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Ge 43:1-14. PREPARATIONS FOR A SECOND JOURNEY TO EGYPT.
2. their father said, . . . Go again, buy us a little food--It was no easy matter to bring Jacob to agree to the only conditions on which his sons could return to Egypt (Ge 42:15). The necessity of immediately procuring fresh supplies for the maintenance of themselves and their families overcame every other consideration and extorted his consent to Benjamin joining in a journey, which his sons entered on with mingled feelings of hope and anxiety--of hope, because having now complied with the governor's demand to bring down their youngest brother, they flattered themselves that the alleged ground of suspecting them would be removed; and of apprehension that some ill designs were meditated against them.
11. take of the best fruits . . . a present--It is an
Oriental practice never to approach a man of power without a present,
and Jacob might remember how he pacified his brother
--balm, spices, and myrrh (see on
12. take double money--the first sum to be returned, and another sum for a new supply. The restored money in the sacks' mouth was a perplexing circumstance. But it might have been done inadvertently by one of the servants--so Jacob persuaded himself--and happy it was for his own peace and the encouragement of the travellers that he took this view. Besides the duty of restoring it, honesty in their case was clearly the best, the safest policy.
Ge 43:15-30. ARRIVAL IN EGYPT.
15. stood before Joseph--We may easily imagine the delight with which, amid the crowd of other applicants, the eye of Joseph would fix on his brethren and Benjamin. But occupied with his public duties, he consigned them to the care of a confidential servant till he should have finished the business of the day.
16. ruler of his house--In the houses of wealthy Egyptians one
upper man servant was intrusted with the management of the house
18. the men were afraid--Their feelings of awe on entering the stately mansion, unaccustomed as they were to houses at all, their anxiety at the reasons of their being taken there, their solicitude about the restored money, their honest simplicity in communicating their distress to the steward and his assurances of having received their money in "full weight," the offering of their fruit present, which would, as usual, be done with some parade, and the Oriental salutations that passed between their host and them--are all described in a graphic and animated manner.
Ge 43:31-34. THE DINNER.
31. Joseph said, Set on bread--equivalent to having dinner served, "bread" being a term inclusive of all victuals. The table was a small stool, most probably the usual round form, "since persons might even then be seated according to their rank or seniority, and the modern Egyptian table is not without its post of honor and a fixed gradation of place" [WILKINSON]. Two or at most three persons were seated at one table. But the host being the highest in rank of the company had a table to himself; while it was so arranged that an Egyptian was not placed nor obliged to eat from the same dish as a Hebrew.
32. Egyptians might not eat bread with the Hebrews; for that is an abomination--The prejudice probably arose from the detestation in which, from the oppressions of the shepherd-kings, the nation held all of that occupation.
34. took and sent messes . . . Benjamin's mess was five
times--In Egypt, as in other Oriental countries, there were, and
are, two modes of paying attention to a guest whom the host wishes to
honor--either by giving a choice piece from his own hand, or ordering
it to be taken to the stranger. The degree of respect shown consists in
the quantity, and while the ordinary rule of distinction is a double
mess, it must have appeared a very distinguished mark of favor bestowed
on Benjamin to have no less than five times any of his brethren.