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In this chapter an account is given of the various offerings on the several remarkable days in the seventh month of the year; at the feast of blowing the trumpets on the first day of the month, ( Numbers 29:1-6), at the great fast or day of atonement, which was the tenth of the month, ( Numbers 29:7-11), and at the feast of tabernacles, which began on the fifteenth day of the same month, and continued eight days, and the sacrifices of every day are particularly mentioned; of the first day, ( Numbers 29:12-16), of the second day, ( Numbers 29:17-19), of the third day, ( Numbers 29:20-22), of the fourth day, ( Numbers 29:23,24), of the fifth day, ( Numbers 29:26-28), of the sixth day, ( Numbers 29:29-31), of the seventh day, ( Numbers 29:32-34), and of the eighth day, ( Numbers 29:35-38), which sacrifices were to be offered, besides their vows and freewill offerings, of which Moses gave a faithful account, according to the command of God, ( Numbers 29:39,40).
Ver. 1 . And in the seventh month , etc.] The month Tisri, as the Targum of Jonathan, which answers to part of our September and October; a month famous for days to be religiously observed, having more of them in it than any other month in the year: on the first day of the month, ye shall have a holy convocation ; (see Leviticus 23:24), ye shall do no servile work ; therefore, in the place referred to, is called a sabbath: it is a day of blowing the trumpets unto you ; of which, (see Gill on “ Leviticus 23:24”).
Ver. 2 . And ye shall offer a burnt offering for a sweet savour unto the Lord , etc.] Which was as follows: one young bullock, one ram, and seven lambs of the first year without blemish , which was the same, only one bullock less, with the offerings on the first day of the month, the seven days of unleavened bread, and the day of the firstfruits, ( Numbers 28:11,19,27).
Ver. 3-5. And their meat offering , etc.] Which went along with the creatures offered for a burnt offering; the quantity of flour and oil used in it was the same, for a bullock, a ram, and each lamb, as in the offerings at the new moons, feast of unleavened bread and the day of firstfruits, ( Numbers 28:10,13,20,21,28,29) and a kid of the goats was also offered for a sin offering at this time, as in those seasons, and for the same purpose, to make atonement for the sins of their holy things.
Ver. 6 . Beside the burnt offering of the month, and his meat offering , etc.] The bullock, ram, and seven lambs, were offered on this day, besides the two bullocks, one ram, and seven lambs, which were offered on it, on account of its being the first day of the month and besides the meat offering that went along with them; these were not omitted on account of those additional sacrifices: and the daily burnt offering ; the two lambs of the daily sacrifice; these also were offered as usual, so that there were offered on this day three bullocks, two rams, and sixteen lambs: and his meat offering, and their drink offerings, according to their manner ; these also were offered with the daily sacrifice, according to the law and rule prescribed for the making of them, and all were for a sweet savour, a sacrifice made by fire unto the Lord ; for they were burnt sacrifices, and very acceptable to the Lord, as they were types of the better sacrifice, with which he is infinitely well pleased; and it is with respect to that that such a number of sacrifices were appointed.
Ver. 7 . And ye shall have on the tenth day of the seventh month an holy convocation , etc.] The month Tisri, as before; so the Targum of Jonathan: and ye shall afflict your souls ; or persons; their bodies by fasting, and their souls by repentance and humiliation; for this was a grand fast, as it is called ( Acts 27:9), ye shall not do any work [therein] ; (see Leviticus 23:28).
Ver. 8 . But ye shall offer a burnt offering unto the Lord , etc.] Which is the same as ordered to be offered on the first day, ( Numbers 29:2). Aben Ezra is of opinion that the ram here is different from those in ( Leviticus 16:3,5,24).
Ver. 11 . One kid of the goats for a sin offering , etc.] This also, as it was different from that which was offered for the service of the day, so it was offered after it; as is observed by the Jewish writers, that the goat, which was offered without, though of the Musaphim, or additions, could not go before the service of the day for it is said as follows, beside the sin offering of atonement ; hence, say they, we learn, that the goat within, which was of the service of the day, went before it f441 ; after that the ram of Aaron, and the ram of the people, and after that the fat of the sin offering: and the continual burnt offering, and the meat offering of it, and their drink offerings ; which were never omitted on account of the service of any day, though ever so solemn, as this was: hence it appears that there were offered on this day of atonement two bullocks, three rams, three goats, and two lambs.
Ver. 12 . And on the fifteenth day of the seventh month ye shall have an holy convocation , etc.] Of the same month Tisri, which was the seventh from Nisan or Abib, though it was formerly the first month of the year: ye shall do no servile work, and ye shall keep a feast unto the Lord seven days ; the feast of tabernacles, which began on the fifteenth day of this month.
Ver. 13-34. And ye shall offer a burnt offering , etc.] That is, on the first of the seven days, which was as follows: thirteen young bullocks, two rams, and fourteen lambs of the first year, they shall be without blemish ; a very large sacrifice indeed, for these were offered besides one kid of the goats, for a sin offering, and the two lambs of the daily sacrifice, which were not omitted on account of this extraordinary offering; so that there were no less than thirty two animals sacrificed on this day: the meat and drink offerings for each, according to the kind of them, were as usual, and as before frequently observed; and the same sacrifices, meat offerings, and drink offerings, were offered on the six following days of the feast, only with this difference, that there was one bullock less every day; which it is thought may denote the decrease of sin in the people, and so an increase of holiness, or rather the gradual waxing old and vanishing away of the ceremonial law, and the sacrifices of it; and these bullocks ending in the number seven, which is a number may lead us to think of the great sacrifice these all typified, whereby Christ has perfected them that are sanctified.
Ver. 35 . On the eighth day ye shall have a solemn assembly , etc.] The day after the seven days of the feast of tabernacles were ended; for this was not properly a part of that feast, but was a sort of appendage to it; ye shall do no servile work therein ; (see Gill on “ Leviticus 23:36”).
Ver. 36-38. But ye shall offer a burnt offering , etc.] Which was the same that was offered on the first and tenth days of this month, ( Numbers 29:2,8) and the meat and drink offerings for each of the creatures were the same, as often expressed; and on this day a goat for a sin offering was also offered, besides the daily sacrifice, and what went along with that.
Ver. 39 . These things ye shall do to the Lord, in your set feasts , etc.] Or rather in the times set and appointed to you, as the Jewish writers f442 interpret it; and so Jarchi interprets it of a fixed time, which seems better; since these were not all feast days, on which the above sacrifices were to be offered, for one of them was a fast, even the day of atonement: besides your vows, and your freewill offerings : which might be offered up at any time, notwithstanding the above sacrifices, which were necessary and obligatory; but these were at their own option: for your burnt offerings, and for your meat offerings, and your drink offerings, and for your peace offerings ; of which (see Leviticus 7:11-16).
Ver. 40 . And Moses told the children of Israel , etc.] All these things; repeated the several laws unto them concerning the above sacrifices, with the additions unto them, and explanations of them: according to all that the Lord commanded Moses ; being a faithful servant to the Lord in all his house, and in all things appertaining to it.