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1. flying roll--of papyrus, or dressed skins, used for writing on when paper was not known. It was inscribed with the words of the curse (De 27:15-26; 28:15-68). Being written implied that its contents were beyond all escape or repeal (Eze 2:9). Its "flying" shows that its curses were ready swiftly to visit the transgressors. It was unrolled, or else its dimensions could not have been seen (Zec 5:2). Being open to all, none could say in excuse he knew not the law and the curses of disobedience. As the previous visions intimated God's favor in restoring the Jewish state, so this vision announces judgment, intimating that God, notwithstanding His favor, did not approve of their sins. Being written on both sides, "on this and on that side" (Zec 5:3) [VATABLUS] connects it with the two tables of the law (Ex 32:15), and implies its comprehensiveness. One side denounced "him that sweareth falsely (Zec 5:4) by God's name," according to the third commandment of the first table, duty to God; the other side denounced theft, according to the eighth commandment, which is in the second table, duty to one's neighbor.
2. length . . . twenty cubits . . . breadth . . . ten cubits--thirty feet by fifteen, the dimensions of the temple porch (1Ki 6:3), where the law was usually read, showing that it was divinely authoritative in the theocracy. Its large size implies the great number of the curses contained. The Hebrew for "roll" or "volume" is used of the law (Ps 40:7).
3. curse . . . earth--
The Gentiles are amenable to the curse of the law, as they have its
substance, so far as they have not seared and corrupted conscience,
written on their hearts
4. The "theft" immediately meant is similar sacrilege to that
complained of in
They robbed God by neglecting to give Him His due in building His
house, while they built their own houses, forswearing their obligations
to Him; therefore, the "houses" they build shall be "consumed" with
God's "curse." Probably literal theft and perjury accompanied their
virtual theft and perjury as to the temple of God
Stealing and perjury go together; for the covetous and fraudulent
perjure themselves by God's name without scruple (see
The ephah is the Hebrew dry measure containing about a bushel, or seven and a half gallons. Alluding to the previous vision as to theft and perjury: the ephah which, by falsification of the measure, they made the instrument of defrauding, shall be made the instrument of their punishment [GROTIUS]. Compare "this is their resemblance" (Zec 5:6), that is, this is a representation of what the Jews have done, and what they shall suffer. Their total dispersion ("the land of Shinar" being the emblem of the various Gentile lands of their present dispersion) is herein fortetold, when the measure (to which the ephah alludes) of their sins should be full. The former vision denounces judgment on individuals; this one, on the whole state: but enigmatically, not to discourage their present building [PEMBELLUS]. Rather, the vision is consolatory after the preceding one [CALVIN]. Idolatry and its kindred sins, covetousness and fraud (denounced in the vision of the roll), shall be removed far out of the Holy Land to their own congenial soil, never to return (so Zec 3:9; Isa 27:9; 52:1; 60:21; Jer 50:20; Zep 3:13). For more than two thousand years, ever since the Babylonian exile, the Jews have been free from idolatry; but the full accomplishment of the prophecy is yet future, when all sin shall be purged from Israel on their return to Palestine, and conversion to Christ.
6. This is their resemblance--literally, "eye" (compare
Eze 1:4, 5, 16).
HENGSTENBERG translates, "Their (the people's)
eye" was all directed to evil. But English Version is better.
"This is the appearance (that is, an image) of the Jews in all the
land" (not as English Version, "in all the earth"),
that is, of the wicked Jews.
7. lifted up--The cover is lifted off the ephah to let the prophet see
the female personification of "wickedness" within, about to be removed
from Judea. The cover being "of lead," implies that the "woman" cannot
escape from the ponderous load which presses her down.
8. wickedness--literally, "the wickedness": implying wickedness
in its peculiar development. Compare "the man of sin,"
9. The agents to carry away the "woman" are, consistently with the image, "women." God makes the wicked themselves the agents of punishing and removing wickedness. "Two" are employed, as one is not enough to carry such a load [MAURER]. Or, the Assyrians and Babylonians, who carried away idolatry in the persons, respectively, of Israel and Judah [HENDERSON]. As two "anointed ones" (Zec 4:14) stand by the Lord as His ministers, so two winged women execute His purpose here in removing the embodiment of "wickedness": answering to the "mystery of iniquity" (the Septuagint here in Zechariah uses the same words as Paul and "the man of sin," whom the Lord shall destroy with the spirit of His mouth and the brightness of His coming, 2Th 2:3, 7, 8). Their "wings" express velocity. The "stork" has long and wide wings, for which reason it is specified; also it is a migratory bird. The "wind" helps the rapid motion of the wings. The being "lifted up between heaven and earth" implies open execution of the judgment before the eyes of all. As the "woman" here is removed to Babylon as her own dwelling, so the woman in the Apocalypse of St. John is Babylon (Re 17:3-5).
11. To build . . . house in . . . Shinar--Babylonia
the capital of the God-opposed world kingdoms, and so representing in
general the seat of irreligion. As the "building of houses" in Babylon
(Jer 29:5, 28)
by the Jews themselves expressed their long exile there, so the
building of an house for "wickedness" there implies its permanent stay.