The speaker, according to HORSLEY,
personates the repenting Jews in the
latter ages of the world coming over to the faith of the Redeemer; the
whole is their penitent confession. This view suits the context
which is not to be fully realized until Israel is restored. However,
primarily, it is the abrupt exclamation of the prophet: "Who hath
believed our report," that of Isaiah and the other prophets, as to
Messiah? The infidel's objection from the unbelief of the Jews is
anticipated and hereby answered: that unbelief and the cause of it
(Messiah's humiliation, whereas they looked for One coming to
reign) were foreseen and foretold.
1. report--literally, "the thing heard," referring to which sense
Paul says, "So, then, faith cometh by hearing"
(Ro 10:16, 17).
exercised in miracles and in saving men
The prophet, as if present during Messiah's ministry on earth, is
deeply moved to see how few believed on Him
Mr 6:6; 9:19;
Two reasons are given why all ought to have believed: (1)
The "report" of the "ancient prophets." (2) "The arm of Jehovah"
exhibited in Messiah while on earth. In HORSLEY'S
view, this will be the penitent confession of the Jews, "How few of our
nation, in Messiah's days, believed in Him!"
2. tender plant--Messiah grew silently and insensibly, as a sucker
from an ancient stock, seemingly dead (namely, the house of David, then
in a decayed state)
shall grow . . . hath--rather, "grew up . . . had."
before him--before Jehovah. Though unknown to the world
Messiah was observed by God, who ordered the most minute
circumstances attending His growth.
root--that is, sprout from a root.
form--beautiful form: sorrow had marred His once beautiful form.
and when we shall see--rather, joined with the previous words, "Nor
comeliness (attractiveness) that we should look (with delight) on
there is--rather, "was." The studied reticence of the New
Testament as to His form, stature, color, &c., was designed to prevent
our dwelling on the bodily, rather than on His moral beauty, holiness,
love, &c., also a providential protest against the making and
veneration of images of Him. The letter of P. LENTULUS
to the emperor Tiberius, describing His person, is spurious; so also
the story of His sending His portrait to Abgar, king of Edessa; and the
alleged impression of His countenance on the handkerchief of Veronica.
The former part of this verse refers to His birth and childhood; the
latter to His first public appearance [VITRINGA].
3. rejected--"forsaken of men" [GESENIUS]. "Most abject of men." Literally, "He who
ceases from men," that is, is no longer regarded as a man
[HENGSTENBERG]. (See on
man of sorrows--that is, whose distinguishing characteristic was
acquainted with--familiar by constant contact with.
grief--literally, "disease"; figuratively for all kinds of
leprosy especially represented this, being a direct judgment
from God. It is remarkable Jesus is not mentioned as having ever
suffered under sickness.
and we hid . . . faces--rather, as one who causes men
to hide their faces from Him (in aversion)
[MAURER]. Or, "He was as
an hiding of the face before it," that is, as a thing before which a
man covers his face in disgust
[HENGSTENBERG]. Or, "as one before whom
is the covering of the face"; before whom one covers the face in
we--the prophet identifying himself with the Jews. See HORSLEY'S view (see on
esteemed . . . not--negative contempt; the previous words express
4. Surely . . . our griefs--literally, "But yet
He hath taken (or borne) our sicknesses," that is,
they who despised Him because of His human infirmities ought rather to
have esteemed Him on account of them; for thereby "Himself took
OUR infirmities" (bodily diseases). So
quotes it. In the Hebrew for "borne," or took, there is
probably the double notion, He took on Himself vicariously (so
Isa 53:5, 6, 8, 12),
and so He took away; His perfect humanity whereby He was bodily
afflicted for us, and in all our afflictions
was the ground on which He cured the sick; so that Matthew's quotation
is not a mere accommodation. See Note 42 of ARCHBISHOP MAGEE, Atonement.
The Hebrew there may mean to overwhelm with darkness;
Messiah's time of darkness was temporary
answering to the bruising of His heel; Satan's is to be eternal,
answering to the bruising of his head (compare
carried . . . sorrows--The notion of substitution strictly.
"Carried," namely, as a burden. "Sorrows," that is, pains of the mind; as "griefs" refer to pains of the body
(Ps 32:10; 38:17).
might seem to oppose this: "And bare our sicknesses." But he
uses "sicknesses" figuratively for sins, the cause of them.
Christ took on Himself all man's "infirmities;" so as to remove them;
the bodily by direct miracle, grounded on His participation in human
infirmities; those of the soul by His vicarious suffering, which did
away with the source of both. Sin and sickness are ethically
connected as cause and effect
we did esteem him stricken--judicially
[LOWTH], namely, for His sins;
whereas it was for ours. "We thought Him to be a leper"
[JEROME, Vulgate], leprosy
being the direct divine judgment for
Nu 12:10, 15;
smitten--by divine judgments.
afflicted--for His sins; this was the point in which they so erred
He was, it is true, "afflicted," but not for His sins.
5. wounded--a bodily wound; not mere mental sorrow; literally,
"pierced"; minutely appropriate to Messiah, whose hands, feet, and side
The Margin, wrongly, from a Hebrew root, translates,
for . . . for--
1Pe 2:24; 3:18)
--the cause for which He suffered not His own, but our
bruised--crushing inward and outward suffering
chastisement--literally, the correction inflicted by a
parent on children for their good
(Heb 12:5-8, 10, 11).
Not punishment strictly; for this can have place only where
there is guilt, which He had not; but He took on Himself the
chastisement whereby the peace (reconciliation with our Father;
Eph 2:14, 15, 17)
of the children of God was to be effected
upon him--as a burden; parallel to "hath borne" and "carried."
stripes--minutely prophetical of His being scourged
6. Penitent confession of believers and of Israel in the last days
sheep . . . astray--
The antithesis is, "In ourselves we were scattered; in Christ we are
collected together; by nature we wander, driven headlong to
destruction; in Christ we find the way to the gate of life" [CALVIN]. True, also, literally of Israel before its
(Eze 34:5, 6;
Zec 10:2, 6;
Eze 34:23, 24;
Jer 23:4, 5;
laid--"hath made to light on Him"
[LOWTH]. Rather, "hath made to
rush upon Him" [MAURER].
the iniquity--that is, its penalty; or rather, as in
He was not merely a sin offering (which would destroy the antithesis
to "righteousness"), but "sin for us"; sin itself vicariously; the
representative of the aggregate sin of all mankind; not sins in
the plural, for the "sin" of the world is one
(Ro 5:16, 17);
thus we are made not merely righteous, but righteousness,
even "the righteousness of God." The innocent was punished as
if guilty, that the guilty might be rewarded as if innocent.
This verse could be said of no mere martyr.
translates, "It was exacted, and He was made
answerable." The verb means, "to have payment of a debt sternly exacted"
(De 15:2, 3),
and so to be oppressed in general; the exaction of the
full penalty for our sins in His sufferings is probably alluded to.
and . . . afflicted--or, and yet He suffered, or
bore Himself patiently, &c.
translation, "He was made answerable," is hardly admitted by the
opened not . . . mouth--
and David in
Ps 38:13, 14; 39:9,
(Mt 26:63; 27:12, 14;
8. Rather, "He was taken away (that is, cut off) by oppression and
by a judicial sentence"; a hendiadys for, "by an oppressive judicial
sentence" [LOWTH and
GESENIUS not so well, "He was
delivered from oppression and punishment" only by death.
English Version also translates, "from . . . from," not "by . . . by."
But "prison" is not true of Jesus, who was not incarcerated; restraint and bonds
more accord with the Hebrew.
translate as the Septuagint: "In His humiliation His judgment
(legal trial) was taken away"; the virtual sense of the Hebrew
as rendered by LOWTH and sanctioned by the
inspired writer of Acts; He was treated as one so mean that a fair
trial was denied Him
HORSLEY translates, "After condemnation and
judgment He was accepted."
who . . . declare . . . generation--who can set forth (the wickedness
of) His generation? that is, of His contemporaries
which suits best the parallelism, "the wickedness of His generation"
corresponding to "oppressive judgment." But LUTHER, "His length of life," that is, there shall be
no end of His future days
CALVIN includes the days of His Church,
which is inseparable from Himself. HENGSTENBERG,
"His posterity." He, indeed, shall be cut off, but His race
shall be so numerous that none can fully declare it.
CHYRSOSTOM, &c., "His eternal sonship and
cut off--implying a violent death
my people--Isaiah, including himself among them by the word "my"
JEHOVAH speaks in the person of His prophet,
"My people," by the election of grace
was he stricken--Hebrew, "the stroke (was laid) upon Him."
says the Hebrew means "them"; the collective body, whether of the
prophets or people, to which the Jews refer the whole prophecy. But
JEROME, the Syriac, and Ethiopiac versions translate it "Him"; so
it is singular in some passages;
thereto. The Septuagint, the Hebrew, lamo, "upon
Him," read the similar words, lamuth, "unto death," which would
at once set aside the Jewish interpretation, "upon them." ORIGEN, who laboriously compared the Hebrew with
the Septuagint, so read it, and urged it against the Jews of his
day, who would have denied it to be the true reading if the word had
not then really so stood in the Hebrew text [LOWTH]. If his sole authority be thought insufficient,
perhaps lamo may imply that Messiah was the representative of
the collective body of all men; hence the equivocal
9. Rather, "His grave was appointed," or "they appointed Him His
grave" [HENGSTENBERG]; that is, they
intended (by crucifying Him
with two thieves,
that He should have His grave "with the wicked." Compare
the denial of honorable burial being accounted a great ignominy (see on
and with . . . rich--ra