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Ex 30:1-38. THE ALTAR OF INCENSE.
2-4. foursquare--the meaning of which is not that it was to be entirely of a cubical form, but that upon its upper and under surface, it showed four equal sides. It was twice as high as it was broad, being twenty-one inches broad and three feet six inches high. It had "horns"; its top or flat surface was surmounted by an ornamental ledge or rim, called a crown, and it was furnished at the sides with rings for carriage. Its only accompanying piece of furniture was a golden censer or pan, in which the incense was set fire to upon the altar. Hence it was called the altar of incense, or the "golden altar" [Ex 39:38; 40:26], from the profuse degree in which it was gilded or overlaid with the precious metal. This splendor was adapted to the early age of the church, but in later times, when the worship was to be more spiritual, the altar of incense is prophetically described as not of gold but of wood, and double the size of that in the tabernacle, because the church should be vastly extended (Mal 1:11).
6. thou shalt put it before the veil that is by the ark of the testimony--which separated the holy from the most holy place. The altar was in the middle between the table of showbread and the candlestick next the holy of holies, at equal distances from the north and south walls; in other words, it occupied a spot on the outside of the great partition veil, but directly in front of the mercy seat, which was within that sacred enclosure; so that although the priest who ministered at this altar could not behold the mercy seat, he was to look towards it, and present his incense in that direction. This was a special arrangement, and it was designed to teach the important lesson that, though we cannot with the eye of sense, see the throne of grace, we must "direct our prayer to it and look up" [Ps 5:3] (compare 2Co 3:14; Heb 10:20; Re 4:1).
7, 8. Aaron shall burn thereon sweet incense--literally,
"incense of spices"--Strong aromatic substances were burnt upon this
altar to counteract by their odoriferous fragrance the offensive fumes
of the sacrifices; or the incense was employed in an offering of
tributary homage which the Orientals used to make as a mark of honor to
kings; and as God was Theocratic Ruler of Israel, His palace was
not to be wanting in a usage of such significancy. Both these ends were
served by this altar--that of fumigating the apartments of the sacred
edifice, while the pure lambent flame, according to Oriental notions,
was an honorary tribute to the majesty of Israel's King. But there was
a far higher meaning in it still; for as the tabernacle was not only a
palace for Israel's King, but a place of worship for Israel's God, this
altar was immediately connected with a religious purpose. In the style
of the sacred writers, incense was a symbol or emblem of prayer
Re 5:8; 8:3).
From the uniform combination of the two services, it is evident that
the incense was an emblem of the prayers of sincere worshippers
ascending to heaven in the cloud of perfume; and, accordingly, the
priest who officiated at this altar typified the intercessory office of
8. Aaron shall burn incense--seemingly limiting the privilege of officiating at the altar of incense to the high priest alone, and there is no doubt that he and his successors exclusively attended this altar on the great religious festivals. But "Aaron" is frequently used for the whole priestly order, and in later times, any of the priests might have officiated at this altar in rotation (Lu 1:9).
9. Ye shall offer no strange incense--that is, of a different composition from that of which the ingredients are described so minutely.
11-16. When thou takest the sum of the children of Israel, &c.--Moses did so twice, and doubtless observed the law here prescribed. The tax was not levied from women, minors, old men (Nu 1:42, 45), and the Levites (Nu 1:47), they being not numbered. Assuming the shekel of the sanctuary to be about half an ounce troy, though nothing certain is known about it, the sum payable by each individual was two and four pence. This was not a voluntary contribution, but a ransom for the soul or lives of the people. It was required from all classes alike, and a refusal to pay implied a wilful exclusion from the privileges of the sanctuary, as well as exposure to divine judgments. It was probably the same impost that was exacted from our Lord (Mt 17:24-27), and it was usually devoted to repairs and other purposes connected with the services of the sanctuary.
18-21. Thou shalt . . . make a laver of brass--Though
not actually forming a component part of the furniture of the
tabernacle, this vase was closely connected with it; and though from
standing at the entrance it would be a familiar object, it possessed
great interest and importance from the baptismal purposes to which it
was applied. No data are given by which its form and size can be
ascertained; but it was probably a miniature pattern of Solomon's--a
23-33. Take thou also . . . principal spices, &c.--Oil
is frequently mentioned in Scripture as an emblem of sanctification,
and anointing with it a means of designating objects as well as persons
to the service of God. Here it is prescribed by divine authority, and
the various ingredients in their several proportions described which
were to compose the oil used in consecrating the furniture of the
24. cassia--from the same species of tree as the cinnamon--some
think the outer bark of that tree. All these together would amount to
one hundred twenty pounds, troy weight.
34-38. the Lord said unto Moses, Take unto thee sweet