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Ex 17:1-7. THE PEOPLE MURMUR FOR WATER.
1. the children of Israel journeyed from the wilderness of
Sin--In the succinct annals of this book, those places only are
selected for particular notice by the inspired historian, which were
scenes memorable for their happy or painful interest in the history of
the Israelites. A more detailed itinerary is given in the later books
of Moses, and we find that here two stations are omitted
2, 3. the people did chide with Moses, and said, Give us water that we may drink, &c.--The want of water was a privation, the severity of which we cannot estimate, and it was a great trial to the Israelites, but their conduct on this new occasion was outrageous; it amounted even to "a tempting of the Lord." It was an opposition to His minister, a distrust of His care, an indifference to His kindness, an unbelief in His providence, a trying of His patience and fatherly forbearance.
4. Moses cried unto the Lord, saying, What shall I do unto this people?--His language, instead of betraying any signs of resentment or vindictive imprecation on a people who had given him a cruel and unmerited treatment, was the expression of an anxious wish to know what was the best to be done in the circumstances (compare Mt 5:44; Ro 12:21).
5. the Lord said unto Moses, &c.--not to smite the rebels, but the rock; not to bring a stream of blood from the breast of the offenders, but a stream of water from the granite cliffs. The cloud rested on a particular rock, just as the star rested on the house where the infant Saviour was lodged [Mt 2:9]. And from the rod-smitten rock there forthwith gushed a current of pure and refreshing water. It was perhaps the greatest miracle performed by Moses, and in many respects bore a resemblance to the greatest of Christ's: being done without ostentation and in the presence of a few chosen witnesses (1Co 10:4).
Ex 17:8-16. ATTACK OF AMALEK.
8. Then came Amalek--Some time probably elapsed before they were
exposed to this new evil; and the presumption of there being such an
interval affords the only ground on which we can satisfactorily account
for the altered, the better, and former spirit that animated the people
in this sudden contest. The miracles of the manna and the water from
the rock had produced a deep impression and permanent conviction that
God was indeed among them; and with feelings elevated by the conscious
experience of the Divine Presence and aid, they remained calm,
resolute, and courageous under the attack of their unexpected foe.
9. Moses said unto Joshua--or, "Jesus" (Ac 7:45; Heb 4:8). This is the earliest notice of a young warrior destined to act a prominent part in the history of Israel. He went with a number of picked men. There is not here a wide open plain on which the battle took place, as according to the rules of modern warfare. The Amalekites were a nomadic tribe, making an irregular attack on a multitude probably not better trained than themselves, and for such a conflict the low hills and open country around this wady would afford ample space [ROBINSON].
10-12. Moses . . . went up . . . the hill . . . held up his hand--with the wonder-working rod; Moses acted as the standard bearer of Israel, and also their intercessor, praying for success and victory to crown their arms--the earnestness of his feelings being conspicuously evinced amid the feebleness of nature.
14-16. Write this for a memorial--If the bloody character of this statute seems to be at variance with the mild and merciful character of God, the reasons are to be sought in the deep and implacable vengeance they meditated against Israel (Ps 83:4).