He had paused for a reply, but Job was silent.
1. the Lord--Hebrew, "JEHOVAH."
2. he that contendeth--as Job had so often expressed a wish to do.
Or, rebuketh. Does Job now still (after seeing and hearing of God's
majesty and wisdom) wish to set God right?
answer it--namely, the questions I have asked.
4. I am (too) vile (to reply). It is a very different thing to
vindicate ourselves before God, from what it is before men. Job could
do the latter, not the former.
lay . . . hand . . . upon . . . mouth--I have no plea to offer
5. Once . . . twice--oftentimes, more than once
I have spoken--namely, against God.
not answer--not plead against Thee.
6. the Lord--JEHOVAH.
7. (See on
Since Job has not only spoken against God, but accused Him of
injustice, God challenges him to try, could he govern the world,
as God by His power doth, and punish the proud and wicked
8. Wilt thou not only contend with, but set aside My judgment or
justice in the government of the world?
condemn--declare Me unrighteous, in order that thou mayest be
accounted righteous (innocent; undeservingly afflicted).
9. arm--God's omnipotence
10. See, hast thou power and majesty like God's, to enable thee to
judge and govern the world?
11. rage--rather, pour out the redundant floods of, &c.
behold--Try, canst thou, as God, by a mere glance abase the proud
in their place--on the spot; suddenly, before they can move from
their place. (See on
Abase and remove them out of the sight of men.
bind . . . faces--that is, shut up their persons
[MAURER]. But it
refers rather to the custom of binding a cloth over the faces of
persons about to be executed
in secret--consign them to darkness.
14. confess--rather, "extol"; "I also," who now censure thee. But
since thou canst not do these works, thou must, instead of censuring,
extol My government.
thine own . . . hand . . . save--
So as to eternal salvation by Jesus Christ
(Isa 59:16; 63:5).
15-24. God shows that if Job cannot bring under control the lower
animals (of which he selects the two most striking, behemoth on land,
leviathan in the water), much less is he capable of governing the
behemoth--The description in part agrees with the hippopotamus, in
part with the elephant, but exactly in all details with neither. It is
rather a poetical personification of the great Pachydermata, or
Herbivora (so "he eateth grass"), the idea of the hippopotamus being
"the tail like a cedar," hardly applies to the latter (so also
Job 40:20, 23,
"Jordan," a river which elephants alone could reach, but see on
On the other hand,
Job 40:21, 22
are characteristic of the amphibious river horse. So leviathan
(the twisting animal),
is a generalized term for cetacea, pythons, saurians of the neighboring
seas and rivers, including the crocodile, which is the most prominent,
and is often associated with the river horse by old writers. "Behemoth"
seems to be the Egyptian Pehemout, "water-ox," Hebraized,
so-called as being like an ox, whence the Italian bombarino.
with thee--as I made thyself. Yet how great the difference! The
manifold wisdom and power of God!
he eateth grass--marvellous in an animal living so much in the
water; also strange, that such a monster should not be carnivorous.
16. navel--rather, "muscles" of his belly; the weakest point of the
elephant, therefore it is not meant.
17. like a cedar--As the tempest bends the cedar, so it can move
its smooth thick tail [UMBREIT].
But the cedar implies straightness and
length, such as do not apply to the river horse's short tail, but
perhaps to an extinct species of animal
wrapped--firmly twisted together, like a thick rope.
18. strong--rather, "tubes" of copper
19. Chief of the works of God; so "ways"
can make his sword to approach--rather, "has furnished him with his
sword" (harpe), namely, the sickle-like teeth with which he cuts
down grain. English Version, however, is literally right.
20. The mountain is not his usual haunt.
BOCHART says it is
sometimes found there (?).
beasts . . . play--a graphic trait: though armed with such teeth,
he lets the beasts play near him unhurt, for his food is grass.
21. lieth--He leads an inactive life.
shady trees--rather, "lotus bushes"; as
22. shady trees--Translate: "lotus bushes."
23. Rather, "(Though) a river be violent (overflow), he trembleth
not"; (for though living on land, he can live in the water, too); he is
secure, though a Jordan swell up to his mouth. "Jordan" is used for
any great river (consonant with the "behemoth"), being a poetical
The author cannot have been a Hebrew as UMBREIT asserts, or he would not adduce the Jordan, where
there were no river horses. He alludes to it as a name for any
river, but not as one known to him, except by hearsay.
24. Rather, "Will any take him by open force" (literally, "before
his eyes"), "or pierce his nose with cords?" No; he can only be taken
by guile, and in a pitfall
(Job 41:1, 2).