Ft1 See Vol. 1.
Ft2 Cf. SMITH, Luther’s Correspondence (Philadelphia, 1913), 1 No. 75.
Ft3 Resolutionesdisputationum, etc. (Weimar Ed., 1:525 ff.), out of which 13 of the 41 articles condemned in the bull of 1520 are taken (see notes below).
Ft4 See Vol. 1, and SMITH, Luther’s Correspondence, 1 p. 102.
Ft5 Breve of Leo X to Cajetan, SMITH, op. Cit., No. 73; Weimar Ed. 2:23.
Ft6 Documents in the Acta Augustana (Weimar Ed., 2:1 ff.).
Ft7 Refusal to approve the crusading-tax which the pope desired to lay, ostensibly for war against the Turks (cf. Vol. 2), and adoption of catalogue of Grievances of the German Nation (St. Louis Ed., 15:452 ff. GEBHARDT, Die Gravamina d. deutschen Nation, pp. 94 ff.).
Ft8 See Eck’s letter of May 3 (Erl. Ed., op. Var. arg., 4:256; excerpts in SMITH Luther’s Correspondence, 1 No. 253.
Ft9 Published together with the findings of the Faculty of Cologne, Feb. 20, 1519 (Weimar Ed., 4:170 ff.).
Ft10 Sept. 21-29 (Weimar Ed., 4:578).
Ft11 SMITH, Luther’s Correspondence, 1, No. 318.
Ft12 ENDERS 2:486; SMITH 1 No. 303.
Ft13 ENDERS, 2, 508; SMITH 1 No. 328.
Ft14 Weimar Ed., 6:595 ff.
Ft15 Wider die Bullen des Endchrists (Weimar Ed., 6:613ff.).
Ft16 ENDERS 2:534; SMITH, No. 344. Luther writes a me peti intelligo. It was doubtless the Elector who had expressed the desire.
Ft17 ENDERS 3:73; SMITH No. 378.
Ft18 Weimar Ed., 7:94 ff.
Ft19 Letter of Nov. 29 th to Spalatin (ENDERS, 2:534; SMITH 1, No. 344): “Unless you render it much more freely than you have done hitherto, leave that work to me.”
Ft20 ENDERS, 3:76; SMITH 1, No. 382.
Ft21 Luther to Spalatin, Jan. 16 th , 1521 (ENDERS, 3:73; SMITH 1, No. 378).
Ft22 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft23 i.e., The articles condemned in the bull as heretical.
Ft24 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft25 “The lofty He knoweth afar off.”
Ft26 Fliegende Geister. Cf. Ephesians 2:2.
Ft27 Ep. 82 (Migne, 33:286.) Luther’s rendering of the passage is very free.
Ft28 The reference is to Ezekiel 13:10,16; cf. Vol. 1.
Ft29 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft30 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:544).
Ft31 Vulgate, Confide, which may be rendered as here.
Ft32 Cf. Vol. 1; Vol. 2.
Ft33 Luther still seems to attach sacramental value to confession and absolution, though he has previously denied it. Cf. The Babylonian Captivity, Vol. 2.
Ft34 From the Commentary on the Gospel of John (Migne, 35:1840).
Ft36 From the Explanation of the Articles Discussed at Leipzig, of (Weimar Ed., 2:410).
Ft37 From the Vulgate, Non concupisces.
Ft38 Cf. Treatise on Baptism (Vol. 1.), passim.
Ft40 Cyprian, Bishop of Carthage (248-258). The reference is to his de mortalitate, c. 4, 5 (Migne, 4:585).
Ft41 Nit ein frumkeit, sondern ein frumb werden; Latin (Weimar Ed., 7:107), Non justitia sed justificatio.
Ft42 German, Feyl oder gebreche; Latin (Weimar Ed., 7:108), defectum seu infirmitas.
Ft44 “The sleight of men and cunning craftiness” (A.V.).
Ft45 The text-books in theology were chiefly commentaries on the famous work of Peter Lombard, known as the Sentences.
Ft46 For Luther’s view of the relative importance of the commandments of the decalogue, see the Treatise on Good Works, Vol. 1.
Ft47 From de nuptilis et concupiscentia (Migne, 44:430) and contra Julianum (ibid., 852).
Ft48 Migne, 44:430 and 852.
Ft49 Fomes peccati, the remnant of original sin which remains after baptism.
It is concupiscence that has been baptized and, therefore, is not regarded as really sin, but only as “tinder,” which may easily be inflamed to sin. For the official definition, see Decrees of the Council of Trent, Sess. 5:5 (DENZINGER, Enchiridion, 674).
Ft50 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:572).
Ft51 Non placet, “disapproved.”
Ft52 The canopy over the stage where the jugglers performed their tricks was known as a “heaven.”
Ft53 From the 95 Theses, No. 14 (Vol. 1, p. 31).
Ft54 In the discussion of the preceding article.
Ft55 See the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:556).
Ft56 From the Sermon on Indulgence and Grace of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:243). Cf. Vol. 1, pp. 18 f.
Ft57 Equivalent to “cutting off their own noses.”
Ft58 The “penitential canons”; see Vol. 1, pp. 17, 30, n. 1.
Ft59 i.e., The works imposed by the canons.
Ft60 In The Babylonian Captivity, Vol. 2, pp. 170 f.
Ft61 Sermon 19 (Migne, 38:133).
Ft62 See, however, Vol. 2, pp. 291 f.
Ft63 From the Sermon on Repentance of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 1:319).
Ft64 “Grant us a penitent heart.” A verse from the hymn Jam Christe sol justitiae (DANIEL, 1:235; JULIAN, Dict. of Hymnol., 2d ed., 576).
The second stanza runs, Da tempus acceptabile et poenitens cor tribue.
Ft65 In the Commentary on Isaiah, 6:16 (Migne, 24:240). Luther’s quotation is not accurate.
Ft66 Cf. 1 Timothy 4:1, quoted above.
Ft67 The reference should be to Article 2.
Ft68 In die Hundestage mit solchen Predigern.
Ft69 From the Sermon on Repentance of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 1:320 f.).
Ft71 The famous African sect of the 4 and 5 Centuries. See New Schaff- Herzog Encyc., 3:486.
Ft72 The red hats of the cardinals.
Ft73 Shells sewed to the hats and cloaks of the pilgrims to the shrine of St.
James of Compostella in Spain (cf. Vol. 1) as a sign of the sea-voyage.
Ft74 The keys of the kingdom of heaven ( Matthew 16:19), claimed by the pope as successor of St. Peter.
Ft76 i.e., Sorrow for sin, having fear as its motive (cf. Vol. 1), as distinct from contrition, which must be motived by love.
Ft78 i.e., Venial sins (Weimar Ed., 7:117).
Ft79 From the Sermon on Repentance of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 1:322).
Ft80 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft81 From the Sermon on Repentance of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 1:323).
Ft82 Book 9, c. 13 (Migne, 32:778).
Ft83 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:543).
Ft84 Vulgate, Confide.
Ft85 From the Sermon on Repentance of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 1:323).
Ft86 Under Article 2.
Ft87 From the Sermon on Repentance of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 1:323).
Ft88 i.e., In the Sermon on Repentance.
Ft90 This is the votum sacramenti, “or desire for the sacrament.” See Prot.
Ft91 From the German Sermon on the Sacrament of Penance of (Weimar Ed., 2:716).
Ft92 Literally, “pus-sac.”
Ft93 In the articles next preceding.
Ft94 The papal coat-of-arms displayed by the indulgence sellers. The whole passage refers to the abuses of indulgences.
Ft96 Cf. Vol. 1; Vol. 2.
Ft97 For the distinction, see Vol. 1.
Ft98 i.e., It is not a matter of faith, but of “sight.”
Ft99 From the Sermon on Repentance of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 1:322).
Ft101 From the Sermon on the Worthy Preparation of the Heart to Receive the Sacraent of the Eucharist of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:330).
Ft103 Vol. 1, and Vol. 2.
Ft105 The elements of the Lord’s Supper are technically known as the two “kinds.”
Ft106 The adherents of John Hus; see Vol. 1.
Ft107 From the Treatise on the Blessed Sacrament of 1519 (Vol. 2.).
Ft108 See the Babylonian Captivity, Vol. 2.
Ft109 Im finster Rauchloch.
Ft110 See Vol. 2.
Ft111 A hymn of Thomas Aquinas (JULIAN, Dict. of Hymnol., 2d ed., p. 1218). The third stanza runs, Quibus sub bina specie Carnem dedit et sanguinem Ut duplicis substantiae Totum cibaret hominem.
Ft112 i.e., Of the Church.
Ft113 i.e., The reception of both elements by the laity.
Ft114 The Council of Basel in 1434 allowed the use of both elements of the Bohemians.
Ft115 In the Babylonian Captivity, Vol. 2, p. 172.
Ft116 i.e., The pope. With the following passage compare Vol. 2.
Ft117 See Article 13, above.
Ft118 Cf. Vol. 2.
Ft119 Again the votum sacramenti, see above, p. 60.
Ft120 By a decree of Innocent III (1215). Text in MIRBT, Quellen zur Gesch. d. Papsthums, No. 223.
Ft121 From the Ninety-five Theses (Nos. 56 and 58, Vol. 1).
Ft122 See Vol. 1 Ft123 German Ablass.
Ft124 German zulassen, “open the door to.”
Ft125 From the Disputation of John Eck and Martin Luther of (Weimar, Ed., 2:356).
Ft126 Cf. Vol. 2.
Ft127 From the Disputation of Eck and Luther of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 2:357).
Ft128 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:587).
Ft129 From the same (Weimar Ed., 1:609, 612).
Ft130 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:552).
Ft132 From the Sermon on Excommunication of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:639).
Cf. Vol. 2.
Ft133 Vol. 2.
Ft134 The canon law. Cf. In Vito, lib. 4 tit. 11, c. 1, Cum medicinalis.
Ft135 From the German Treatise Concerning the Ban of 1520 (Vol. 2).
Ft136 From the Defense Against the Malignant Judgment of John Eck of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 2:628). On this subject see The Papacy at Rome, Vol. 1.
Ft137 Luther says, “This gloss.” See Vol. 2.
Ft138 The Bohemian reformer, burned at the stake at Constance in 1415. See also Vol. 2. Luther’s meaning is that Hus, by his attacks on the papacy, overthrew the arguments for its supremacy.
Ft139 “The righteous man that is dead shall condemn the ungodly.”
Ft141 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft142 On the Gospel of John, 123, 5 (Migne, 35:1967).
Ft143 i.e., Treated like a docile cow.
Ft144 Sein Nachfolger, ja sein Verfolger.
Ft145 Who denied the equality of Christ with the Father.
Ft146 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:536).
Ft147 SeeKOHLER, Luther und die Kirchengeschichte, p. 206; cf. Vol. 2.
Ft149 A rare and highly prized wine. Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft151 From the Explanation of the Articles Debated at Leipzig of (Weimar Ed., 2:427).
Ft152 At the Lateran Council of 1512; see Vol. 2.
Ft153 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:583).
Ft154 The immaculate conception of the Virgin was a matter of serious dispute between the Dominican and Franciscan Orders. The Dominicans, relying on the authority of Thomas Aquinas, denied it; the Franciscans and their great theologian, Duns Scotus, affirmed it. In 1483 Sixtus IV (Constitution Grave nimis; text in MIRBT, No. 264) forbade either party to accuse the other of heresy on pain of excommunication, “since it has not yet been decided by the Roman Church or the apostolic see.” See New Schaff-Herzog Encycl., 5:456.
Ft155 From the Explanation of the Articles Debated at Leipzig of (Weimar Ed., 2:404, 406).
Ft156 Nicholas Tudeschi (1386-1445), one of the foremost commentators on the canon law.
Ft157 Decretal, Greg., lib. 1, tit. 6, c. 4. Cf. Vol. 2, p. 107, n. 3.
Ft158 Weimar Ed., 2:10.
Ft159 From the Leipzig Disputation of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 2:279).
Ft160 In the Operationes in Psalmos (Erl. Ed., op. Exeg., 15:359).
Ft161 i.e., John Hus.
Ft162 In the Articles of John Hus condemned at Constance, Nos. 12, 13, 20, 22-24. MIRBT, 159.
Ft163 The English reformer (d. 1380) from whom Hus took the most of this theology. The reference here is to No. 38 of the 45 Articles of Wiclif condemned at Constance, Decretales epistolae sunt apocryphae, et seducunt a fide Christi, et clerici sunt stulti qui student eis. MIRBT, 158.
Ft164 Along with the bull to which he is here replying, December 10, 1520.
Ft165 From the Explanation of the Articles Debated at Leipzip (Weimar Ed., 2:416).
Ft167 Cf. Treatise on Good Works, Vol. 1:187 ff.
Ft170 Moralia, Bk. 9, c. 2.
Ft171 Ibid., c. 28.
Ft172 Aufs allerbest gethan (optime factum).
Ft173 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:608).
Ft175 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:624).
Ft176 The canon law; see C. 2, in Vito de poen. V. 9.
Ft178 The Florentine reformer, burned for heresy, 1498.
Ft179 Cf. Vol. 2.
Ft180 The last of the daily offices, the bed-time prayers.
Ft181 Or “the Scriptures.”
Ft182 Whither he had been repeatedly summoned. See Introduction.
Ft183 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:535).
Ft184 Cf. Vol. 2.
Ft185 Cf. Vol. 2.
Ft186 See Vol. 1.
Ft187 Worn by the crusaders.
Ft188 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:553).
Ft190 Moralia, Bk. 9, c. 53.
Ft192 From the Heidelberg Theses of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:354).
Ft193 Migne Ed., 44:203.
Ft194 “Man of sin and son of perdition” (cf. 2 Thessalonians 2:3).
Ft195 “The abomination of desolation” ( Matthew 24:15).
Ft196 Migne Ed., 44:689.
Ft198 i.e., The “new creature” that is growing up to the perfection of heaven.
Ft199 Latin, “Canonical Scriptures” (quae sit in canone).
Ft200 From the Leipzig Disputation of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 2:324).
Ft201 The German mystic (d. 1361). On Luther’s relation to Tauler, see COHRS in Prot. Realencyk., 19:454, and BOHMER, Luther, pp. 56 ff.
Ft202 In Spain; see Vol. 1.
Ft203 See Prot. Realencyk., 1:648.
Ft204 From the Leipzig Disputation of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 2:161, 342).
Ft205 From the Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:562).
Ft206 From the Leipzig Disputation of 1519 (Weimar Ed., 2:340).
Ft207 i.e., In academic arguments, where opinions might be tentatively expressed.
Ft208 The Resolutiones of 1518 (Weimar Ed., 1:530 ff.).
Ft209 Literally, “Blown up like a bubble” (aufgeblasen).
Ft210 In the Enchiridion, c 109 (Migne Ed., 40:283).
Ft211 A reference to the mendicant orders (cf. Vol. 2, pp. 115 f.). From the Larger Treatise on Usury of 1520 (Weimar Ed., 6:42).
Ft212 This passage is found in Luther’s manuscript, but not in the printed texts See Weimar Ed., 7:457 n.
Ft213 Cf. Vol. 2.
THE MAGNIFICAT TRANSLATED AND EXPLAINED Ft215 SeeDE WETTE, Luthers Briefe, 1, p. 518 f.
Ft216 SeeENDERS, Luthers Briefwechsel, 3, p. 23;SMITH, Luther’s Correspondence, 1, p. 443.
Ft217 BERBIG (in Studien und Kritiken, 1908, 1) dates it December 1.
Ft218 SeeSMITH, 1:405.
Ft219 Ibid., 1:472 f.
Ft220 SeeDE WETTE, 1:582.
Ft221 SeeENDERS, 3:154.
Ft222 Ibid., 3:171.
Ft223 Ibid., 3:214, 215, 220.
Ft224 WhatSECKENDORF calls, veteris persuasionis reliquiae.
Ft229 AgainstGRISAR, Luther, 2:798; 3:406.
Ft230 Cf. the Sendbrief vom Dolmetschen (1530), Weimar Ed., 30:632 ff., especially the passage referring to the difficulties in the translation of the Magnificat (638 f.).
Ft231 At least a footnote should be devoted to the treatment of the Magnificat in the recent Roman Catholic life of Luther by Hartmann Grisar, S. J. (Freiburg, 1911-2, 3 vols.; an English translation in six volumes, by E. M. Lamond, is under way, four volumes having appeared thus far). Grisar calls the Magnificat a polemical not a devotional writing, and one that misrepresents the Catholic position (2:798; 3:406). He refers in support of his contention to the following passages.
We ask the reader carefully to peruse these pages, and then to judge whether it is a fair criticism to say that “there pulsates through the Magnificat an unbridled spirit of attack and of hate” (3:73).
Ft232 Cf. Vol. 1:331, 337.
Ft233 John Frederick (the Magnanimous), born 1503, son of John the Constant, nephew of Frederick the Wise, pupil of Spalatin, succeeded his father as elector in 1532. One of the leaders of the Schmalkald League. Defeated and captured by Charles V in the battle of Muhlberg, 1547. Sentenced to death, but spared on surrendering his electoral vote and territory to his cousin Maurice. Set free in 1552. Most ardent admirer of Luther and uncompromising foe of the Interim. Especially interested in the publication of Luther’s collected writings, — the Wittenberg and the Jena edition. Died, 1554. See G. MENTZ, Johann Friedrich der Grossmutige, 3 vols. (Jena, 1903-8), and KOLDE in Prot.
Ft234 Cf. Introduction.
Ft235 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft236 One of the seven stages of Greece (about 570 B.C.). In Erasmus’ Adagia the saying is attributed to Pittacus of Mitylene or to Solon.
Ft237 “The canticles of Mary and of Zacharias share the peculiar honor of commencing every verse with an initium or intonation. This intonation varies for the varying modes [or tones], and the Magnificat has a special solemn intonation for the second, seventh and eighth modes.
The cermonies attending its singing in the choir at solemn vespers are notably impressive. At the intonation ‘Magnificat,’ all who are in the sanctuary arise, and the celebrant (having first removed his biretta ‘in honor of the canticles’) goes with the assistants to the alter , as at the customary reverences, etc., he blesses the incense and incenses the altar, as at the beginning of solemn mass. In order to permit the elaborate ceremony of incensing the Magnificat is sunt much more slowly than the psalms.” — Catholic Encyclopedia, 9:535; cf. Prot.
Realencyk., 12:74 f.
Ft238 See Introduction.
Ft239 Luther’s rendering of the Magnificat at this place differs in a number of instances from that interspersed through the body of the work. These variations have been disregarded in the present translation, as having value only for the student of Luther’s German. Cf. Introduction.
Ft240 The words of Augustine (Confessions, 1:1) seem to be in Luther’s mind: “Grant me, Lord, to know and understand what I ought first to do, whether call upon Thee, or praise Thee? and which ought to be first, to know Thee, or to call upon Thee?” It would be an interesting study to trace the parallels between Luther and Augustine, with particular reference to the former’s devotional writings.
Ft242 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft243 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft244 See Vol. 1.
Ft245 Falsche Gewissen. We take Gewissen in the sense of information, intelligence, news;DIETZ, Worterbuch zu Luthers deutschen Schriften, does not notice this passage. The believing spirit, which is the heir, is not to be misled by false rumors of an inheritance based on works and not on faith.
Ft247 Those mentioned in the first two sentences of the paragraph.
Ft250 He seems to mean the Humiliati, a penitential order, dating back to the beginning of the 12 Century, to the reign of Emperor Henry V. They received papal approbation from Innocent III about 1200, and were suppressed by a Bull of February 8, 1571. Cf. Cath. Encyclop., 7:543, and Prot. Realencyk., 8:447 ff.
Ft251 In the Catholic system humility is not the greatest of the virtues. It does not even rank as one of the four cardinal virtues, though it is annexed to the last of them — temperance — as a “potential part.”
Humility is, however, said to be the foundation of the spiritual edifice; it is the first virtue, inasmuch as it removes the obstacles to faith and make a man a fit recipient of grace. Cf. Catholic Encyclop., 7:544.
Ft254 Not on “low estate,” but on “He hath regarded.”
Ft255 Cf. W.HERRMANN in Prot. Realencyk., 4:573.
Ft256 Cf. Heinrich von Kettenbach, Ein Sermon von der christlichen Kirche (1522): “Der mainet, wenn er tod ein munchskutten anhab, drin vergraben werd, so sei er sicher des ewigen Lebens” (Flugschriften aus der Reformationszeit, 2:101). Also other references in Luther’s Warnung an seine lieben Deutschen (1531), Weimar Edition, 30:316; and in his Verantwortung der aufgelegten Aufruhr (1553), Weimar, 38:105.
Ft257 Cf.KOHLER, Luther und die Kirchengeschichte, p. 184. Luther had used this incident before; cf. Weimar Ed., 1:446 f.
Ft258 Confessions, VIII 8:19.
Ft259 That is, they show how far she is above us, and not how far she is below God.
Ft260 As a sign of Lenten mourning, the images, altar-pieces, and holy pictures are draped in many Roman Catholic churches and houses.
Ft261 Cf. Introduction.
Ft263 Luther has, ganz feurig, following the Vulgate, ignitum vehementer.
Ft264 Heraus schaumen; Vulgate, eructabunt.
Ft265 Cf. Prot. Realencyk., 12:317, 43 ff.
Ft266 Cf.KOSTLIN, Luthers Theologie, 2d ed., 2:375 (Engl. Trans., 2:358 f.). See Introduction, above p. 120.
Ft267 “Joy to thee, O queen of heaven,” an Eastertide anthem of the blessed Virgin, the recitation of which is prescribed in the Roman Breviary from Compline of Holy Saturday until None of the Saturday after Pentecost. Of unknown authorship, it has been traced to the Century. See Cath. Encyclop., 12:718; JULIAN, Dict. of Hymnology, 1691 f., also 954.
Ft268 In the Regina coeli. See preceding note.
Ft269 Cf.KOSTLIN, Luthers Theologie, 2:23-26 (Engl. Trans., 12:465-469).
Ft270 Cf. Introduction.
Ft273 Cf. Vol. 2.
Ft274 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft275 Cf., e.g., Vol. 2. See also the treatise on Secular Authority.
Ft276 He did this later, in the treatise Ob Kriegsleute auch in seligem Stande sein konnen (1526), Weimar Ed., 19:623 ff. See Vol. 5.
Ft278 See Introduction.
Ft279 Gott hilft den Starksten.
Ft280 Die Heimlichkeit Gottes. The Vulgate has sanctuarium.
Ft282 Die rechtschuldigen. Seemingly a play on the word. They insist on their right, and they are indeed right, but right guilty.
Ft284 Die Gelehrten, die Verkehrten.
Ft285 Cf. Vol. 2.
Ft291 Cf. Vol. 1.
Ft292 Natur und Wesen. Cf. Kostlin’s discussion of Luther’s doctrine of original sin. Luthers Theologie, 2:369 ff. (Engl. Trans., 2:352 ff.).
Ft293 It may be an adopted child.
Ft294 Christum lernen rufen; literally, to call Christ, and thus hasten His coming.
Ft295 Cf. R.LEWIN, Luthers Stellung zu den Juden (Berlin, 1911), p. 22 f.
Ft296 See Introduction.
Ft297 Cf. Vol. 2.
Ft298 Monks and priests.
Ft299 The keys of office (so the note in the Berlin Ed.), or the keys to the house of his life, i.e., making full surrender (so Clemen).
Ft300 See Introduction.
EXHORTATION FOR ALL CHRISTIANS FT301 July 15, 1550. See letters to Spalatin, July 14 and 17, 1520; SMITH, I, Nos. and 278; DE WETTE, I, 467, 468; ENDERS, II, 431, 441, and 440, note 2.
FT302 Letter to Spalatin, ENDERS, III, 253, “Although on the way I was troubled by a repeated rumor concerning the impatience of some of our party, so that I determined to publish a public exhortation as soon as I shall have returned to my desert.”
FT303 Letter to Spalatin, ENDERS, III, 253, “Everything I see and hear pleases me mightily.”
FT304 Letters of Hutten to Melanchthon, January 50 and February 28, 1520 (SMITH, I, Nos. 218, 231); to Luther himself, June 4, 1520 (ENDERS, III, 408 ff.; excerpts in SMITH, Life and Letters FT305 Letter to Luther, June 11, 1520 (SMITH, I, No. 269).
FT306 Kostlin, I, 324.
FT307 January 16, 1521, quoted in SCHAFF, Church History, VI.; DE WETTE, I, 543; ENDERS, III, 73.
FT308 April 18, 1521. Kostlin, I, 450.
FT309 Das er tzu Erffurd mit den pfaffen anfieng.
FT310 The popularity of which is indicated by the fact that its modern editor collates ten editions. See Flugschriften aus den ersten Jahren der Reformation, herausgegeben von Otto Clemen, Band IV, Heft I, Karsthans, herausgegeben von Herbert Burckhardt.
FT311 Karsthans, Ede. Burckhardt.
FT312 BURCKHARDT, Karsthans.
FT313 Karsthans, “the man with the hoe,” hence the peasant. This is the title of a pamphlet published in 1521, widely circulated, known to Luther, and doubtless referred to here. The pamphlet has been republished in CLEMEN, F1ugschriften aus den ersten Jahren der Reformation, Bd. IV. Heft I, Leipzig, 1910. See Introduction, p. 204.
FT314 Fuchsschwanz, the soft and bushy tail of the fox, to which Luther also compares death, above. Tyndale in a similar connection uses the term “peacock’s feather.”
FT315 Such a representation of Christ is found in the old Wittenberg Church seal, in stone reliefs on the walls of the parish church and on the entrance to the cemetery.
See Berlin Ed., VII, 208, and Weimar, VIII, 678.
FT316 The artists evidently based their conception on Revelation 1:16. The “blossoming twig” is intended to be the stem of a lily, indicating the innocence and purity of the blessed. So Weimar Ed., and Berlin Ed., as above.
FT317 Regiment, which refers to the persons through whom, as well as the power by which, he governs.
FT318 Cf. Vol. 2.
FT319 Cf. the Open Letter to the Nobility, Vol. 2.
FT320 As, for examp1e, in pamphlets. ALBRECHT, in Berlin Ed., VII, 311, refers to VOGT, Vorgeschichte des Bauernkriegs, Halle, 1887.
FT321 Herr Omnes.
FT322 In April and June, 1521. Weimar Ed. refers to KAMPSCHULTE, Die Universitat Erfurt (Trier, 1860), II, 106 ff. See Introduction.
FT323 Uber dich wirffist gen hymel, cast against those above you, and therefore aim in the direction of heaven and God.
FT324 A mistake for “spirit of His mouth.” The text is correctly quoted above.
FT325 Mein Wort, the message contained in the words. Luther does not claim for himself any form of inspiration, but maintains that he is declaring the truth of God.
FT326 Eyn ander man ists der das redle treybt.
FT327 That is, they have no divine authority, and observance of them is no help to salvation. The original is in Menshegesetz.
FT328 Privileges conferred by papal bulls.
FT329 Paintings placed in churches in fulfillment of vows.
FT330 Geschwurm und gewurm.
FT331 So that they are exposed on all sides, and uncomfortable.
FT332 See Vol. 2.
FT333 Dresschen wirt, shall thresh, possibly an allusion to Matthew 3:12.
FT334 Gauckelwerck, like the robes of a juggler with their cheap tinsel and trimmings.
FT335 The end of the papacy is compared with the death of Christ. Already mortally wounded, it cries out, “My God, why hast Thou forsaken me”; soon it will “give up the ghost.”
FT336 Hieynn dyszem treyben, that is, in inculcating the word and driving out the laws of men, das wort eyntreybenn, die menschen gesetz ausz treyben.
FT337 Madensack, literally, bag of worms.
FT338 Ich habe mitt der gemeyne die eynige gemeyne lere Christi. Lere is here, as in Timothy 4:2, instruction, teaching in the active sense.
FT339 Luther has confused the two men of wisdom, Solomon and the son of Sirach.
FT340 Solchs tzuvor nit mehr gehortt habenn, have heard no more about the Gospel than the first class of persons have told them.
FT341 “Now walkest thou not charitably.”
FT342 Probably a reference to the sermon of July 15, 1520. Cf. Introduction.
SECULAR AUTHORITY FT343 See Kostlin-Kawerau, Martin Luther, i, 580 ff.
FT344 “Christ in the Gospels laid down certain rules of life and conduct which must be practiced by every one of His followers as the necessary condition for attaining to everlasting life. These precepts of the Gospel practically consist of the Decalogue, of the Old Law, interpreted in the sense of the New. Besides these precepts which must be observed by all under pain of eternal damnation, He also taught certain principles which He expressly stated were not to be considered as binding upon all, or as necessary conditions without which heaven could not be obtained, but rather as counsels for those who desired to do more than the minimum and to aim at Christian perfection, so far as that can be obtained here upon earth.” — Catholic Encyclopedia, iv, 435 f.
FT345 See Vol. 2.
FT346 The Anabaptists. See Augsburg Confession, Article 16.
FT347 GESS, Akten u. Briefe zur Kirchenpolitik Hzg. Georgs (Leipzig 1905), 1,486 ff.
FT348 AUGUSTINE, E p. 136 and 138 (Migne, xxxiii, pp. 514 ff. and pp. 525 ff.).
FT349 The scholastic theologians.
FT350 See Introduction.
FT351 Cf. Vol. 2.
FT352 Reference to the proclamation of Duke George printed and posted at various places in his realm. GESS, Akten und Briefe, i, 386 f.
FT353 Luther finds the pope pictured as leviathan in Job 41:15. “Bulla,” bull, may be translated bubble (in German, “Wasserblase”).
FT354 The Grey Friars — the Franciscans.
FT355 Cf. Matthew 5: 48.
FT356 Cf. Treatise on the New Testament, Vol. 2.
FT357 A collection of sermons on the Scripture lessons for the Church Year.
Luther’s Advent Postil was published in Latin in 1521 and in German in 1522.
FT359 “Friedrich,” “Frederick,” meaning “peaceful,” is a literal translation of the Hebrew “Solomon.”
FT360 St. Maurice, patron saint of the city of Magdeburg, was the commander of the Theban Legion, which was exterminated by the Emperor Maximian because of its refusal to aid in the suppression of Christianity. Catholic Encyclopedia, x, 38 f.
FT361 St. Acacius, bishop of Mitylene in the third century, probably a victim of the Decian persecution (249-251 A.D.). See Catholic Encyclopedia, i, 83.
FT362 St. Gereon, a centurion of the Theban Legion (see note 1).
FT363 The Apostate (A.D. 361-63).
FT364 Cf. TERTULLIAN, De velandis virginibus, Migne, ii, 889, “Christ did not say, ‘I am the common practice, but I am the truth.’ “ FT365 The church organization.
FT366 The congregation of believers.
FT367 Among the ancients hellebore was considered a cure for insanity.
FT368 “This have I frequently done; if people from another principality came to me and asked me what attitude they should take on this point (the Lord’s Supper), I have asked them whether they were convinced that God’s Word and the truth demanded the use of the two kinds, and not of the one. If they then wavered, and wanted first to ask me and learn from me, I was not willing to advise them to take it in the two kinds, but dismissed them and told them to learn to become sure of the truth.”
Weimar Ed., xxxviii, 125. Cf. VOLKER, Toleranz u. Intoleranz im Zeitalter der Reformation, P. 45.
FT369 Contra litteras Petiliani, ii, 184 (Migne, xliii, 315).
FT370 Cf. Vol. 2; and Vol. 2.
FT371 Augustine wrote his City of God to prove that the fall of Rome in was not due to Christianity.
FT372 For Meissen, see SEIDEMANN, Erlauterungen; for Bavaria, see Winter, Schicksale der evangelischen Lehre, ii, 189; for the Mark, see A. Muller, Gesch. d. Reform. in der M. Brandenburg.
FT373 Luther says, Maulaffen, jackanapes.
FT374 Cf. the well-known fable of AEesop.
FT375 “He poureth contempt upon princes.”
FT376 Cf. Treatise on Good Works, 2., and Treatise on Christian Liberty, II, 312 ff.
FT377 “Although it is beneficial to public safety that something be observed in the majority of cases, it happens in some cases that it is highly harmful. Therefore, because the law-maker cannot foresee all individual cases, he proposes a law in accordance with what happens in most cases, directing his intention to the common good. Therefore, if a case arises in which the observance of such a law is harmful to the common welfare, it must not be observed. ... The right to interpret what is good and what is not good for the State belongs to the princes alone, who because of cases of this kind have authority to dispense from observing the law. But if the danger be sudden, so that it permits of no delay sufficient to allow one to go to the superior, necessity itself has dispensation joined to it, because necessity is not subject to the law.” — Thomas Aquinas, Summa, i, 2, 96, 6.
FT378 Vol. 2.
FT379 “The law of nature is the common opinion to which we all as men equally agree, and which God has engraved upon the heart of every one.” — This “law of nature” played a large part in the teaching of the Roman Catholic Church and in Luther’s own thought. — MELANCHTHON, Loci Communes (1521), de lege. Ed. Plitt-Kolde, p. 111.
FT380 Charles the Bold (1467-77). The story is also quoted by Melanchthon (Corpus Ref., xx, 531).
FT381 In the Exposition of the Sermon on the Mount (Migne, xxxiv, 1254).