1. A bad conscience makes men timid; the righteous are alone truly bold
2. Anarchy producing contending rulers shortens the reign of each.
but by a man . . . prolonged--or, "by a man of understanding--that
is, a good ruler--he who knows or regards the right, that is, a good
citizen, shall prolong (his days)." Good rulers are a blessing to the
people. Bad government as a punishment for evil is contrasted with good
as blessing to the good.
3. A poor man, &c.--Such, in power, exact more severely, and so leave
4. They that forsake . . . wicked--Wrongdoers encourage one another.
Ignorance of moral truth is due to unwillingness to know it.
Riches cannot compensate for sin, nor the want of them affect
riotous men--or, "gluttons"
(Pr 23:20, 21).
8. usury . . . unjust gain--(Compare Margin). The two terms,
meaning nearly the same, may denote excessive interest. God's providence
directs the proper use of wealth.
Pr 15:8; 21:27).
hearing--that is, obeying. God requires sincere worshippers
11. A poor but wise man can discover (and expose) the rich and
12. great glory--or, cause for it to a people, for the righteous
rejoice in good, and righteousness exalts a nation
a man . . . hidden--that is, the good retire, or all kinds try to
escape a wicked rule.
Concealment of sin delivers none from God's wrath, but He shows mercy
to the humble penitent
14. feareth--that is, God, and so repents.
hardeneth his heart--makes himself insensible to sin, and so will not
(Pr 14:16; 29:1).
15. The rapacity and cruelty of such beasts well represent some wicked
Ps 7:2; 17:12).
16. The prince . . . understanding--that is, He does not perceive
that oppression jeopards his success. Covetousness often produces
oppression, hence the contrast.
17. doeth violence . . . blood, &c.--or, that is oppressed by the
blood of life
which he has taken.
to the pit--the grave or destruction
stay him--sustain or deliver him.
Pr 10:9; 17:20).
Double dealing is eventually fatal.
Pr 10:4; 20:4).
vain persons--idle, useless drones, implying that they are also wicked
20. maketh haste . . . rich--implying
deceit or fraud
and so opposed to "faithful" or reliable.
21. respect of persons--
Such are led to evil by the slightest motive.
evil eye--in the general sense of
here more specific for covetousness (compare
poverty . . . him--by God's providence.
Pr 9:8, 9; 27:5).
Those benefited by reproof will love their monitors.
Such, though heirs, are virtually thieves, to be ranked with
25. of a proud heart--literally, "puffed up of soul"--that is,
self-confident, and hence overbearing and litigious.
made fat--or, "prosperous"
(Pr 11:25; 16:20).
walketh wisely--that is, trusting in God
hideth his eyes--as the face
(Ps 27:9; 69:17),
28. The elevation of the wicked to power drives men to seek refuge from
Pr 28:12; 11:10;