HAND, AND THE
1. charge--Greek, "adjure."
therefore--omitted in the oldest manuscripts.
the Lord Jesus Christ--The oldest manuscripts read simply,
shall judge--His commission from God is mentioned,
his resolution to do so,
the execution of his commission, here.
at his appearing--The oldest manuscripts read, "and" for "at";
then translate, "(I charge thee before God . . . ) and
by His appearing."
and his kingdom--to be set at His appearing, when we hope to reign
with Him. His kingdom is real now, but not visible. It shall then be
both real and visible
(Lu 22:18, 30;
Re 1:7; 11:15; 19:6).
Now he reigns in the midst of His enemies expecting till
they shall be overthrown
Then He shall reign with His adversaries prostrate.
2. Preach--literally, "proclaim as a herald." The term for the
discourses in the synagogue was daraschoth; the corresponding
Greek term (implying dialectial style, dialogue, and discussion,
Ac 17:2, 18; 18:4, 19)
is applied in Acts to discourses in the Christian Church.
[Apology, 2], describes the order of public worship, "On Sunday
all meet and the writings of the apostles and prophets are read; then
the president delivers a discourse; after this all stand up and pray;
then there is offered bread and wine and water; the president likewise
prays and gives thanks, and the people solemnly assent, saying, Amen."
The bishops and presbyters had the right and duty to preach, but they
sometimes called on deacons, and even laymen, to preach. EUSEBIUS [Ecclesiastical History, 6.19]; in this
the Church imitated the synagogue
Ac 13:15, 16).
be instant--that is, urgent, earnest, in the whole work
of the ministry.
in season, out of season--that is, at all seasons; whether they
regard your speaking as seasonable or unseasonable. "Just as the
fountains, though none may draw from them, still flow on; and the
rivers, though none drink of them, still run; so must we do all on our
part in speaking, though none give heed to us"
[CHRYSOSTOM, Homily, 30, vol. 5., p. 221].
I think with CHRYSOSTOM, there is included also
the idea of times whether seasonable or unseasonable to Timothy
himself; not merely when convenient, but when inconvenient to thee,
night as well as day
in danger as well as in safety, in prison and when doomed to death as
well as when at large, not only in church, but everywhere and on all
occasions, whenever and wherever the Lord's work requires it.
with, &c.--Greek, "IN (the
element in which the exhortation ought to have place) all
(2Ti 2:24, 25; 3:10)
and teaching"; compare
"apt to teach." The Greek for "doctrine" here is didache,
didascalia. "Didascalia" is what one receives;
"didache" is what is communicated
3. they--professing Christians.
sound doctrine--Greek, "the sound (see on
doctrine (didascalias)" or "teaching," namely, of the Gospel.
Presently follows the concrete, "teachers."
after their own lusts--Instead of regarding the will of God they
dislike being interrupted in their lusts by true teachers.
heap--one on another: an indiscriminate mass of false teachers.
Variety delights itching ears. "He who despises sound teaching, leaves
sound teachers; they seek instructors like themselves"
[BENGEL]. It is
the corruption of the people in the first instance, that creates
to themselves--such as will suit their depraved tastes;
populus vult decipi, et decipiatur--"the people wish to be
deceived, so let them be deceived." "Like priest, like people"
itching--like to hear teachers who give them mere pleasure
and do not offend by truths grating to their ears. They, as it were,
tickle with pleasure the levity of the multitude
[CICERO], who come as to a theater to hear what
will delight their ears, not to learn [SENECA,
Epistles, 10.8] what will do them good. "Itch in the ear is as
bad in any other part of the body, and perhaps worse" [SOUTH].
4. The ear brooks not what is opposed to the man's lusts.
turned--Greek, "turned aside"
It is a righteous retribution, that when men turn away from the
truth, they should be turned to fables
5. I am no longer here to withstand these things; be thou a
worthy successor of me, no longer depending on me for counsel, but
thine own master, and swimming without the corks
[CALVIN]; follow my steps, inherit their result,
and the honor of their end [ALFORD].
watch thou--literally, "with the wakefulness of one sober."
in all things--on all occasions and under all circumstances
endure affliction--suffer hardships [ALFORD].
evangelist--a missionary bishop preacher, and teacher.
make full proof of--fulfil in all its requirements, leaving
6. Greek, "For I am already being offered"; literally, as
a libation; appropriate to the shedding of his blood.
Every sacrifice began with an initiatory libation on the victim's head
(compare Note, see on
A motive to stimulate Timothy to faithfulness--the departure and final
blessedness of Paul; it is the end that crowns the work [BENGEL]. As the time of his departure was indicated to
Peter, so to Paul
my departure--literally, "loosing anchor" (see on
7. "I have striven the good strife"; the Greek is not
restricted to a fight, but includes any competitive
contest, for example, that of the racecourse
&c.; Heb 12:1, 2).
kept the faith--the Christian faith committed to me as a believer
and an apostle (compare
Re 2:10; 3:10).
8. a crown--rather as Greek, "the crown." The
"henceforth" marks the decisive moment; he looks to his state in a
threefold aspect: (1) The past "I have fought"; (2) The immediate
present; "there is laid up for me." (3) The future "the Lord will give
in that day" [BENGEL].
crown--a crown, or garland, used to be bestowed at the Greek
national games on the successful competitor in wrestling, running, &c.
of righteousness--The reward is in recognition of
righteousness wrought in Paul by God's Spirit; the crown is
prepared for the righteous; but it is a crown which consists in
righteousness. Righteousness will be its own reward
A man is justified gratuitously by the merits of Christ through faith;
and when he is so justified God accepts his works and honors them with
a reward which is not their due, but is given of grace. "So great is
God's goodness to men that He wills that their works should be merits,
though they are merely His own gifts" [POPE CELESTINE I., Epistles, 12].
give--Greek, "shall award" in righteous requital as "Judge"
2Th 1:6, 7).
in that day--not until His appearing
The partakers of the first resurrection may receive a crown also
at the last day, and obtain in that general assembly of all men,
a new award of praise. The favorable sentence passed on the
"brethren" of the Judge, who sit with Him on His throne, is in
taken for granted as already awarded, when that affecting those
who benefited them is being passed [BENGEL]. The
former, the elect Church who reign with Christ in the millennium, are
fewer than the latter. The righteous heavenly Judge stands in
contrast to the unrighteous earthly judges who condemned Paul.
me--individual appropriation. Greek, "not only to me."
them that love--Greek, "have loved, and do love";
habitual love and desire for Christ's appearing, which
presupposes faith (compare
Compare the sad contrast,
"having loved this present world."
2Ti 1:4, 8.)
Timothy is asked to come to be a comfort to Paul, and also to be
strengthened by Paul, for carrying on the Gospel work after Paul's
10. Demas--once a "fellow laborer" of Paul, along with Mark and
His motive for forsaking Paul seems to have been love of worldly ease,
safety, and comforts at home, and disinclination to brave danger with
(Mt 13:20, 21, 22).
CHRYSOSTOM implies that Thessalonica was his home.
Galatia--One oldest manuscript supports the reading "Gaul." But
most oldest manuscripts, &c., "Galatia."
Titus--He must have therefore left Crete after "setting in order"
the affairs of the churches there
Dalmatia--part of the Roman province of Illyricum on the coast of
the Adriatic. Paul had written to him
to come to him in the winter to Nicopolis (in Epirus), intending in the
spring to preach the Gospel in the adjoining province of Dalmatia.
Titus seems to have gone thither to carry out the apostle's intention,
the execution of which was interrupted by his arrest. Whether he went
of his own accord, as is likely, or was sent by Paul, which the
expression "is departed" hardly accords with, cannot be positively
decided. Paul here speaks only of his personal attendants having
forsaken him; he had still friends among the Roman Christians who
though they had been afraid to stand by him at his trial
11. Take--Greek, "take up" on thy journey
(Ac 20:13, 14).
John Mark was probably in, or near, Colosse, as in the Epistle to the
written two years before this, he is mentioned as about to visit them.
Timothy was now absent from Ephesus and somewhere in the interior of
Asia Minor; hence he would be sure to fall in with Mark on his journey.
he is profitable to me for the ministry--Mark had been under a
cloud for having forsaken Paul at a critical moment in his missionary
tour with Barnabas
(Ac 15:37-40; 13:5, 13).
Timothy had subsequently occupied the same post in relation to Paul as
Mark once held. Hence Paul, appropriately here, wipes out the past
censure by high praise of Mark and guards against Timothy's making
self-complacent comparisons between himself and Mark, as though he were
superior to the latter (compare
Demas apostatizes. Mark returns to the right way, and is no longer
unprofitable, but is profitable for the Gospel ministry
12. And--Greek, "But." Thou art to come to me, but
Tychicus I have sent to Ephesus to supply thy place (if thou so willest
it) in presiding over the GOTO NEXT CHAPTER - D. J-F-B INDEX & SEARCH