CONDEMNED, AT THE
This closing chapter is the summary of Isaiah's prophecies as to the
last days, hence the similarity of its sentiments with what went before.
1. heaven . . . throne . . . where is
. . . house . . . ye build--The same sentiment
is expressed, as a precautionary proviso for the majesty of God in
deigning to own any earthly temple as His, as if He could be
circumscribed by space
in inaugurating the temple of stone; next, as to the temple of the Holy
(Ac 7:48, 49);
lastly here, as to "the tabernacle of God with men"
(Isa 2:2, 3;
Eze 43:4, 7;
where--rather, "what is this house that ye are building, &c.--what
place is this for My rest?" [VITRINGA].
2. have been--namely, made by Me. Or, absolutely, were things
made; and therefore belong to Me, the Creator
trembleth at . . . word--
(2Ki 22:11, 19;
The spiritual temple of the heart, though not superseding the outward
place of worship, is God's favorite dwelling
In the final state in heaven there shall be "no temple," but "the Lord
3. God loathes even the sacrifices of the wicked
Pr 15:8; 28:9).
is as if--LOWTH not so well omits these words: "He that killeth an
ox (presently after) murders a man" (as in
But the omission in the Hebrew of "is as if"--increases the
force of the comparison. Human victims were often offered by the
dog's neck--an abomination according to the Jewish law
perhaps made so, because dogs were venerated in Egypt. He does not honor
this abomination by using the word "sacrifice," but uses the degrading
term, "cut off a dog's neck"
(Ex 13:13; 34:20).
Dogs as unclean are associated with swine
oblation--unbloody: in antithesis to "swine's blood"
burneth--Hebrew, "he who offereth as a memorial oblation"
they have chosen--opposed to the two first clauses of
"as they have chosen their own ways, &c., so I will choose
answering to "their own ways"
However, the Hebrew means rather "vexations," "calamities,"
which also the parallelism to "fears" requires; "choose their
calamities" means, "choose the calamities which they thought to escape
by their own ways."
their fears--the things they feared, to avert which their idolatrous
I called . . . none . . .
did . . . chose--not only did the evil deed,
but did it deliberately as a matter of choice
"They chose that in which I delighted not"; therefore,
"I will choose" that in which they delight not, the
"calamities" and "fears" which they were most anxious to avert.
before mine eyes--(See on
5. tremble at . . . word--the same persons as in
the believing few among the Jews.
cast you out for my name's sake--excommunicate, as if too polluted
to worship with them
So in Christ's first sojourn on earth
Joh 9:22, 34; 16:2; 15:21).
So it shall be again in the last times, when the believing shall be few
Let the Lord be glorified--the mocking challenge of the persecutors,
as if their violence towards you was from zeal for God. "Let the Lord
show Himself glorious," namely, by manifesting Himself in your behalf; as the parallelism to, "He shall appear to your joy," requires (as
Isa 28:15; 57:4).
So again Christ on the cross
(Mt 27:42, 43).
appear to your joy--giving you "joy" instead of your "rebuke"
(Isa 25:8, 9).
6. God, from Jerusalem and His "temple," shall take vengeance on the
Zec 12:2, 3; 14:3, 19-21).
The abrupt language of this verse marks the suddenness with which God
destroys the hostile Gentile host outside: as
refers to the confounding of the unbelieving Jews.
voice of noise--that is, the Lord's loud-sounding voice
(Ps 68:33; 29:3-9;
Before . . . travailed . . . brought forth--The accession of numbers,
and of prosperity to her, shall be sudden beyond all expectation and
unattended with painful effort
(Isa 54:1, 4, 5).
Contrast with this case of the future Jewish Church the
travail-pains of the Christian Church in bringing forth
"a man child"
(Re 12:2, 5).
A man child's birth is in the East a matter of special joy, while that
of a female is not so; therefore, it here means the manly sons
of the restored Jewish Church, the singular being used collectively for
the plural: or the many sons being regarded as one under
Messiah, who shall then be manifested as their one representative
8. earth--rather, to suit the parallelism, "is a country (put
for the people in it) brought forth in one day?"
English Version it means, The earth brings forth its productions
gradually, not in one day
at once--In this case, contrary to the usual growth of the nations
by degrees, Israel starts into maturity at once.
for--rather, "is a nation born at once, that Zion has, so soon
as she travailed, brought forth?" [MAURER].
9. cause to bring forth, and shut--rather, "Shall I who beget, restrain the birth?"
that is, Shall I who have begun, not finish My work of restoring
Re 3:7, 8).
10. love . . . mourn for her--
(Ps 102:14, 17, 20; 122:6).
(Isa 60:5, 16; 61:6; 49:23).
abundance--Hebrew, "the ray-like flow of her opulence," that
is, with the milk spouting out from her full breasts (answering to the
parallel, "breast of her consolations") in ray-like streams
12. extend--I will turn peace (prosperity) upon her, like a
river turned in its course
[GESENIUS]. Or, "I will spread peace
over her as an overflowing river"
flowing stream--as the Nile by its overflow fertilizes the whole of
borne upon . . .
her . . . her--If "ye" refers to the Jews, translate, "ye shall be
borne upon their sides . . . their knees," namely, those of the
Gentiles, as in
and as "suck"
refers to the Jews sucking the Gentile wealth. However,
English Version gives a good sense: The Jews, and all who love
"shall suck, and be borne" by her as a mother.
(Isa 40:1, 2).
14. bones--which once were "dried up" by the "fire" of God's wrath
shall live again
(Pr 3:8; 15:30;
flourish . . . herb--
known toward--manifested in behalf of.
chariots . . . whirlwind--
render--as the Hebrew elsewhere
means to "allay" or "stay wrath." MAURER
translates it so here: He stays His anger with nothing but
fury," &c.; nothing short of pouring out all His fiery fury will
satisfy His wrath.
[LOWTH], to which the parallel, "flames of
16. Rather, "With fire will Jehovah judge, and with His sword
(He will judge) all flesh." The parallelism and collocation of the
Hebrew words favor this
all flesh--that is, all who are the objects of His wrath. The
godly shall be hidden by the Lord in a place of safety away from the
scene of judgment
(Isa 26:20, 21;
1Th 4:16, 17).
17. in . . . gardens--Hebrew and the Septuagint rather require,
"for (entering into) gardens," namely, to sacrifice there
behind one tree--rather, "following one," that is, some idol or other,
which, from contempt, he does not name
VITRINGA, &c., think
the Hebrew for "one," Ahhadh, to be the name of the god; called
Adad (meaning One) in Syria (compare
The idol's power was represented by inclined rays, as of the sun
shining on the earth. GESENIUS translates,
"following one," namely, Hierophant ("priest"), who led the rest
in performing the sacred rites.
in . . . midst--namely, of the garden
Isa 65:3, 4).
because it was an idol to the heathen (see on
Translate, "the field mouse," or "dormouse" [BOCHART]. The Pharisees with their self-righteous
purifications, and all mere formalists, are included in the same
condemnation, described in language taken from the idolatries prevalent
in Isaiah's times.
18. know--not in the Hebrew. Rather, understand the words by
aposiopesis; it is usual in threats to leave the persons threatened to
supply the hiatus from their own fears, owing to conscious guilt: "For
I . . . their works and thoughts," &c.; namely, will punish
it shall come--the time is come that I will, &c.
gather . . . nations--against Jerusalem, where the ungodly Jews
shall perish; and then the Lord at last shall fight for Jerusalem
against those nations: and the survivors
shall "see God's glory"
(Zec 12:8, 9; 14:1-3, 9).
tongues--which have been many owing to sin, being confounded at
Babel, but which shall again be one in Christ
Re 7:9, 10).
19. sign--a banner on a high place, to indicate the place of
meeting for the dispersed Jewish exiles, preparatory to their return to
(Isa 5:26; 11:12; 62:10).
those that escape of them--the Gentile survivors spared by God
Isa 2:2, 3;
Mic 5:7; and
represent it, not that the Jews go as missionaries to the Gentiles, but
that the Gentiles come up to Jerusalem to learn the Lord's ways there.
Tarshish--Tartessus in Spain, in the west.
Pul--east and north of Africa: probably the same as
Philœ, an island in the Nile, called by the Egyptians
Pilak, that is, the border country, being between Egypt and
Lud--the Libyans of Africa
Ludim being son of Mizraim (Egypt): an Ethiopian people famous as
employed as mercenaries by Tyre and Egypt
(Eze 27:10; 30:5).
Tubal--Tibarenians, in Asia Minor, south of the Caucasus,
between the Black Sea and Araxes. Or, the Iberians [JOSEPHUS]. Italy [JEROME].
Javan--the Greeks; called Ionians, including all the descendants
of Javan, both in Greece and in Asia Minor
my glory . . . Gentiles--
20. they--the Gentiles
bring . . . your brethren--the Jews, back to the Holy Land
It cannot mean the me