohammedan law, taken from the original; -- a curious case, told in the Negaristan, of a famous lawyer at Bagdad, called Abn-Joseph, showing several peculiarities in the Mohammedan law, and displaying no small degree of casuistical ingenuity in adapting them to the views of his clients, -- the whole illustrative of "the glorious uncertainty of the law;" -- and several articles embodied in the creed of the Abyssinians, which had been intended for another work, but which he had abandoned, and which, on the present occasion, he illustrated by curious notes.

    In the course of the same month that the Doctor reopened Hackney chapel, he assisted in opening TeviotDale chapel, in Stockport; the prevailing order of the architecture of which is the Boric, and one of the largest and most chastely magnificent erections in the connection. The collection in the morning amounted to £180. The biographer having been engaged in the Hill-Gate chapel, on the same occasion, was unable to hear the Doctor; but the account given of the sermon, by those who heard it, was highly eulogistic; and such was the effect produced on his reading the Morning Service, that he was urged to read it again on the Monday morning following.

    The same Christian zeal which animated him at Millbrook, glowed in his breast at Haydon Hall, Eastcot. He fitted up a house for preaching on his own premises, at his own expense, which was opened November 19th. Writing to a friend, he observed, "I hope you will come and spend some time with me at Haydon-Hall. I have turned a large stable and coach house into a chapel; and have got a Sunday School of more than fourscore children! We have preaching every Sabbath, and a far brighter prospect than ever we had at Mill-brook. If you come to see us, you shall preach and teach till you are weary; and, besides this, I have several repairs in some of my fine MSS., which require such a hand as yours to effect." Knowing to whom he was writing, he next displayed the "ruling passion," and would not allow the opportunity to escape without throwing out his line to catch what was passing; -- "I find this head of Alexander in a deep oak frame. Is there any thing curious in this? Is it a piece of any of the trees in Adam and Eve's bower? or one of the girders of Noah's ark? Any thing coming thus from you, I consider very curious and very rare. Can we get any of W____'s SHEKELS?"

    The place thus fitted up for worship, became excessively crowded; and being incapable of enlargement, the Doctor resolved on constructing a chapel on a larger scale; the expense and superintendence of which, devolved also on himself. This chapel, which was twenty-six feet by nineteen, and furnished with pulpit, pews, and forms, and capable of holding 250 hearers, was opened the March following by the Doctor himself. The writer had the pleasure of preaching in it when on a visit to the Doctor; and was much pleased with the congregation, which had been reared under his fostering care. The Doctor had preached in Windsor in the earlier part of his ministerial history; but, till now, there was little personal religion in the immediate vicinity of his own residence. His anxiety to promote the interests of evangelical truth was as intense as ever; and the power of Methodism to do its part, in the conversion of the world, was, in his esteem, as great as at the first. "I am sick," said he, "to hear some persons talk of' ORIGINAL METHODISM. I declare to you, that, to my own certain knowledge, there is more genuine piety this day in the Methodist Connection, taking numbers for numbers, than I ever knew since I began to preach."

    In the autumn of this year, His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex visited Haydon Hall, and dined with the Doctor and his family. He was much pleased with the Library, and especially the MS. department, -- amounting to nearly 1,000 volumes, -- among which were several beautiful Oriental MSS., highly illuminated; including the famous ten Hebrew MSS. formerly belonging to the Vanderhagen family, and noticed by Dr. Kennicott in the introduction to his Bible, which Doctor Clarke sent his bookseller over to Holland to purchase, authorizing him to purchase at any price "short of a ransom." In the course of the same month, His Royal Highness was pleased to constitute Doctor Clarke's youngest son one of his chaplains.

    On the Doctor's return from London, January, 1827, where he had been preaching, his horse ran away and dashed the carriage over, by which he was seriously injured, and narrowly escaped with his life. The effects of this were felt some time after; and, towards the close of March, he remarked, in a letter to a friend,-- "I have not been well lately; and have, since Christmas, had three or four very serious seizures: but all is well, while we are in His hands, who hateth nothing that he has made." He was so far restored as to be able to preach in Great Queen-Street chapel, London, Feb. 18, which was the first time of his appearance in public after the accident.

    Mr. Watson, who was President of the Conference for the year, finding some cases turning up, (one especially, in London,) somewhat difficult to deal with, frequently consulted the Doctor as to the course it was most proper to pursue in order to settle them. This, after some estrangement originating in the controversy on the Eternal Sonship of Christ, brought them into more familiar intercourse with each other, which was viewed with pleasure by the friends of each,

    To the Rev. Thomas Smith, Classical Tutor of Masbro' College, the Doctor wrote, in the course of this year; an extract from his letter conveys an admirable hint to preachers:-- "You know my opinion of your propria quæ maribus work. Give it up; -- some dull plodder will do as well as you -- and yet such cannot do the work which God has given you to do. Give up your endless writing of sermons, and torturing your mind by committing so much to memory. Preach from your knowledge of God, from your experimental knowledge of divine things, from Christ dwelling in your heart by faith, from the cloven tongue of fire which God has given you; then your ministry will be tenfold more blessed than ever. Let those who can do no better deal in their moldy Gibeonitish crusts; and, while they are bringing forth their old things, bring forth your 'things new and old,' -- such new things as give spirit to the old, and such old things as give credit to the new."

    At the Annual Meeting of the Wesleyan Methodist Missionary Society, held in May, the Doctor was present; and, among other statements which he made, he observed, "This day, for the first time, the thought occurred to my mind, that God, by a particular providence, has intended that London should be the means of sending His salvation to the ends of the earth. Its geographical position on the globe seems to show that Providence has intended it for this work. An intelligent man in Scotland has made a projection of the sphere, taking London as the center of one of the hemispheres, and has proved, that the position of London, taken as the center of the hemisphere, and the sphere being projected on the horizon upon that plan, takes in more land of the globe than could be done by any other projection whatever. I have found this to be perfectly correct: taking London, for instance, as the center, we have the whole continent of Africa, the whole of Europe, the whole continent of Asia, and a portion of America, North and South, except two or three districts of Patagonia, of very little consideration; the whole of the habitable world then; almost, is taken in, London itself considered as the center of this hemisphere. Look at the other side, and we find a vast expanse of waters, having scarcely any land among them, except New Holland, some of the Indian Islands, Java, and the Moluccas, New Guinea, &c.; and these would hardly make one-fifth part; and, I believe, taken in a proportionate aggregate of population, not one-twentieth part of those lands of which London is the center. Now it appears to me, from looking at this, that God has intended that the word of His grace should go from this place to the ends of the earth. To do God's work in God's way, there must be ability, disposition, and means. Now, look at the metropolis of France: it has ability; it may have the means; but it has not the disposition. Look at the other chief cities of Europe: they have, or have had, ability; they may have the disposition; but they have little means. If we take poor Madrid, what do we find? No ability, no disposition, and no means. But look upon London, and here I meet with an ability greater than I can possibly describe; I was about to speak of it, but it is too much for my mind: and here is disposition that argues itself to have come directly from heaven. It is not the impulse of a moment; but a flame burning with a steady light, and shining more and more to the perfect day. Look at our means. These consist in our commerce, and connection with the world; and we have means to send any thing to all parts of the earth, in consequence of the credit we have gained, and the influence we possess This morning, another thought occurred to me. We find, that, in all animal bodies, there is a certain commencement of vitality: a microscope will show the part of vibration, or something that will circulate from itself to different members of the body: this is supposed to be the heart. Now I look upon London to be this point of vitality; and I look upon the London Missionary Society, the Baptist Missionary Society, and the Church of England Society, and unite them all with the Methodist Missionary Society in one grand body, determined to send forth the empire of God into the world, to destroy the power of darkness. All are united in one object, directed by one counsel, and tending to one end." After this meeting, he was importunately pressed to attend the Irish Conference, and to open a chapel at Lame; but declined, on account of other engagements: and yet, amidst more important work, he yielded to the solicitations of the editors and publishers of some of the Annuals, to furnish them with lighter matter. Christian as was his heart, and philanthropic as were all his views and proceedings, it may be noticed, as one of his peculiarities, that he never lent his services to any of the public meetings for promoting Christianity among the Jews. This, it is presumed, arose partly from the debasing views of their character, as collected from the Sacred Writings, partly from the stubbornness, perversity, and deception practiced by them since, and partly from the little success of the society in its operations, compared with its expenditure, together with relapses of its professed converts. In the month of June, he visited Stockport, Manchester, &c., and made a collection for Wesley Chapel, Oldham Road; a place in which he ardently desired to have a chapel long before one was built; and where, forty years before, he frequently preached out of doors to large crowds of people. The collection amounted, during the morning service, to £104. 13s. 10d.

    Some stanzas having been put into his hand by a friend, composed by the biographer, congratulatory of his having finished his Notes on the Bible, amid one of them delicately alluding to the treatment he had received from certain quarters, together with the spirit and conduct manifested by him on the occasion, the Doctor wrote as follows:

    "June 9, 1827.

    "My dear brother E____. -- I arrived here from London last evening; -- must be in Manchester tomorrow morning; -- and, if God give strength, must return by the mail on Monday morning. Thus, you see, I cannot rest much; and this, or nearly, has been the case with me for, at least, the six last months.

    "About seven this morning, Mr. S. put a printed paper into my hand, saying, 'I suppose you have seen this?' I looked at it, 'Lines addressed to Doctor A. Clarke, on finishing his Notes on the Bible,' and signed 'J. E.' -- I answered, 'No, I have never seen it; nor have I ever heard of it: and yet it was published (by the date) last September.' That I should not have known till now, how much I am indebted to your pen, is strange -- for I have long known how much I have been indebted to your friendship, by no equivocal signs.

    "I have gone through dishonor; may be obliged to go through more; and have behaved myself like a weaned child, and my voice has been little heard in the streets: I could do nothing against the Truth; but what I could, I have done for the Truth. My record is with God, who knows as well my sincerity and uprightness, as he knows my worthlessness and weakness:-- nor have I ever sought to balance these in order to have the cold consolation, 'I stand, if not in the list of merit, yet among the blameless.' -- No. I said to my God -- 'Thou knowest the way that I take; I have endeavored to promote thy glory, by striving to do good to thy creatures, redeemed by the blood of thy Son:-- but in these respects, I cannot stand with uncovered face before thee; and thou knowest that my heart says, more forcibly than my voice can say, -- 'God be merciful to me a sinner!' Yet, my dear brother E., with all this humiliating cry, I could say, My rejoicing is this, the testimony of my conscience, that in simplicity and godly sincerity, I have had my conversation in the world; and more abundantly towards my BRETHREN, and the CHILDREN of my PEOPLE.

    "Through the good hand of God upon me, the work is done, which you have so kindly celebrated in no mean verse; -- and I may naturally suppose (now fast approaching to the verge of three-score years and ten) that all my work is nearly done; and that I can have little more of blame to bear, or praise to receive. God has hitherto sustained me; and the hearts of the wise and the good have been with me: and my work, without professing to be such, will, I trust, be a lasting and successful vindication of the glorious doctrines of the gospel maintained and preached by the Methodists. I am, my dear brother, yours very affectionately, -- ADAM CLARKE."

    During this visit, a friend of the Doctor presented him with two bunches of grapes and a pine apple, which had been reared in his vinery, and which had gained the prize at the Horticultural Exhibition in Manchester. These, as rarities of their kind, and exceeding anything produced even in the vineries of the nobility, [58] were transmitted by the Doctor to His Royal Highness the Duke of Sussex. When the box reached Kensington Palace, His Royal Highness was dressing to go off to dine with his royal brother, the Duke of Clarence, where were assembled all the ministers of State, the Foreign Ambassadors, and upwards of three hundred of the Nobility. As soon as the Duke received the Doctor's note, he gave instant orders that the box should be forwarded to the Admiralty and presented to his brother, the Duke of Clarence. In addition to Mr. Canning, and the new Ministry formed under his direction and influence, the Queen Dowager of Wirternberg, who was on a visit to England, was present on the occasion. The Doctor complimented his friend on the production of what was denominated, in the acknowledgment of the Duke of Sussex to himself -- "magnificent fruit," by saying, "never was fruit more highly honored; and such a sight, I am satisfied, could not have been exhibited that day, elsewhere in 4 the king's dominions: and you find that you had the honor that day of regaling the Princes of the blood, and among them, the Heir Presumptive to the British Crown."

    Noticing Voltaire one day, he observed, "He who could neither suffer a rival, nor bear to hear of a God or a Saviour, speaks thus of Milton's Paradise Lost:

    'MILTON plus sublime qu' eux, A des beautés moms agréables; Il nà chanté que pour les Fous, Pour les Anges, et pour les Diables.'

    This is a complete sarcasmus, and shows the interior man."

    To a person who took the liberty of refreshing the Doctor's memory on a particular subject, but whose impatience, rather than any defect on the Doctor's part, was to blame, he remarked:-- "I write to fulfil a promise, -- for an honest man's word is as good as his oath: as to an oath, he needs none; his character swears for him. On this ground, I give you one of my country's proverbs, for I am neither ashamed of it, nor its language: (giving it in the ancient Irish character:) 'What is just is honest; and, again, What is honest is just.' Now, having fulfilled my promise, I am, so far, both honest and just. Selah." By rendering the "promise" emphatic, he indirectly entered into a justification of his fidelity to truth.

    In the autumn of this year, he again visited Lancashire and Cheshire, in company with Mrs. Clarke, when the writer spent a few days with him. On the forenoon of November 18th, he preached in Irwell Street Chapel, Salford, to a crowded congregation, and collected upwards of £100, for the first anniversary of the erection. The Wesleyan Magazine for the month, p. 750, containing an article, signed "A Pioneer," the Doctor directed attention to it, and stated, that he had charged it upon the biographer as the writer, observing, that he was sorry that a pledge had been given in it, to present the valuable collection of Wesleyan Papers, which had been made, to the "Depository" in London. As there was no reason why concealment should be maintained, and the charge, though familiarly made, was too direct to admit of a little innocent parrying, its authorship was at once confessed. On referring to the persons likely to be connected with the newly established "Depository," the Doctor observed, "There is not a man among them that has a genuine taste for the antique. I am still in doubt what I should do with my Collection. Should you survive me, I shall have no objection for them to fall into your hands; the two collections should be united." Proceeding, "I have had some thought of depositing Samuel Wesley's collections for a Polyglott, in the British Museum, for the use of Methodist Preachers." Returning to the subject, "I have a great many letters," said he, "which you have classified in the 'Pioneer' as coming under the denomination of the 'Dangerous.' Among these are letters of Charles Wesley to his brother John, which prove him to have been a secret enemy to itinerancy. He labored hard to prejudice John against many of the preachers. The more I consider his latter history, the more I am persuaded, that it is not worth any man's while -- for any extensive service he was to Methodism, except in the earlier part of his life -- to spend three hours in writing a biographical account of him. He was of very little use to the body, except for his Hymns."

    The Shetland voyage being the topic of conversation, the interrogatories and curiosity of his friends gave the Doctor ample scope for remark. He intimated his intention to pay the Islands another visit, and expressed a hope that the writer would accompany him. A promise was instantly given, with an intimation that he would be ready as soon as the Doctor should give the signal to weigh anchor. The time proposed was the ensuing summer; and the embryo plan was, for several friends to form a party -- engage a steam-vessel for some weeks, in which all could be accommodated with beds, provision, &c., -- the whole contributing their several shares to defray the expenses.

    Two of the Sermons which he preached at Lerwick, Shetland, the one June 18, and the other July 2, 1826, were now published in a separate form, the first founded on Colossians i. 27, 28, and the second on Rom. xv. 4; and are to be found in his "Miscellaneous Works," Vols. vi., p. 287; and vii., p. 258. A valuable extract from the first of these sermons, on "Christian Perfection," was published in the miscellaneous department of the Wesleyan Magazine for the month of December of this year, which furnishes a lucid, scriptural view of that important subject; and, as such, is interesting to know the light in which the doctrine was held by him. Referring to this, he observed to a friend, "Persons who profess to have their hearts cleansed, require the utmost care of the minister: it takes much to establish such as have ventured to claim the fulness of the blessing of the gospel. My sermon on the 'Sum and Substance of St. Paul's preaching,' shows not only the attainableness of the blessing, but also the reasonableness of the doctrine: and the grand criterion for those to judge of their state, who profess to be saved from all sin, is, a total absence of all evil tempers and desires; and a continual presence of God. While they feel this, they are safe. If they feel no evil tempers, and a presence of that love that worketh no ill to their neighbor, and a readiness to obey God even unto death, then the love of God is perfected in them. Let them avoid all arguing with gainsayers and Christless Christians; lest the innocent fervor of their heart should lead them into intemperance of feeling or speech. The evil seed which God has cast out, Satan has got in his hand, and stands ever ready to sow it in again, when he can take advantage of an unguarded moment. Such persons must watch, pray, keep humble, and be constantly employed either in the work of God, or their necessary labor."

    Two little incidents may be noticed in connection with this visit into Lancashire. He was in a manufacturing district; and, as prices were low, he deemed it a favorable opportunity for making a few purchases, and soliciting aid for the Shetland Mission. Miss Harriet Chappell, now the lady of Edward Westhead, Esq., was one who interested herself on behalf of the poor Shetlanders; and, among other things, procured for the Doctor several shawls, [59] "to clothe," as he facetiously observed, "his Shetland beauties (or mediocrities) with a decent, respectable, cold-dispelling covering." Prior to the sermon, just noticed, being preached in Irwell Street Chapel, Messrs. G. R. Chappell, James Wilde, and others, presented the Doctor also with a handsome contribution for the same Mission; adding £10. for his traveling expenses. "The latter," said the Doctor, who had taken the journey on purpose, which would embrace a distance of nearly 400 miles, "I must decline to take." They pressed him again and again; but still persisting in his refusal, -- "Well, then," said they, "you must take it for your Shetlands." "That," he replied, "I will gladly do." In consequence of these benefactions two incipient chapels received names; -- "that," said the Doctor, "in the Burra Isle, on the west of Dunrosness, not far from Sombro' Head, in the south of Shetland, shall be called Irwell Chapel. That in the island of Pappa Stour, on the west of North Mavin, and between that and the Island of Foula -- the Ultima Thule of the ancients -- shall be called Harriet Chapel; -and both to be so held, taken, and denominated in secula seculorum. Selah." The biographer had the happiness of being present at the consecration of the latter by the Doctor, the following year.

    About the same time, he preached in City-Road Chapel, London. "On leaving the chapel," said he, "it was raining heavily; and I was disappointed of a coach that had been ordered, as well as unable to procure another. Young Mr. Sundys was with me: the rain was incessant; and we were compelled to take shelter in the house of a friend, who was personally unknown to me. I was drawn into a conversation on the Shetland Mission, and named the circumstance of two chapels which were wanted, the one expected to be £15. and the other £20. The gentleman of the house

    addressed his good lady, saying, 'What do you think, if you and Mrs. ---- , were to go out and solicit subscriptions? You would soon collect as much as would build a chapel.'" The Doctor continued, "I entertain a hope, when I reach town, that I shall find the money raised; and should it be the case, I shall consider my disappointment of the coach, and my being driven into the house, a special providence."

    He remarked at this time, that he had some intention of publishing his Notes on the Psalms separately, with a new Preface, as a kind of CLOSET COMPANION; but failed in carrying his intention into execution. Doctor Wrangham wrote to him about the same period, with a view to revive the publication of the Polyglott, previously noticed, and proposed at once to enter upon a subscription list, to meet the expenses and accomplish the object. To this Doctor Clarke replied, that the whole business was in too incipient a state to commence a fund -- that a Treasurer and Committee of Management should be the first thing; observing, that when it was before proposed, Mr. Pratt had to bear the sole expense of the folio prospectus, and he himself had to sustain that of the octavo, without the least aid from any quarter. On this Doctor Wrangham proposed a circular; which was met by Doctor Clarke with the experience of the past; stating, as he had done before, that Doctor Williams, of Rotherham, had proposed to give £30. per annum, for a term of seven years; Messrs. Joseph Butterworth and Robert Spear, Esquires, £50. each for the same period; and also others: concluding, that, if a Regium Donum, or a parliamentary grant, could not be obtained, they would have to depend entirely upon the opulent, who would have to be appealed to by a regular organized Committee of Management. In his own project, he was anxious that the Church of England should take the lead.

    Though the commencement of 1828 found Doctor Clarke in his usual health and spirits, with the exception of a tenderness in reference to night air exposure; the spring of the year was less auspicious. In the month of April, he was pressed to preach in Bristol, and obeyed the call of the friends. "That sermon," said a gentleman to Mr. Exley, after the service, "must have cost the Doctor a great deal of labor." On Mr. Exley noticing the remark, the Doctor replied, "It cost me just half an hour." He always acted on his advice to Mr. Smith; he spoke from his own knowledge and experience of the subject. Mr. Exley having placed the Preface of his treatise on "The Principles of Natural Philosophy" in the hand of the Doctor, to look over, and to correct; the latter, on returning it, without a single correction, pleasantly asked, "Tommy, did you write the whole of that Preface yourself?" On Mr. E. replying in the affirmative, the Doctor said, "1 did not think that a person so busily employed with teaching, could have done it so well." The work was reviewed by the Doctor, in the "Literary Gazette," who supported Mr. E. in some positions against which objections were taken; as will be seen in his "Miscellaneous Works," Vol. x., p. 388. Mr. Exley's "New Theory of Physics," as previously noticed, did not profess to be founded on new principles, but on one universally acknowledged -- that of gravitation; and applied by him, after a new manner, to explain the general properties of matter, the phenomena of chemistry, electricity, galvanism, and electro-magnetism. Of the intellectual power of his brother-in-law, the Doctor had a high opinion. Alas! in the midst of the enjoyment of his friends, the Doctor was visited with a rheumatic fever, which not only prevented a journey into Cornwall, but detained him some time in Bristol.

    On his return home, he had considerable correspondence with his friends, relative to the second Shetland voyage; and matters were in a gradual course of preparation.

    Speaking one day of Doctor John Dee's "Relation of Spirits," he remarked, that he had occasion to write to the Privy Council upon it, furnishing an example in which it ought to be deciphered, and giving it as a very probable opinion, that the old Warden of Manchester employed his cipher merely as language in which he communicated with the Court of Elizabeth. On borrowing a book of an old preacher, which he wished to consult, he felt not a little touched at being cautioned against "doubling down the leaves, soiling it, and making pencil marks in the margin." From the ungracious manner in which it was lent, he would have at once declined it, if he could either have purchased a copy, or borrowed one any where else. No man was more careful of books, and few less in the habit of borrowing: he went, indeed, to the opposite extreme, and would have purchased for the privilege of a mere reference. He was in want of an old work on Coins, and gave his bookseller, Mr. Baynes, directions to buy it for him, and to go to the extent of £25. Walking, however, in one of the back streets of the metropolis, he was overtaken by a shower of rain, when he stepped into a second-hand book-shop -- looked round -- saw the work he had commissioned Mr. B. to purchase -- and obtained it for a mere trifle: he literally sprang out of the shop on paying for the work, and went home in triumph. The Rev. Alexander Strachan complimenting his countrymen on the other side of the Tweed, made a remark on character: just at that moment, a slight touch of Johnson's provoking spirit came over the Doctor, "I preached one of my best sermons," said he, "in Edinbro'; a sermon enough to alarm all hell, and almost enough to convert the devil, and yet not a muscle was moved on a single human face." On another occasion, he observed, -- "The Irish can keep nothing; the Scotch will give nothing, but what they cannot help; and the English unite the excellences of both; for of what they get they can both give and keep. I do not wish to depreciate the character of the Scotch, for there are glorious exceptions: but I have no sympathy with the spirit that will lead a man to sit down and calculate on the interest and principle of the hundreth part of the fraction of a farthing, with its returns for a thousand years to come." The Duke of Sussex being named; "Do you think, Sir," said Mr. S., in his quiet significant way, "that His Royal Highness is a converted man?" "I do not know what you would do," replied the Doctor, "but I think I should not hesitate to receive him 'on trial.'" The latitude which the Doctor allowed in particular cases, and under particular circumstances, was considerably curtailed in others. A preacher passing him in the aisle of one of our chapels, he put his hand on his shoulder, and said, "You would not have put your hat on in my house;" leaving the reproof to perform its proper work: it was instantly comprehended and felt; and the hat, ever after, was reverently held in the hand, till passing the threshold of the house of God.

    On Saturday, June 14, at seven o'clock in the morning, the Doctor left London in a steam vessel for Hull, at which port he arrived about five o'clock on the Sunday evening, in company with his second son, and one of the preachers. His object was to try the effect of sea-water, previously to his embarking for Shetland. The wind was against them; and, in consequence of the motion of the vessel, he was unable to bear up the whole of the Sabbath. Not wishing, however, the whole of the day to pass over without divine service, he requested the captain to allow Mr. L. to preach, who readily consented. About sixty persons were present; among whom was a naval officer and his bride, the latter of whom, while the Doctor prayed, and Mr. Louth preached, evidently entered into the spirit of the service. Mr. and Mrs. Rigg being then in Hull, and having heard that the Doctor was there, waited upon him at the inn. He reached Whitby on the Monday by coach, at which place the biographer, with two other friends, had arrived from Manchester, and were waiting to join him in the projected voyage. The Doctor, on meeting with his old antagonist, the Rev. Richard Watson, just before he left London, and seeing the delicate state of his health, said, with blandness of feeling, and under an impression that the voyage might be beneficial to him, -- "Write all your complaints on a piece of paper, -- go with me, and lay it on the deck, and I will pledge myself, that they will all either be washed or blown away before your return."

    A person resident about forty miles from Whitby, having a great desire to see the Doctor, and being disappointed in the first instance, had paced the ground twice over to gratify his wish. Being told this by a friend, in a somewhat complimentary way, the Doctor turned it off with -- "It is a pity he should have stooped so low to take up so little." The Abbey, the Museum, and other places of interest were visited. He reprobated its proprietor as a Goth, for permitting the noble structure to go to ruin. The writer having observed, that it, Tynemouth Priory, &c., were exceptions to the situations of abbeys in general, the monks chiefly selecting a fruitful vale, in the neighborhood of a stream of water, not forgetting the seclusion necessary for safety and for acts of devotion. He observed, -- "There is probably a reason for such exceptions; for though there might be no rich lands attached to them, they might be connected with cells, &c., on the opposite coasts, as Norway and other countries, in the same way as establishments there were connected with rich cells in England: or they might be connected, in some other way, at home or abroad, with ecclesiastical revenues and institutions; and elevated on those promontories, as a guide to both voyagers and travelers:" adding, "one of the preachers in Shetland, having had land offered to him by the proprietor, for the erection of a chapel, monk-like, took care to select a piece of the best; an act of which, after so much generosity, I could not approve." On passing the house in which Captain Cook was apprenticed, the Doctor paused; and then, moving slowly on -- with the party before him, with one exception -- he sidled nearer and nearer to it, supposing no one perceived him, and touched the building with his hand. 'While the writer, who was in the rear, could not suppress a smile, it was difficult not to venerate the feeling, which, even in little things, prompted him to render his tribute of homage to genius and enterprise -- to the poor boy, who, while apprenticed there, was destined, by the providence of God, to wrap his navigator's girdle round the globe, and to become the pioneer of Christian Missionaries, who succeeded him in many of his discoveries, and so planted the standard of the cross, where erst he had waived the flag of his native soil.

    Wednesday, the 18th, the party, -- consisting of the Doctor; his second son, Theoderet; Mr.

    J. Campion, of Whitby; Mr. W. Read, of Manchester; Mr. J. Smith; and the biographer, -- were towed out of the harbor by three boats, a-board the Henry, of Whitby, -- a smack of about seventy tons. As there is a tolerably circumstantial account of this voyage, as well as the one in 1826, in the Doctor's "Miscellaneous Works," Vol. xiii. pp. 358 -- 393, it is the less necessary here to enter into detail; especially as many of the conversations, and much of the information communicated, connected with early life, and with literary and religious history, will be found in different parts of the Memoir, at the different periods referred to, associated with the several facts and persons noticed. [60] As to the scenery, and other particulars connected with the manners and customs of the inhabitants, the mineral and vegetable productions of the Islands, &c., these must remain untouched. There was a peculiarity in the whole. With the eye and genius of Michael Drayton, who is considered by the best judges, to be almost unequaled for the vigor and vividness displayed in some of his delineations of natural objects, and the emotions arising from them, much might have been effected as to the pictorial. In preaching at the different stations, and passing from island to island, till the whole group was circumnavigated, several circumstances made a more than ordinary impression upon the mind. July the 6th, being the Sabbath, while safely anchored in Balta-Sound, the party agreed to cross the high hills, mostly composed of serpentine rock, and with but little vegetable soil upon them, to refresh the eye, and there to keep holy day with the inhabitants; the biographer preaching to the people at Haroldswick, and the Doctor to those at Nortwick, about lat. 610 N., and but a short distance from each other; the former being a little N. W. of the latter. The peculiarity of this visit was, -- first, the two preachers stood on the most northern ground under the British crown, and on the most northern inhabited part of the ground. Secondly, on the line of direction in which they then stood, which was nearly due north, there was neither land nor inhabitant to the north pole. Thirdly, in nearly a direct line east, they had Bergen on their right hand; and further on, north, Spitsbergen; on their left, west, were the Faroe Isles; and onward, northwest, Iceland; and then old Greenland. Between these, from Lamba Ness, the uttermost point north of the island of Unst, not one foot of land, nor consequently one human inhabitant was to be found on to the north pole; so that the biographer and the subject of the memoir, were literally preaching on one of " the ends of the earth," beyond which, in that direction, the sound of the gospel can never be heard: a circumstance in the personal history of the Doctor, which he characterized as the highest honor of his life, having been permitted to preach Christ crucified to the inhabitants of the very ends of the earth!

    On the evening of the same day, the Doctor being worn out with fatigue, the biographer preached in the open air, at the bottom of Mr. Edmondston's garden -- the house being unable to contain the people -- close by a monument reared by the family, in memory of NiBiot's visit, the French philosopher, who had there fixed his great pendulum and other instruments, and carried on his experiments for the space of two months: an account of whose experiments is to be found in his work, entitled "Notices sur les Voyages Enterpris pour Mesurer la Courbure de la Terre."

    Though highly delighted with the bold, varied, romantic scenery, in the earlier part of the voyage, it was in many respects inferior to what was beheld on weathering the Scaw of Unst, and sailing down the western coast for Papa-S tour; the beautiful collection of rocks called Ramna's Stacks, Rona's Hill, (the highest in Shetland, and said to be between two and three thousand feet above the level of the sea,) Ossa-Skerry, the VeSkerries, Foula, with its eminences, all intermingled with spacious voes and bays -- promontories -- rocks of every variety of form and size -- caves -- stupendous arches -- with small hamlets peering between the hills, and sloping down to the tops of the rocks, presenting the variety of black, red, blue, gray -- all passing in panoramic grandeur, as the vessel, like a thing of life, shot its way through the waves ---- with here and there a few straggling whales rising to the surface, and spouting, as from a powerful jet, the water from within -- presented at once a scene of the most lively interest.

    On the 29th of June, a chapel was opened at Burravoe, South Yell; and at Papa-Stour another was consecrated in July. While here, the Doctor preached in the Kirk; during which service the writer sat by the side of the brother of an English nobleman, Lord Belcarress, who had been confined in the island some years, and who afterwards made his escape to his native land, through the intervention of a friend; a case which made considerable newspaper noise. But July the 11th was one of the most memorable days, when the party landed on the island of Foula, supposed by many to be the ultima Thule of the ancients, or utmost land to the North Pole. Ground was given on which to erect a chapel, by Mr. Scott, of Paila. After proceeding about a mile up the mountain, the party halted. A spade was obtained, and the soil was dug away, till a rocky bottom was obtained; and having procured a large stone, with a good angle, three verses of the hymn -- "Except the Lord conduct the plan," &c., were sung. The Doctor then laid the stone, after which he knelt on the place and prayed. The whole of this scene was solemn, imposing, and picturesque:-- a few adventurers, in appearance, leaving the vessel, going on shore, and taking possession of a portion of the island in the name of its Maker! The writer still retained the spade in his hand,, while the Doctor was engaged in the consecration prayer; and the latter being unable to balance himself properly in a kneeling position, grasped the middle of the shaft of the implement, while the hands and chest of the digger pressed upon the top of the handle, to give stability to it. There the group stood, or knelt around the venerable apostle, and responded to the petitions which were offered to heaven; themselves, with the exception only of two others, constituting the auditory, -- the people not having been apprised of the arrival of the party. The Doctor, in the course of the voyage, frequently sung what he called his "French Sea Hymns," commencing with,-

    "Sun l'ocean du monde Pisqu il faut tons voguer," &c.

    And also, a short Persian gazel or ode, full of beauty, tenderness, and devotion, forming the first sentence of one of his Persian MSS., entitled, "Roozet al Shuhada," -- The flower-garden of the Martyrs.

    Another circumstance may be noticed. When the Doctor was looking for a suitable plot of ground for a chapel, he said to a plain man, "This line ascertains the possessions of Mr. Edmondston from those of some other heritor." The Shetlander answered, "This was some time ago the property of Mr. Mouat, but he escambion'd it to Mr. Edmondston, for some of his property in another place." The Doctor was surprised to hear the word from a simple peasant, an inhabitant of the North Seas, as he knew, as he afterwards observed, that scambium and scambatio were good Latin words, used in the middle ages, to signify change or exchange of lands; one portion to be given for another; nor had he ever met with the word before, except in Ancient Charters. He was as much surprised as a Greek peasant was, when Captain Thompson of Hull, who was traveling in one of the Greek Islands, addressed a question in Greek to one of the natives.; the man started; and exclaimed, "Wonderful! an English sailor speaks Greek!"

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