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    1. For--confirming 1Th 1:9. He discusses the manner of his fellow missionaries' preaching among them (1Th 1:5, and former part of 1Th 2:9) at 1Th 2:1-12; and the Thessalonians' reception of the word (compare 1Th 1:6, 7, and latter part of 1Th 2:9) at 1Th 2:13-16.
    - yourselves--Not only do strangers report it, but you know it to be true [ALFORD] "yourselves."
    - not in vain--Greek, "not vain," that is, it was full of "power" (1Th 1:5). The Greek for "was," expresses rather "hath been and is," implying the permanent and continuing character of his preaching.

    2. even after that we had suffered before--at Philippi (Ac 16:11-40): a circumstance which would have deterred mere natural, unspiritual men from further preaching.
    - shamefully entreated--ignominiously scourged (Ac 16:22, 23).
    - bold-- (Ac 4:29; Eph 6:20).
    - in our God--The ground of our boldness in speaking was the realization of God as "OUR God."
    - with much contention--that is, literally, as of competitors in a contest: striving earnestness (Col 1:29; 2:1). But here outward conflict with persecutors, rather than inward and mental, was what the missionaries had to endure (Ac 17:5, 6; Php 1:30).

    3. For--The ground of his "boldness" (1Th 2:2), his freedom from all "deceit, uncleanness, and guile"; guile, before God, deceit (Greek, "imposture"), towards men (compare 2Co 1:12; 2:17; Eph 4:14); uncleanness, in relation to one's self (impure motives of carnal self-gratification in gain, 1Th 2:5), or lust; such as actuated false teachers of the Gentiles (Php 1:16; 2Pe 2:10, 14; Jude 8; Re 2:14, 15). So Simon Magus and Cerinthus taught [ESTIUS].
    - exhortation--The Greek means "consolation" as well as "exhortation." The same Gospel which exhorts comforts. Its first lesson to each is that of peace in believing amidst outward and inward sorrows. It comforts them that mourn (compare 1Th 2:11; Isa 61:2, 3; 2Co 1:3, 4).
    - of--springing from--having its source in--deceit, &c.

    4. as--according as; even as.
    - allowed--Greek, "We have been approved on trial," "deemed fit." This word corresponds to "God which trieth our hearts" below. This approval as to sincerity depends solely on the grace and mercy of God (Ac 9:15; 1Co 7:25; 2Co 3:5; 1Ti 1:11, 12).
    - not as pleasing--not as persons who seek to please men; characteristic of false teachers (Ga 1:10).

    5. used we flattering words--literally, "become (that is, have we been found) in (the use of) language of flattery"; the resource of those who try to "please men."
    - as ye know--"Ye know" as to whether I flattered you; as to "covetousness," GOD, the Judge of the heart, alone can be "my witness."
    - cloak of--that is, any specious guise under which I might cloak "covetousness."

    6. Literally, "Nor of men (have we been found, 1Th 2:5) seeking glory." The "of" here represents a different Greek word from "of" in the clause "of you . . . of others." ALFORD makes the former (Greek, "ex") express the abstract ground of the glory; the latter (apo) the concrete object from which it was to come. The former means "originating from"; the latter means "on the part of." Many teach heretical novelties, though not for fain, yet for "glory." Paul and his associates were free even from this motive [GROTIUS], (Joh 5:44).
    - we might have been burdensome--that is, by claiming maintenance (1Th 2:9; 2Co 11:9; 12:16; 2Th 3:8). As, however, "glory" precedes, as well as "covetousness," the reference cannot be restricted to the latter, though I think it is not excluded. Translate, "when we might have borne heavily upon you," by pressing you with the weight of self-glorifying authority, and with the burden of our sustenance. Thus the antithesis is appropriate in the words following, "But we were gentle (the opposite of pressing weightily) among you" (1Th 2:7). On weight being connected with authority, compare Note, see on 2Co 10:10, "His letters are weighty" (1Co 4:21). ALFORD'S translation, which excludes reference to his right of claiming maintenance ("when we might have stood on our dignity"), seems to me disproved by 1Th 2:9, which uses the same Greek word unequivocally for "chargeable." Twice he received supplies from Philippi while at Thessalonica (Php 4:16).
    - as the apostles--that is, as being apostles.

    7. we were--Greek, "we were made" by God's grace.
    - gentle--Greek, "mild in bearing with the faults of others" [TITTMANN]; one, too, who is gentle (though firm) in reproving the erroneous opinions of others (2Ti 2:24). Some of the oldest manuscripts read, "we became little children" (compare Mt 18:3, 4). Others support the English Version reading, which forms a better antithesis to 1Th 2:6, 7, and harmonizes better with what follows; for he would hardly, in the same sentence, compare himself both to the "infants" or "little children," and to "a nurse," or rather, "suckling mother." Gentleness is the fitting characteristic of a nurse.
    - among you--Greek, "in the midst of you," that is, in our intercourse with you being as one of yourselves.
    - nurse--a suckling mother.
    - her--Greek, "her own children" (compare 1Th 2:11). So Ga 4:19.

    8. So--to be joined to "we were willing"; "As a nurse cherisheth . . . so we were willing," &c. [ALFORD]. But BENGEL, "So," that is, seeing that we have such affection for you.
    - being affectionately desirous--The oldest reading in the Greek implies, literally, to connect one's self with another; to be closely attached to another.
    - willing--The Greek is stronger, "we were well content"; "we would gladly have imparted," &c. "even our own lives" (so the Greek for "souls" ought to be translated); as we showed in the sufferings we endured in giving you the Gospel (Ac 17:1-34). As a nursing mother is ready to impart not only her milk to them, but her life for them, so we not only imparted gladly the spiritual milk of the word to you, but risked our own lives for your spiritual nourishment, imitating Him who laid down His life for His friends, the greatest proof of love (Joh 15:13).
    - ye were--Greek, "ye were become," as having become our spiritual children.
    - dear--Greek, "dearly beloved."

    9. labour and travail--The Greek for "labor" means hardship in bearing; that for "travail," hardship in doing; the former, toil with the utmost solicitude; the latter, the being wearied with fatigue [GROTIUS]. ZANCHIUS refers the former to spiritual (see 1Th 3:5), the latter to manual labor. I would translate, "weariness (so the Greek is translated, 2Co 11:27) and travail" (hard labor, toil).
    - for--omitted in the oldest manuscripts.
    - labouring--Greek, "working," namely, at tent-making (Ac 18:3).
    - night and day--The Jews reckoned the day from sunset to sunset, so that "night" is put before "day" (compare Ac 20:31). Their labors with their hands for a scanty livelihood had to be engaged in not only by day, but by night also, in the intervals between spiritual labors.
    - because we would not be chargeable--Greek, "with a view to not burdening any of you" (2Co 11:9, 10).
    - preached unto you--Greek, "unto and among you." Though but "three Sabbaths" are mentioned, Ac 17:2, these refer merely to the time of his preaching to the Jews in the synagogue. When rejected by them as a body, after having converted a few Jews, he turned to the Gentiles; of these (whom he preached to in a place distinct from the synagogue) "a great multitude believed" (Ac 17:4, where the oldest manuscripts read, "of the devout [proselytes] and Greeks a great multitude"); then after he had, by labors continued among the Gentiles for some time, gathered in many converts, the Jews, provoked by his success, assaulted Jason's house, and drove him away. His receiving "once and again" supplies from Philippi, implies a longer stay at Thessalonica than three weeks (Php 4:16).

    10. Ye are witnesses--as to our outward conduct.
    - God--as to our inner motives.
    - holily--towards God.
    - justly--towards men.
    - unblamably--in relation to ourselves.
    - behaved ourselves--Greek, "were made to be," namely, by God.
    - among you that believe--rather, "before (that is, in the eyes of) you that believe"; whatever we may have seemed in the eyes of the unbelieving. As 1Th 2:9 refers to their outward occupation in the world; so 1Th 2:10, to their character among believers.

    11. exhorted and comforted--Exhortation leads one to do a thing willingly; consolation, to do it joyfully [BENGEL], (1Th 5:14). Even in the former term, "exhorted," the Greek includes the additional idea of comforting and advocating one's cause: "encouragingly exhorted." Appropriate in this case, as the Thessalonians were in sorrow, both through persecutions, and also through deaths of friends (1Th 4:13).
    - charged--"conjured solemnly," literally, "testifying"; appealing solemnly to you before God.
    - every one of you--in private (Ac 20:20), as well as publicly. The minister, if he would be useful, must not deal merely in generalities, but must individualize and particularize.
    - as a father--with mild gravity. The Greek is, "his own children."

    12. worthy of God--"worthy of the Lord" (Col 1:10); "worthily of the saints" (Ro 16:2, Greek): ". . . of the Gospel" (Php 1:27) ". . . of the vocation wherewith ye are called" (Eph 4:1). Inconsistency would cause God's name to be "blasphemed among the Gentiles" (Ro 2:24). The Greek article is emphatical, "Worthy of THE God who is calling you."
    - hath called--So one of the oldest manuscripts and Vulgate. Other oldest manuscripts, "Who calleth us."
    - his kingdom--to be set up at the Lord's coming.
    - glory--that ye may share His glory (Joh 17:22; Col 3:4).

    13. For this cause--Seeing ye have had such teachers (1Th 2:10-12) [BENGEL], "we also (as well as 'all that believe' in Macedonia and Achaia) thank God without ceasing ('always' . . . 'in our prayers,' 1Th 1:2), that when ye received the word of God which ye heard from us (literally, 'God's word of hearing from us,' Ro 10:16, 17), ye accepted it not as the word of men, but, even as it is truly, the word of God." ALFORD omits the "as" of English Version. But the "as" is required by the clause, "even as it is truly." "Ye accepted it, not (as) the word of men (which it might have been supposed to be), but (as) the word of God, even as it really is." The Greek for the first "received," implies simply the hearing of it; the Greek of the second is "accepted," or "welcomed" it. The proper object of faith, it hence appears, is the word of God, at first oral, then for security against error, written (Joh 20:30, 31; Ro 15:4; Ga 4:30). Also, that faith is the work of divine grace, is implied by Paul's thanksgiving.
    - effectually worketh also in you that believe--"Also," besides your accepting it with your hearts, it evidences itself in your lives. It shows its energy in its practical effects on you; for instance, working in you patient endurance in trial (1Th 2:14; compare Ga 3:5; 5:6).

    14. followers--Greek, "imitators." Divine working is most of all seen and felt in affliction.
    - in Judea--The churches of Judea were naturally the patterns to other churches, as having been the first founded, and that on the very scene of Christ's own ministry. Reference to them is specially appropriate here, as the Thessalonians, with Paul and Silas, had experienced from Jews in their city persecutions (Ac 17:5-9) similar to those which "the churches in Judea" experienced from Jews in that country.

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