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Da 10:1-21. DANIEL COMFORTED BY AN ANGELIC VISION.
The tenth through twelfth chapters more fully describe the vision in the eighth chapter by a second vision on the same subject, just as the vision in the seventh chapter explains more fully that in the second. The tenth chapter is the prologue; the eleventh, the prophecy itself; and the twelfth, the epilogue. The tenth chapter unfolds the spiritual worlds as the background of the historical world (Job 1:7; 2:1, &c.; Zec 3:1, 2; Re 12:7), and angels as the ministers of God's government of men. As in the world of nature (Joh 5:4; Re 7:1-3), so in that of history here; Michael, the champion of Israel, and with him another angel, whose aim is to realize God's will in the heathen world, resist the God-opposed spirit of the world. These struggles are not merely symbolical, but real (1Sa 16:13-15; 1Ki 22:22; Eph 6:12).
1. third year of Cyrus--two years after Cyrus' decree for the
restoration of the Jews had gone forth, in accordance with Daniel's
This vision gives not merely general outlines, or symbols, but minute
details of the future, in short, anticipative history. It is the
expansion of the vision in
That which then "none understood," he says here, "he understood"; the
messenger being sent to him for this
(Da 10:11, 14),
to make him understand it. Probably Daniel was no longer in office at
court; for in
it is said, "Daniel continued even unto the first year of King Cyrus";
not that he died then. See on
2. mourning--that is, afflicting myself by fasting from "pleasant bread, flesh and wine" (Da 10:3), as a sign of sorrow, not for its own sake. Compare Mt 9:14, "fast," answering to "mourn" (Da 10:15). Compare 1Co 8:8; 1Ti 4:3, which prove that "fasting" is not an indispensable Christian obligation; but merely an outward expression of sorrow, and separation from ordinary worldly enjoyments, in order to give one's self to prayer (Ac 13:2). Daniel's mourning was probably for his countrymen, who met with many obstructions to their building of the temple, from their adversaries in the Persian court.
4. first month--Nisan, the month most suited for considering
Israel's calamity, being that in which the feast of unleavened bread
reminded them of their Egyptian bondage. Daniel mourned not merely for
the seven days appointed
from the evening of the fourteenth to the twenty-first of Nisan, but
thrice seven days, to mark extraordinary sorrow. His mourning
ended on the twenty-first day, the closing day of the passover feast;
but the vision is not till the twenty-fourth, because of the opposition
of "the prince of Persia"
5. lifted up mine eyes--from the ground on which they had been fixed
in his mourning.
7. they fled--terrified by the presence of the presence of the angel.
8. comeliness--literally, "vigor," that is, lively expression and
12. Fear not--Be not affrighted at my presence.
13. prince of . . . Persia--the angel of darkness that
represented the Persian world power, to which Israel was then subject.
This verse gives the reason why, though Daniel's "words were heard from
the first day"
the good angel did not come to him until more than three weeks had
14. what shall befall thy people in the latter days--an intimation that
the prophecy, besides describing the doings of Antiochus, reaches to the
concluding calamities of Israel's history, prior to the nation's full
restoration at Christ's coming--calamities of which Antiochus'
persecutions were the type.
16. touched my lips--the same significant action wherewith the Son
of man accompanied His healing of the dumb
He alone can give spiritual utterance
(Isa 6:6, 7;
enabling one to "open the mouth boldly." The same one who makes dumb
opens the mouth.
17. this . . . this my lord--to avoid the tautology in English Version, join rather "this," with "servant," "How can this servant of my lord (that is, how can I who am so feeble) talk with this my lord (who is so majestic)?" Thus Daniel gives the reason why he is so overwhelmed with awe [MAURER].
19. peace be unto thee--God is favorable to thee and to thy people Israel. See Jud 13:21, 22, as to the fear of some evil resulting from a vision of angels.
20. Knowest thou wherefore--The angel asks, after Daniel had
recovered from his fright, whether he has understood what was revealed
On Daniel, by his silence, intimating that he did understand, the angel
declares he will return to renew the fight with the evil angel, the
prince of Persia. This points to new difficulties to the Jews'
restoration which would arise in the Persian court, but which would be
counteracted by God, through the ministry of angels.
21. noted in the scripture of truth--in the secret book of God's
which are truth, that is, the things which shall most surely come to
pass, being determined by God (compare