1. But . . . thou--in contrast to the reprobate
seducers stigmatized in
Tit 1:11, 15, 16.
"He deals more in exhortations, because those intent on useless
questions needed chiefly to be recalled to the study of a holy, moral
life; for nothing so effectually allays men's wandering curiosity, as
the being brought to recognize those duties in which they ought to
exercise themselves" [CALVIN].
speak--without restraint: contrast
"mouths . . . stopped."
doctrine--"instruction" or "teaching."
2. sober--Translated "vigilant," as sober men alone can be
But "sober" here answers to "not given to wine,"
grave--"dignified"; behaving with reverent propriety.
faith . . . charity [love] . . .
"Faith, hope, charity"
"Patience," Greek, "enduring perseverance," is the attendant on,
and is supported by, "hope"
It is the grace which especially becomes old men, being the
fruit of ripened experience derived from trials overcome
as becometh holiness--"as becometh women consecrated to God"
[WAHL]: being by our Christian calling priestesses
"Observant of sacred decorum" [BENGEL].
not false accusers--not slanderers: a besetting sin of some elderly
given to much wine--the besetting sin of the Cretans
Literally, "enslaved to much wine." Addiction to wine is slavery
teachers--in private: not in public
1Ti 2:11, 12);
influencing for good the younger women by precept and example.
4. to be sober--Greek, "self-restrained," "discreet"; the
same Greek as in
"temperate." (But see on
ALFORD therefore translates, "That they school
(admonish in their duty) the young women to be lovers of their
husbands," &c. (the foundation of all domestic happiness). It was
judicious that Titus, a young man, should admonish the young women, not
directly, but through the older women.
5. keepers at home--as "guardians of the house," as the
Greek expresses. The oldest manuscripts read, "Workers at
home": active in household duties
Not churlish and niggardly, but thrifty as housewives.
obedient--rather "submissive," as the Greek is
translated; (see on
Eph 5:21, 22;
their own--marking the duty of subjection which they owe them, as
being their own husbands
blasphemed--"evil spoken of." That no reproach may be cast on the
Gospel, through the inconsistencies of its professors
(Tit 2:8, 10;
1Ti 5:14; 6:1).
"Unless we are virtuous, blasphemy will come through us to the faith"
6. Young--Greek, "The younger men."
"Nothing is so hard at this age as to overcome pleasures and follies"
7. In--with respect to all things.
thyself a pattern--though but a young man thyself. All teaching is
useless unless the teacher's example confirm his word.
in doctrine--in thy ministerial teaching (showing)
uncorruptness, that is, untainted purity of motive on thy
so as to be "a pattern" to all. As "gravity," &c., refers to Titus
himself, so "uncorruptness"; though, doubtless, uncorruptness of the
doctrine will be sure to follow as a consequence of the Christian
minister being of simple, uncorrupt integrity himself.
gravity--dignified seriousness in setting forth the truth.
sincerity--omitted in the oldest manuscripts.
8. speech--discourse in public and private ministrations.
he that is of the contrary part--the adversary
whether he be heathen or Jew.
may be ashamed--put to confusion by the power of truth and innocence
Tit 2:5, 10;
1Ti 5:14; 6:1).
no evil thing--in our acts, or demeanor.
of you--So one of the oldest manuscripts. Other very old manuscripts
read, "of US," Christians.
to please them well--"to give satisfaction"
[ALFORD]. To be complaisant in everything;
to have that zealous desire to gain the master's goodwill which will
anticipate the master's wish and do even more than is required. The
reason for the frequent recurrence of injunctions to slaves to
&c.; Col 3:22;
&c.; 1Pe 2:18)
was, that in no rank was there more danger of the doctrine of the
spiritual equality and freedom of Christians being misunderstood
than in that of slaves. It was natural for the slave who had become a
Christian, to forget his place and put himself on a social level
with his master. Hence the charge for each to abide in the sphere in
which he was when converted
not answering again--in contradiction to the master: so the
Greek, "not contradicting" [WAHL].
10. Not purloining--Greek, "Not appropriating"
what does not belong to one. It means "keeping back" dishonestly or
(Ac 5:2, 3).
showing--manifesting in acts.
good--really good; not so in mere appearance
(Eph 6:5, 6;
"The heathen do not judge of the Christian's doctrines from the
doctrine, but from his actions and life"
[CHRYSOSTOM]. Men will write, fight, and even die
for their religion; but how few live for it! Translate, "That
they may adorn the doctrine of our Saviour God," that is, God the
Father, the originating author of salvation (compare Note, see
God deigns to have His Gospel-doctrine adorned even by slaves, who are
regarded by the world as no better than beasts of burden. "Though the
service be rendered to an earthly master, the honor redounds to God, as
the servant's goodwill flows from the fear of God"
[THEOPHYLACT]. Even slaves, low as is their
status, should not think the influence of their example a matter of no
consequence to religion: how much more those in a high position. His
love in being "our Saviour" is the strongest ground for our adorning
His doctrine by our lives. This is the force of "For" in
11. the grace of God--God's gratuitous favor in the scheme of
hath appeared--Greek, "hath been made to appear," or
"hath been manifested"
after having been long hidden in the loving counsels of God
2Ti 1:9, 10).
The image is illustrated in
The grace of God hath now been embodied in Jesus, the brightness
of the Father's glory," manifested as the "Sun of
righteousness," "the Word made flesh." The Gospel dispensation is hence
termed "the day"
(1Th 5:5, 8;
there is a double "appearing," that of "grace" here, that of "glory,"
compare Ro 13:12).
Connect it not as English Version, but, "The grace
. . . that bringeth salvation to all men hath
appeared," or "been manifested"
(1Ti 2:4; 4:10).
Hence God is called "our Saviour"
The very name Jesus means the same.
to all--of whom he enumerated the different classes
even to servants; to us Gentiles, once aliens from God. Hence arises
our obligation to all men
12. Teaching--Greek, "disciplining us." Grace exercises
discipline, and is imparted in connection with disciplining
Heb 12:6, 7).
The education which the Christian receives from "the grace" of God is a
discipline often trying to flesh and blood: just as children need
disciplining. The discipline which it exercises teaches
us to deny ungodliness and worldly lusts, and to live soberly,
righteously, and godly, in this present world (Greek, "age,"
or course of things) where such self-discipline is needed, seeing that
its spirit is opposed to God
(Tit 1:12, 16;
1Co 1:20; 3:18, 19):
in the coming world we may gratify every desire without need of
self-discipline, because all desires there will be conformable to the
will of God.
that--Greek, "in order that"; the end of the
"disciplining" is "in order that . . . we may live
soberly," &c. This point is lost by the translation, "teaching
denying . . . lusts--
The Greek aorist expresses "denying once for all." We
deny "worldly lusts" when we withhold our consent from them, when we
refuse the delight which they suggest, and the act to which they
solicit us, nay, tear them up by the roots out of our soul and mind
[ST. BERNARD, Sermon 11].
worldly lusts--The Greek article expresses, "the
lusts of the world," "all worldly lusts"
1Jo 2:15-17; 5:19).
The world (cosmos) will not come to an end when this
present age (aeon) or course of things shall end.
live soberly, righteously, and godly--the positive side
of the Christian character; as "denying . . . lusts" was the
negative. "Soberly," that is, with self-restraint, in
relation to one's self: "righteously" or justly, in
relation to our neighbor; "godly" or piously, in relation
to God (not merely amiably and justly, but
something higher, godly, with love and reverence toward God).
These three comprise our "disciplining" in faith and
love, from which he passes to hope
(Php 3:20, 21).
Looking for--with constant expectation (so the
Greek) and with joy
This will prove the antidote to worldly lusts, and the stimulus to
"live in this present world" conformably to this expectation.
The Greek is translated, "waiting for," in
(Ro 4:7, 8).
hope--that is, object of hope
the glorious appearing--There is but one Greek article to
both "hope" and "appearing," which marks their close connection (the
hope being about to be realized only at the appearing of
Christ). Translate, "The blessed hope and manifestation
(compare Note, see on
of the glory." The Greek for "manifestation" is
translated "brightness" in
As His "coming" (Greek, "parousia") expresses the fact;
so "brightness, appearing," or "manifestation" (epiphaneia)
expresses His personal visibility when He shall come.
the great God and our Saviour Jesus--There is but one