1. (Compare Margin). The Hebrews used stones for weights.
just--complete in measure.
2. Self-conceit is unteachable; the humble grow wise (compare
Pr 16:18; 18:12).
3. guide--to lead, as a shepherd
wrath--that is, of God.
5. direct--or, "make plain"; wicked ways are not plain
6. deliver them--that is, from evil, which the wicked suffer by their
7. expectation . . . perish--for death cuts short all his plans
hope of unjust--better, "hope of wealth," or "power" (compare
Hebrew). This gives an advance on the sentiment of the first
clause. Even hopes of gain die with him.
8. Perhaps the trouble prepared by the wicked, and which he
The just is saved by superior discernment.
10, 11. The last may be a reason for the first. Together, they set
forth the relative moral worth of good and bad men.
11. By the blessing--implying active benevolence.
12. despiseth--or, "reviles," a course contrasted with the prudent
silence of the wise.
holdeth his peace--as if neither hearing nor telling.
13. tale-bearer--(Compare Margin), one trading as a peddler in
scandal, whose propensity to talk leads him to betray confidence.
14. counsel--the art of governing
counsellors--literally, "one giving counsel"; the participle used as
suretiship--(Compare Margin), the actors put for the action, which
may be lawfully hated.
16. retaineth--or literally, "lay hold of as a support." Honor is to a
feeble woman thus as valuable as riches to men.
17. merciful--kind to others; opposed to cruel. Such benefit themselves
by doing good to others (compare
while the cruel injure themselves as well as others.
flesh--that is, his body, by penuriousness
18. a deceitful work--or, "wages," which fail to satisfy, or flee away
(Pr 10:2; 23:5).
sure reward--or, "gain," as from trading
Ga 6:8, 9).
19. Inference from
Pr 11:5, 6; 10:16).
opposed to the simplicity and purity of the upright.
in their way--or, "conduct."
21. The combined power of the wicked cannot free them from just
punishment, while the unaided children of the righteous find deliverance
by reason of their pious relationship
(Ps 37:25, 26).
22. Jewels were often suspended from the nose
Thus adorned, a hog disgusts less than a fair and indiscreet woman.
wrath--is that of God.
24-31. The scope of the whole is a comment on
Thus liberality, by God's blessing, secures increase, while
penuriousness, instead of expected gain, procures poverty.
25. liberal soul--(Compare Margin).
watereth . . . watered--a common figure for blessing.
26. Another example of the truth of
the miser loses reputation, though he saves corn.
selleth it--that is, at a fair price.
27. good [and] mischief--that is, of others.
procureth . . . seeketh--implying success.
righteous . . . branch--
explains, by greediness for gain (compare
inherit . . . wind--Even successful, his gains are of no real value.
So the fool, thus acting, either comes to poverty, or heaps up for
30. a tree of life--Blessings to others proceed from the works of the
winneth souls--(Compare Margin) to do them good as opposed to
31. Behold--Thus calling attention to the illustrations (compare
the sentiment of which is confirmed even in time, not excluding future
rewards and punishments.