Ft1 A list of the liturgical writings and related writings is appended to this Introduction. p. 41.
Ft2 Luther, no doubt, in his preparation for the priesthood in the Erfurt monastery, studied the writings of the famous Tubingen scholar, Gabriel Biel, on the Exposition of the Mass.
Ft3 See the Introduction to the Von ordenung, p. 51ff.
Ft4 See the Introduction to the Formula missae, p. 67ff.
Ft5 See the Introduction to the Litany, p. 243 Cf. also the notes appended to translations and the table of comparisons.
Ft6 The so-called Achtliederbuch, four of whose eight hymns are Luther hymns, and the Erfurter Enchiridion, eighteen of whose twenty-four numbers are by Luther, were issued in this year also. Whether these books preceded the Geystliche Gesangh Buchleyn in date of issue or not is a question difficult to answer either way— and it is just as difficult to establish Luther’s connection with them. Usually they are considered independent ventures of the publishers; and it is claimed, on the basis of linguistic qualities, that the Achtliederbuch, notwithstanding the fact that the title page carries Wittenberg as place of publication, is actually a South German, probably Nurnberg, publication.
Ft7 See below, pp. 278, 283, 299ff.
Ft8 See below, pp. 283ff.
Ft9 See below, pp, 197, 225, 237.
Ft10 See vol. 4, p. 92ff of this edition.
Ft11 Cf. the General Introduction, this volume, p. 37ff, where a comparative table of the Roman Mass, the Formula, the Deutsche Messe and The Liturgy of the Common Service Book appears.
Ft12 See the General Introduction, this volume, p. 37; and below p. 86.
Ft13 See below, pp. 88, 89; cf. this vol. p. 124.
Ft14 See General Introduction, this volume, p. 35.
Ft15 So title page of original print.
Ft16 Mass, the term which through the centuries has come to be the technical and common name for the celebration of the Holy Eucharist according to the use of the Roman Church. It is derived from the form of dismissal, he missa est.
Ft17 rem: thing, cause, interest.
Ft18 Broadly: External ceremonial worship; more strictly, the Liturgy, then the Mass.
Ft19 The word use, employed here and elsewhere in this translation, is the technical, liturgical term denoting a method of practice, whether current or to be established.
Ft20 The inference here is that there were neither liturgy in the later, fuller sense, nor rites or ceremonies appointed or otherwise.
Ft21 Athanasius (293-373), Bp. of Alexandria. Cf. Aug. Conf. 10:33, 50?
Ft22 Cyprian (cir. 200-258), Bp. of Carthage. Probably confused with Celestine I, (Pope 422-432), who according to the Libor Pontificalis, first instituted the singing of psalms at mass. of Duchesne ed. of Lib. Pont. 1:230. See Durandus, Rationale, 4:5, 4.
Ft23 The Kyrie — Lord, have mercy. The “Little Litany,” one of the most ancient prayer forms in existence, and in universal liturgical use.
Ft24 Basil the Great (Cir. 330-379), Bp. of Caesarea, one of the three Great Cappadocians. Reputed to have been the first to have compiled a Liturgy in writing (Eastern Church); this is still extant and in Church use. of. Durandus, Rat. 4:12, 4; Hammond, Liturgies Eastern and Western.
Ft25 The historic Pericopes: proper Epistles and Gospels for the Day.
Ranke: — Das kirchliche Perikopensystem. Beissel: En, Bnstehung d.
Perikopen, d. rom. Messbuches. Rietschel: Lehrbuch, I. 223ff et. at.
Much excellent material will be found in the introductory chapters of Nebe’s Die Evangelischen Perikopen, and Die Epistol. Perihopen Strodach: The Ch. Yr. 12f.
Ft26 Strodach — The Church Year, p. 15f.
Ft27 Found in this brief form in the early Lieuroy of St. James (quite certainly 4th cent.) Expanded to fuller form by 5th cent. According to the Lib. Pont., Pope Telesphorus (d. cir. 128) is said to have ordered the singing of Gloria in ex. in the Christmas matins, and Pope Symmacbus (500) introduced its use in the Mass. Julian, Diet. Hymn. 425.
Rietschel, Lehrb. 1:361 — et. al.
Ft28 The Church Year, 18. Julian, Diet. Hymn. 449; Rietschel, 1:366.
Ft29 The Ch. Yr., 18. On the word, el. Julian, 47; Rietschel, 1:366f.
Ft30 On the Creed in the Liturgy, see Rietschel 1:371ff.
Ft31 Has been in use in the Liturgy since earliest days. Universal in Eastern Church. Said to have been introduced into the Mass by Sixtus I (133- 142).
Ft32 Supposed to have been introduced in the Mass by Pope Sergius (d. 701).
Ft33 The sentences usually composed of Scripture passages, varying according to the Day, sung by the choir at the Distribution and immediately before the Post Communion Collect.
Ft34 A de tempore use is one appointed for a specific season; a Lord’s Day use, de dominicis diebus, is one appointed for a specific Lord’s day: in other words the variables, certain propers, such as the Pericopes, Graduals, Alleluia, Communios.
Ft35 An interesting statement and to be regarded as indicating one of the principles upon which the cleansing of the Liturgy, etc. was carried out: ancient, pure practices were not objectionable and were to be retained if they conduced unto edification.
Ft36 The Canon is that part of the Mass which follows immediately after the Sanctus. It begins Te igitur. It is an accretion of many prayers and forms, and was especially offensive to Luther and the other Reformers because of its unevangelical character.
Ft37 Ex multorum lacunis ceu sentina collecto…lacuna: cavern, ditch; sentina: bilge water in the hold of a vessel: — gathered from dank caverns and fetid bilge water!
Ft38 On the Offertorium see Rietschel, 1:376ff; 341. Anciently and originally the offering of the gifts by the people with accompanying Psalm verses.
In the Mass, culminating with the Ergo memores…offerimus tibi hanc immaculatam hostiam, etc. A portion of the Mass especially offensive to Luther.
Ft39 May be interpreted either way: Indulgence connected with saying of certain devotions and earned by the prayer, or for certain offices or a Mass paid for and said in payee’s behalf.
Ft40 Luther is referring to the short verses called Tropes which were inserted, as he says, in the Gloria and Sanctus and also in the Introit, and which added greatly to the intricacies of the Mass. A trope played on or enlarged a thought or phrase much in the manner of farming.
These all were excised from the Mass in the recension under Pius 5.
Ft41 A part of the Canon, infra acetone.
Ft42 A part of the Canon, the commemoration, the dyptycha sanctorum. The Canon itself is invariable but certain elements within it however are variable, cf. Rubrics of Missale Romartum, c. 12, 6.
Ft43 Luther asserts that almost every trade and business in the world contributed some of its products to the enrichment or the needs of worship and therefore derived gain therefrom.
Ft44 non: not; omitted in original print; also in Speratus’ translation.
Ft45 cf. W. Ed. 6:365ff, 512ff; 8:431ff, 506ff.
Ft46 Introit: The Church Year, p. 15f. Rietschel, Lehrbuch, 1:357f.
Durandus, Rationale divinorum officiorum, (Venice, 1577), 4:5, p. 64.
Note the omission of the Priest’s Preparation for Mass which preceded the Int in the Romans Mis., and which later was adapted to congregational use in some of the Kirchen Ordnungen (KOO) and is now in C.S.B.
Ft47 Reference to the ancient custom of using the entire Psalm as the Introit.
As time passed the Introit underwent various changes, -particularly abbreviation and adaptation to Church Year influences. In most cases it was constructed out of parts (verses) of the original Psalm Introit, as Antiphon to the Psalm itself which was abbreviated to but a verse or two, and continued to be indicated as Psalmus, the Psalm.
For the Introits referred to, cf. The Common Service Book in 1oco, (p. 371ff) where the historic proper Introits are appointed for use in The Liturgy.
Ft48 Cf. the Introits appointed in Mis. Romans with those appointed in the C.S.B., p. 173ff.
Ft49 The Purification of the B.V.M — The Presentation of our Lord; celebrated Feb. 2. See C.S.B., p. 176. The Annunciation, March 25.
See C.S.B., p. 177.
Ft50 Dec. 26. See C.S.B., p. 175.
Ft51 Dec. 27. See CS.B, p. 176. As both of these Festivals fall within the Octave of the Nativity, the “Commemoration” of that Feast is made by the use of the Christmas Collect. Luther, however, favored the repetition of all Christmas propers on each of these Festivals instead of the propers appointed for the minor days.
Ft52 That is, the propers of the Nativity would be used on St. Stephen’s Day and on St. John’s Day instead of their propers. The term “office” is sometimes used, as here, technically to denominate the proper liturgical appointments for a given Mass.
Ft53 The Invention of the Holy Cross, May 3. The Exaltation of the Cross, Sept. 14. For Luther’s marked opposition to these Festivals, cf. Er. Ed. 15: 359ff, 506ff; 16: 459ff.
Ft54 That is, banned.
Ft55 The customary use was three Kyrie eleisons, three Christe eleisons and three Kyrle eleisona. Luther later simplified this to a three-fold use in the Deutsche Messe, cf. C.S.B. in loco. These Kyries in mediaeval times were expanded into quite lengthy sentences appropriate to certain days or seasons, and each of them, in time, had its own musical setting.
They were one of the few places in the Mass where the people still sang the responds, and for that reason were very popular. Kyrie hymns resulted from this and also from processional uses. Durandus, IV, 12, p. 71. In the Barnberg Missal dated 1499, representative of the use current at Luther’s day, there is a section in which the various Kyries, simple and expanded, ferial and festival, appear set to the “proper” melodies.
Ft56 The Roman custom was to omit Gloria in excelsis in Advent and from Septuagesima to Easter Eve, i.e. during the penitential seasons. Cf. Mis. Rom., Rub. Genesis VIII. See Durandus, 4:13.
Ft57 See Durandus, 4:15; The Church Year, p. 16ff.
Ft58 It was and still is permissible, according to the Roman use, to read other Collects “according to the Office” after the proper Collect for the Day. Cf. Mir. Rom., Rub. Genesis 9.
Ft59 The proper Epistle for the Day. These historic pericopes are appointed for use in The Liturgy in the C.S.B.; Durandus, 4:16.
Ft60 The proper Gospels for the Day. See C.S.B.; Durandus, 4:24.
Ft61 See note 10, p. 101 above.
Ft62 Luther did not hesitate to speak his mind about what he considered poorly or mischosen lections, as a number of his sermons witness; but nothing like a deliberate and methodical revision of the historic pericopes was ever attempted by him. The nearest approach to this was his recommendation of a lectio continua, which, however, never seemed to have worked out successfully!
Ft63 Kasper Kantz’s Evangelical Mass had already appeared and been used.
Thomas Munzer, who inspired Luther with various emotions, was also active in introducing the Mass in the vernacular and was probably using it in Alstedt at the time Luther wrote the Formula reissue. His and others’ activities in this direction, crystallizing in definite forms and also appearing in print, may have been one of the real causes which forced Luther’s activity in liturgical reform. See Smend, Die Evangelischen deutschen Messen bis zu Luther’s deutscher Messe, especially p. 72ff and 94ff.
Ft64 The remnant of the Psalm or other Scripture sung from the gradus (step) of the Ambon between the reading of the liturgical Epistle and Gospel and serving to connect these lections. In the Eastertide the Alleluia is connected with these verses. See C.S.B.; Durandus, 4:19, 20. The Church Year, p. 18ff. Rietschel 1:365f.
Ft65 In Lent the Gradual was lengthened quite materially and for that reason (and also for its heavier character) is known as the Tractus, Tract. See C.S.B.; Durandus, 4:21. Rietschel 1:365f.
Ft67 Holy Week.
Ft68 The Sixth Feria: Good Friday.
Ft69 Many rubrical directions existed and still exist in the Roman use which marked these days by ceremonial omissions or additions. For example, the simplest, which is still preserved in the use of the C.S.B., is the omission of Alleluia during Lent.
Ft70 Semimissa — i.e. The Mass of the Presanctified. See Missale Romanum, 199f, rubric beginning Hodie Sacerdos, and 216ff, beginning with rubric Circa finem. This is a celebration without the consecration of the Host or Wine. Two Hosts are consecrated by the celebrant at the Maundy Thursday Mass, one of which is reserved at a specially prepared place for this Good Friday use. This preconsecrated Host and Wine, which is not consecrated by the customary prayers, etc., but into which a third part of the preconsecrated Host is placed, are the “elements” of this celebration, hence the semimissa. In Luther’s day others beside the celebrating priest were permitted to commune but sub silentio. Bamberg Missal, folio XCIIII, rubric: Et sic communicat ipse et ceteri. This is now forbidden in the present use, the priest alone communing. The prayers in connection with the wine (the cup) are omitted in this Good Friday use, but the unconsecrated wine, together with the portion of the Host placed in it, is consumed by the priest.
This is the reason why Luther writes of “the one part of the Sacrament,” altera sacramenti pars — Speratus’ translation: der eynigen gestalt des Sacraments. Rubrics relative to the Mass of the Presanctified in the use current in Luther’s day will be of interest. See Bamberg Missal (1499), folios XCIII verso, XCIIII recto; also LXXXVIII. Nurnberg Missal (1484), folios (numbers supplied), verso ff and 87f.
Ft71 Speratus renders this sentence thus: The Alleluia is a song of the Church which should be used daily, and never omitted, just as without cessation we should celebrate the commemoration of the passion of Christ and of His victory.
Ft72 Really synonymous and used rather indifferently for much the same thing. The Sequence originated from the prolongation of the last A in the Alleluia of the Festival Graduals. These prolonged musical notes were called neumes which were named the sequentia as following the Alleluia. In course of time words were set to each of these notes, and these words in turn came to be known as Sequences, thus bringing another technical term into being. As long as these were rhythmical they were known as Proses, but in time they also became metrical, conforming to the metrical hymn form: thereafter such compositions were distinctively Sequences. Durandus. 4:22. Rietschel 1:467f.
Ft73 That is the one proper for use on the Festival.
Ft74 Appointed in some pre-Reformation missals for use in nocte nativitatis.
See, for example, Bamberg Missal, folio CXX verso. Authorship of this Sequence is uncertain; it has been ascribed to Gregory the Great and to Notker. For text see Daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus, 2:5. Luther wrote a Christmas hymn based on this Latin Sequence, Gelobet seist du Jesus Christ. This was written in all probability about Christmas of 1523, and was issued in broadsheet form in 1524 and in the Enchiridion, Erfurt, 1524.
Ft75 Liturgical terminology. When a use is proper for a certain Day or Feast, it is said to be of the Day or of the Feast. This expession would mean that the Sequences mentioned are proper for use on the Festival of the Holy Spirit and the days within the Octave.
Ft76 Sancti Spiritus adsit nobis gratia. Text, Daniel, 2:16. Ascribed to Notker. Appointed in pre-Reformation missals for the Fest. of Pentecost. Bamberg Missal, folio CXX verso.
Ft77 See Daniel, 2:315. Authorship uncertain. Pre-Reformation appointment for Vespers of the Vigils of Pentecost. In the present Roman use it is appointed for the Festival and the Ferias following. Luther versified this Sequence in his hymn, Korans, heiliger Geist, Herre Gott, which first appeared in 1524.
Ft78 See note 10, p. 101. Durandus, 4:24.
Ft79 On Altar and Gospel Lights and the Use of Incense, see Scudamore, Notitia Eucharistica, Sections 5 and 6, p. 133ff. Durandus, 4:24, and 34.
Ft80 Durandus 4:25. Rietschel 1:371ff. Scudamore, ch. 7:263ff.
Ft81 It cannot be asserted that the Church was ever without preaching or vernacular preaching at that; and until after the time of Gregory the Great it was imbedded in the Mass and connected with the Lections.
But later, while it was virtually forbidden to the priests and consequently dropped from the Mass, preaching still remained a popular practice in certain sections of the Church and at times was still connected with the Mass. However “preaching” as such did not always measure up to the meaning which Luther placed upon it.
Cf. Rietschel 1:281 (Gr. Ch.); 290, (African Ch.); 305 (Milan); 313, (Gall.); 341, 368 (Rome). Scudamore, ch. 10:309.
Ft82 There is precedent in the Church’s history and practice for preaching at times other than the Mass. For example it must have been Augustine’s and Chrysostom’s practice to preach in the afternoon; and there appear to have been “preaching services.” But when it comes to the Mass, the Sermon or preaching either followed the Gospel or the Creed. There are variations from this, but no lasting ones. Luther’s suggestion seems to betray a feeling of uncertainty, something quite evident throughout this period in his thought and writing. The customary liturgical place, after the Creed, would be the logical one, — apart from historic precedent, — as it then would be, and is, not only the Exposition of the Word but, as he speaks of the Gospel, “the voice calling in the wilderness and calling unbelievers to faith.” (It will be interesting to compare Durandus 4:26, folio 90, especially (1, right here.) Nor would this place in the Liturgy serve to over-emphasize the Sermon if the Holy Communion would be celebrated always. The position before the Introit was revolutionary and would have over-emphasized the sermon at the expense of the Communion: this notwithstanding the interesting comment of Daniel, Cod. Lit. 2:85, footnote 4, where he writes, that “it would be rightly said that the whole cultus of our Church would have followed another way if this opinion of Luther had been accepted among us always and everywhere, for we would not have been implicated in that pernicious error in which the preaching becomes not only the principal part of the divine office but as I may say, the only.” Ft83 A truly evangelic definition of the Mass and Communion, the complete opposite to the current conception in Luther’s day: A priestly action to the exclusion of lay participation save as to presence, and that not necessary in all cases.
Ft84 This and the following observation relative to things done in the Mass up to the Symbolum, indicate that Luther knew of the ancient division of the Mass into the Missa catechumenorum and the Missa fidelium.
All but the faithful were dismissed at the end of the Missa catechumenorum.
Furthermore, Luther makes the point that all that is requisite to a valid celebration of “the Communion of the Table of the Lord” is strictly limited to Our Lord’s Institution and the evident commission to preach the Gospel, the line between things which “do not bind” and things which do, being drawn after the Symbolum. This is decidedly interesting when applied, for demonstration, to the structure of the historic Liturgy of the Mass!
Ft85 Offertory. Durandus, 4:26-32. Catholic Encyclopedia 11:217f.
Ft86 i.e. Sacrifice.
Ft87 The Words of Institution.
Ft88 Cath. Enc. 3:255ff. Durandus 4:35ff. Rietschel 1:380ff.
Ft89 Latin: post Canonera. Probably a printer’s mistake; but if this is really what Luther meant and not a misprint, it would be difficult to place the preparation and consecration of the Elements, as that “form” which Luther retains for purpose of “consecration” (see text below) was a part of the Canon. The offering of the gifts of bread and wine (offertory) was connected with a previous action which sometimes was spoken of as the “little canon”; but Luther omits all of this. Perhaps this might mean that the elements were to be prepared at this place of the displaced “little canon.”
The simplest explanation is the misprint theory; although Speratus in his translation covers it cleverly by saying: “after the omitted canon.”
Already in the Jena Ed (1556), Vol. II, the word Concionem has been substituted. This of course solves the difficulty, “after the sermon.”
Ft90 The practice of mixing a little pure water with the wine was prevalent in the Primitive Church as early as the time of Justin Martyr. It also passed into almost every section of the Church. Although at first without any symbolic significance, it later became the cause of much doctrinal and symbolic discussion, some of which Luther evidently answers in this paragraph. It is claimed that the practice originated quite naturally as a result of the ancient Jewish custom of mixing water with wine always before use, because the wine was too strong to use undiluted.
See Durandus, 4:30, 18ff. Mir. Rom., p. 270, first rubric. Scudamore, ch. 12, sec. 10, p. 388ff.
Ft91 e.g. on this; on the Epiklesis; on the “Moment of Consecration;” etc.
Ft92 As a man-made doctrine it is not to be considered as binding.
Ft93 The Preface. Durandus 4:33; Rietschel 1:379, a. Speratus retains this portion of the Mass in the Latin, as that was the language still in use at the Celebration.
Ft94 Sursum corda. Scudamore, 2, ch. 4, sec. 1, p. 523.
Ft95 Habeamus, — habemus customary. Possibly another misprint. Speratus, — habeamus.
Ft96 Vere dignum. Scudamore, 2, ch. 4, sec. 1:527 Ft97 The Verba. Rietschel 1:380f.
Ft98 Qui pridie. Durandus 4:41; Scudamore 2, ch. 6, sec. 9:599ff.
Ft99 Note Luther’s variation in the Words of Institution from the form in the Mass.
Ft100 In order to follow Luther’s suggested revision intelligently the outline of the Canon of the Mass current in his day is necessary. It is therefore appended here, as found in the Nurnberg Missal (printed at Nurnberg, 1484, by George Stuchs de sultzbach) with other notations from the Bamberg Missal of 1499. While the latter is a later publication, it nevertheless contains the older text of the Order, and therefore is more valuable, but it does not contain the Canon or complete rubrics, as was frequently the case with these old missals, such appointments appearing in other volumes. Bamberg represents a diocesan use which had not adopted, as yet, the latest “revisions.” For further comparison reference is also made to the Milan Missal of 1474, the first printed Roman Missal, — Vol. 17 of the Henry Bradshaw Society publications, Vol. 1, (1899).
The outline is Numberg Missal — N. beginning with p. 110, folio numbers supplied; other references Bamberg — B. — beginning folio 131; Milan, — M, beginning p. 205. If no variation is marked, it may be taken for granted that the outline as given is current in the other Missals. Cf. also p. 124, this volume. Prefatio quottidiana solenniter (B. only) Per omnia secula seculorum.
Et cum spiritu tuo.
Habemus ad dominum.
Gratias agamus domino deo nostro.
Dignum et justum est.
Vere dignum et justum est, equum et salutare. Nos tibi semper et ubique gratias agere domine sancte pater omnipotens eterne deus. Per christurn dominum nostrum. Per quem majestatem tuam laudant angeli adorant dominationes tremunt potestates. Cell celorumque virtutes ac beata seraphin socia exultatione concelebrant. Cum quibus et nostras voces ut admitti jubeas deprecamur supplici confesslone dicentes.
Sanctus. Benedicite. (B. ends here.) Te igitur. N. 3; M. 206.
Memento domine. (Oratio pro vivis) N. 111; M. 206.
Communicantes et memoriam venerantes. (Infra canonem) N. 111; M. 206.
Hanc igitur oblationem. (Infra actionem) N. 111; M. 207.
Quam oblationera. N. 111; M. 207. (Hic accipiat hostiam in manibus dicendo) N. 111, verso; M. 207.
Qui pridie quam pateretur accepit panem in sanctas ac venerabiles manus suas, et elevatis occulis in celum ad to deum pattem suum omnipotentem, tibi gratias agens benedixit, fregit, deditque discipulis suis dicens, Accipite et manducate ex hoc omnes. HOC EST ENIM CORPUS MEUM. (Hic deponat hostiam, et levet calicem dicens) N. 111, verso; M. 207.
Simili modo postquam cenatum est accipiens et hunt preclarum calicem in sanetas ac venerabilis manus suas. Item tibi gratias agens, benedixit deditque discipulis suis dicens, Accipite et bibitc ex eo omnes. HIC EST ENIM CALIX SANGUINIS MEI NOVI ET ETERNI TESTAMENTI MISTERIUM FIDEI QUI PRO VOBIS ET PRO MULTIS EFFUNDETUR IN REMISSIONEM PECCATORUM.HEC QUOTIENSCUNQUE FECERITIS IN MEI MEMORIAM FACIETIS. (Hic deponit calicem) Unde et memores…N. 111, verso; M. Supra que propitio…N. 111, verso; M. Supplices to rogamus…N. 111, verso; M.208 Memento etiam (Oratio pro defunctis)…N. 112; M. Nobis quoque…N. 112; M. Per quem…N. 112; M. Oremus. Preceptio salutaribus moniti, et divina institutione formati audemus dicere.
Pater noster…N. 112; M. Libera nos quesumus…(Including the rubrics of the Fraction of the Bread) N. 112, 112 verso; M. 209, 210.
Fiat commixtio…N. 112, verso M. 210.
Agnus dei…N. 112, verso; M. 210.
Domine jesu christe qui…N. 112, verso; M. 210.
Domine jesu christe fill dei…N. 112, verso; M. 210.
Perceptio corpotis tui…N. 112, verso; M. Panem celestem…N. 113; M. 211.
Domine non sum dignus…N. 113; M. 211.
Corpus domini…N. 113; M. 211.
Quid retribuam…N. 113; M. 211.
Sanguis domini…N. 113; M. 211.
Quod ore sumpsimus…N. 113; M. 211.
Corpus tuum…N. 113; M. 211.
Placeat tibi…N. 113; M. 211.
See Durandus, IV, c. 35ff, on the Canon.
Ft101 Intonation, i.e., sung by the celebrant.
Ft102 !— Custom is still uppermost with Luther here.
Ft103 Customarily in secreto. Cf. Rub. Genesis Missalis, p. 53, 16:1.
Ft104 This is an example of Luther’s indecision typical of his attitude in and toward such matters.
Ft105 Note the inference here, that words of Institution are the consecration.
True to Roman precedent, — The Words of Institution the Consecration.
Ft106 Holy, Holy, Holy. Displaced by Luther. Durandus 4:34; Rietschel 1:379, b; Scudamore 2, ch. 4, sec. 2:531. This displacement has not been followed in C.S.B.
Ft107 Benedictus qui yenit. Matthew 21:9. Durandus 4:34, 11.
Ft108 The Elevation. Durandus 4:41, 51-3; Scudamore, 3, ch. 6, sec. 10, 616ff; Mis. Romans p. 325, 326.
Ft109 Daniel, Cod. Lit., 2:87. Note 3. Luther not only seemed at first to tolerate the Elevation but also to approve it, as these words witness: “This means, — when the priest elevates the Sacrament and the Chalice with the accompanying ringing of the bells, it is nothing other than that we are thereby reminded of Christ’s words; just as if the priest and he who strikes the bells were saying to us: ‘Hear ye Christians; behold, take and eat; take and drink; this is the Body and Blood of Christ.’ So that the Elevation by the priest and the bell mean for the lay folk the same as if they heard, loud and clear, the words of Christ which are read by the priest in secret.” Later he included the Elevation among the adiaphora, and finally abrogated it completely as far as the practice of the church at Wittenberg was concerned.
Ft110 Durandus, 4:47, 48. Rietschel, 1:385, Scudamore, 2, c, 7, sec. 1:654ff Mis. Romans p. 328, where the intonation is also printed.
Ft111 Praeceptis salutaribus moniti, et divina institutione formati, audemus dicere: — Taught by thy saving precepts and following thy divine institution, we make bold to say: — Mis. Romans p. 328.
Ft112 The Lord’s Prayer was intoned up to and including the Petition, Et ne nos inducas in tentationem. Upon which immediately was responded, Sed libera nos a malo. Upon which the priest said secretly Amen. Then follows this rubric: He takes the paten between his first and middle finger, and says:
Libera nos, quaesumus domine, ab omnibus malls, praeteritis, praesentibus, et futuris: et intercedente beata, et gloriosa semper virgine dei genitrice maria, cum beatis Apostolis tuis petro et paulo, atque andrea, et omnibus sanctis, da propitius pacem in diebus nostris: ut ope misericordiae tuae adjuti, eta peccato simus semper liberi, et ab omni perturbatione securi. Hic frangit hostJam primo in duos partes dicens Per eumden domimum nostrum jesum christum filium tuum. Deinde frangit unam pattem in duas partes dicens Qui teeurn vivit et regnat in unitate spiritus sancti deus. Hic clever modicum tertiam partum cum calice dicens Per omnia secula seculorum. Amen. Hic facit signurn crueis, super sanguinem dicens Pax d omini sit semper vobis cum.
Et cum spiritu tuo. Milan Missal, p. 209f.
The only variations between above and the modem Missale Romanum are in the rubrics, which in the present use are fuller. Cf. Mis. Romans p. 331f.
This is the Embolism, that is, an enlargement and amplification of the last petition, Sed libera, etc., into a prayer. Durandus, 4:49, 2, 3; Scudamore, 2, 7, 2, 656f.
Ft113 Speratus: Schirmschlegen! — signs of the Cross.
Ft114 During the saying of the prayer Libera nos, the Fractio panis, breaking of the bread, takes place (97). After the words et omnibus sanetis, the priest makes the sign of the cross (95), with the paten from his forehead to his breast, and kisses it. He continues with the prayer and after the words, et ab omni pertubatione securi, he puts the paten under the host, uncovers the chalice, kneels, rises, takes the host and breaks it (97) in half over the chalice, saying: Per eumden dominum nostrum Jesus Christum Filium tuum. He then puts the portion that is in his right hand on the paten; he then breaks off a small piece from the portion which is in his left hand, saying: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus sancti Deus. He puts the other half with his left hand on the paten, and holding the particle in his right hand over the chalice, and the chalice with his left, he says: Per omnis saecula saeculorum R Amen. Then he makes the sign of the cross three times over the chalice with the piece of the host (96) saying: Pax Domini sit t semper vobis t cure (99). R Et cum spiritu tuo. He then puts the particle into the chalice (90), saying silently: Haec commixtio, et consecratio Corporis et Sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, fiat acci-pientibus nobis in vitam aeternam. Amen. This last action is called the commixtio or immisio: the cornmixture of the Body and Blood of our Lord.
Durandus, IV, 49, 50, 51. Fraction: — Scudamore, II, VIII, 657ff and VI, 606ff. Commixture: — II, VIII, 671; Mis. Romans p. 331ff, Rietschel, I, 386.
Ft115 During the saying of the prayer Libera nos, the Fractio panis, breaking of the bread, takes place (97). After the words et omnibus sanetis, the priest makes the sign of the cross (95), with the paten from his forehead to his breast, and kisses it. He continues with the prayer and after the words, et ab omni pertubatione securi, he puts the paten under the host, uncovers the chalice, kneels, rises, takes the host and breaks it (97) in half over the chalice, saying: Per eumden dominum nostrum Jesus Christum Filium tuum. He then puts the portion that is in his right hand on the paten; he then breaks off a small piece from the portion which is in his left hand, saying: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus sancti Deus. He puts the other half with his left hand on the paten, and holding the particle in his right hand over the chalice, and the chalice with his left, he says: Per omnis saecula saeculorum R Amen. Then he makes the sign of the cross three times over the chalice with the piece of the host (96) saying: Pax Domini sit t semper vobis t cure (99). R Et cum spiritu tuo. He then puts the particle into the chalice (90), saying silently: Haec commixtio, et consecratio Corporis et Sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, fiat acci-pientibus nobis in vitam aeternam. Amen. This last action is called the commixtio or immisio: the cornmixture of the Body and Blood of our Lord.
Durandus, IV, 49, 50, 51. Fraction: — Scudamore, II, VIII, 657ff and VI, 606ff. Commixture: — II, VIII, 671; Mis. Romans p. 331ff, Rietschel, I, 386.
Ft116 During the saying of the prayer Libera nos, the Fractio panis, breaking of the bread, takes place (97). After the words et omnibus sanetis, the priest makes the sign of the cross (95), with the paten from his forehead to his breast, and kisses it. He continues with the prayer and after the words, et ab omni pertubatione securi, he puts the paten under the host, uncovers the chalice, kneels, rises, takes the host and breaks it (97) in half over the chalice, saying: Per eumden dominum nostrum Jesus Christum Filium tuum. He then puts the portion that is in his right hand on the paten; he then breaks off a small piece from the portion which is in his left hand, saying: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus sancti Deus. He puts the other half with his left hand on the paten, and holding the particle in his right hand over the chalice, and the chalice with his left, he says: Per omnis saecula saeculorum R Amen. Then he makes the sign of the cross three times over the chalice with the piece of the host (96) saying: Pax Domini sit t semper vobis t cure (99). R Et cum spiritu tuo. He then puts the particle into the chalice (90), saying silently: Haec commixtio, et consecratio Corporis et Sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, fiat acci-pientibus nobis in vitam aeternam. Amen. This last action is called the commixtio or immisio: the cornmixture of the Body and Blood of our Lord.
Durandus, IV, 49, 50, 51. Fraction: — Scudamore, II, VIII, 657ff and VI, 606ff. Commixture: — II, VIII, 671; Mis. Romans p. 331ff, Rietschel, I, 386.
Ft117 During the saying of the prayer Libera nos, the Fractio panis, breaking of the bread, takes place (97). After the words et omnibus sanetis, the priest makes the sign of the cross (95), with the paten from his forehead to his breast, and kisses it. He continues with the prayer and after the words, et ab omni pertubatione securi, he puts the paten under the host, uncovers the chalice, kneels, rises, takes the host and breaks it (97) in half over the chalice, saying: Per eumden dominum nostrum Jesus Christum Filium tuum. He then puts the portion that is in his right hand on the paten; he then breaks off a small piece from the portion which is in his left hand, saying: Qui tecum vivit et regnat in unitate Spiritus sancti Deus. He puts the other half with his left hand on the paten, and holding the particle in his right hand over the chalice, and the chalice with his left, he says: Per omnis saecula saeculorum R Amen. Then he makes the sign of the cross three times over the chalice with the piece of the host (96) saying: Pax Domini sit t semper vobis t cure (99). R Et cum spiritu tuo. He then puts the particle into the chalice (90), saying silently: Haec commixtio, et consecratio Corporis et Sanguinis Domini nostri Jesu Christi, fiat accipientibus nobis in vitam aeternam. Amen. This last action is called the commixtio or immisio: the cornmixture of the Body and Blood of our Lord.
Durandus, IV, 49, 50, 51. Fraction: — Scudamore, II, VIII, 657ff and VI, 606ff. Commixture: — II, VIII, 671; Mis. Romans p. 331ff, Rietschel, I, 386.
Ft118 The Gospel Absolution: Luther’s gloss is distinctly unique when compared with the Roman Rite, and as he here appoints the Pax it becomes an Evangelic bond between the Words of Institution with their Invitation, This do, — As oft as ye do, — and the faithful communicant who approaches in obedience to his Lord’s invitation. See preceding note. Durandus, IV, 51, 15; cf. Scudamore, II, VIII, 662.
Ft119 In the Rite to which Luther was accustomed the Pax was said, of course, while the priest faced the Altar. Opposed to this is ancient custom and also the ritualistic interpretation of sacramental action by posture and sign. The bishops, it is said, in earliest days, celebrated facing the people; i.e., as there was space back of the altar, between altar and wall of apse, and as the altar stood on the chord of the apse and did not have a reredos, the bishop stood back of the altar facing outward toward the people. His throne likewise was immediately back of the altar in the center of the apse wall.
Ft120 It was quite natural for Luther to make this appointment. The celebrant in the Roman Mass communicated himself with the consecrated Host and Wine whether others were making their communion or not. He, of course, was supposed to have made his preparation according to quite definite rubrical directions and therefore was “prepared.” The Roman use did not know any other method; and this had been the practice of the Church since post-apostolic times. The first indication of this practice as an established appointment is in one of the canons of the Apostolic Constitutions; and thereafter the use continued unbroken having been intrenched and fortified by the developing theories and doctrines of the priesthood and the Mass.
Here again, apparently, Luther had not thought things through either from the standpoint of doctrine or from practical angles. He simply followed the practice to which he and all were accustomed.
But as time wore on the question of self-administration presented difficulties and queries which had to be faced; probably the gravest was the “scandalizing” of the common people who continued, after evangelic enlightenment, to look upon self-administration as a “priestly” act and wrongly interpreting the Holy Supper, and therefore still smacking of the Roman Mass.
The situation was met shortly by specific appointment in one Kirchen Ordnung after another forbidding self-administration, exceptions being allowed only by direct permission of proper authority, — bishop or consistory. Luther, himself, seems to have discontinued the practice in a comparatively short time, because he realized that it offended the people and was a “perversion of the Office (Ministry) and true usage,” and communed with the congregation.
It is interesting to observe that the English prayer books of this and later periods continued the self-communication of the “priest” — “Minister”; and that this is their rubrical direction today; while in the Church of the Reformation the well-nigh universal practice is non-selfadministration when the officiant celebrates alone. Daniel, II, 88, note 3; Scudamore, II, c. IX, sec. 1, p. 691ff. Gerber, Kirchenceremonien in Sachsen, 479ff. Rietschel, I, 439.
Ft121 Preserved in C.S.B. Durandus, IV, 52; Rietschel, I, 386; Scudamore, II, c. VIII, sec. 6, p. 678.
Ft122 Domine jesu christe fili dei vivi qui ex voluntate patris cooperante spiritu sancto per mortam tuam mundum vivifieasti, libera me per hoc sacrificium (Note the reading sacrificium, sacrifice. Nurnberg Missal (1484), p. 112 verso and modern Roman Missal, p. 333, have sacrosanctam, most holy.) corpus et sanguinem tuum, ab omnibus iniquitatibus meis et universis malis, et fae me tuis semper inherere mandatis, eta to nunquam separari permittas. Qui cum eodem deo patre et spiritu sancto vivis et regnas in secula seculorum amen. Milan, 210.
O Lord Jesus Christ, Son of the living God, Who according to the will of the Father, through the cooperation of the Holy Spirit, hast quickened the world by Thy death: Deliver me through this Thy Most Holy Body and Blood from all my iniquities and from all evil, and make me always cleave to Thy commandments and permit me never to be separated from Thee, Who livest and reignest with the same God, Father and Holy Spirit world without end. Amen.
Ft123 Corpus domini nostri jesu christi custodiat animam meam in vitam eternam amen.
Sanguis domini nostri jesu christi custodiat anitaare meam in vitam eternam amen. Milan, 211; Nurnberg, 112 verso; Romans Mis., 333f.
The two brief prayer forms said by the priest before he communicates himself with the Host and Wine respectively. These became, by changing the pronoun as Luther appoints, the Forms of Administration at the Distribution. They are preserved in C.S.B. Rietschel, I, 390.
Ft124 A short chant usually consisting of verses of Scripture sung at first during the communion, hence its name; then immediately at the conclusion. Originally it was much longer in form ending with the Gloria Patri and like the Introit passed through a shortening process for practical reasons, until now it is virtually nothing more than the antiphon of the original Communio. Durandus, IX, 58; Fortescue, The Mass, p. 387f.
Ft125 The last prayer or prayers of the Mass, constructed in collect form, and varying with the other Propers, sometimes a thanksgiving, usually intercessions. It is variously named in the old sacramentaries. In the Gelasianum it is called both Postcommunio and Oratio ad pop-ulum; in the Gregorianum, Ad complendam and at certain times in the year when there are two prayers at this place, the second is called Oratio super populum. The names Postcovmunio, after communion, and Ad complendam, at the completion, are self-evident. Luther’s reason for substituting another prayer for these variable post communions was based on his opposition to their content; they were not “evangelic” according to his conception nor expressive of the proper and harmonious expression of thanksgiving. His feel for this finally eventuated in the invariable Postcommunion now appointed in the C.S.B. coming into the Church’s use through Luther’s Deutsche Messe, 1526. Durandus IV, 56, 57.
Ft126 Quod ore sumpsimus, domine, pura mente capiamus, et de mumere temporali fiat nobis remedium sempiteruum amen. Milan, 211; Nurnberg, 113; Romans Mis. 334.
What we have taken with the mouth, O Lord, may we receive with pure mind, and out of this temporal gift may there be made for us an everlasting remedy. Amen.
Ft127 Corpus tuum domine quod sumpsi et sanguis quem potavi adherent visceribus meis et presta, ut in me non reinanent scelerum macula quem pura et sancta refecerunt sacramenta. Qui vivis, Milan, 211; Nurnberg, 113; Romans Mis. 334. May Thy Body, O Lord, which I have received, and Thy Blood, which I have drunk, cleave to my inmost parts, and grant that stain of sin may not remain in me whom the pure and holy sacraments have refreshed; Who livest.
Ft128 The Termination of the Collect, here indicated to be used in complete form. See C.S.B., General Rubrics I, p. 484. However here there is a variation from the rule as the original of this collect gives an abbreviated form: Qui vivis et regnas in secula seculorum amen.
Ft129 The Salutation, introducing the act of Dismissal.
Ft130 i.e., Go, Mass is ended. On the meaning of this phrase, its relation to the term “Mass,” see Rietschel I, 347; Durandus, IV, 57, 7.
Ft131 During certain seasons of the Church Year Benedicamus Domino is said instead of Ite missa est; e.g., Advent, Lent. See Durandus Inc. eit.
The rubric of the Missal reads: “Then is said, Ite missa eat or Benedicamus Domino according to what mass is being said. Neither is said at a Requiem Mass. Benedicamus is said instead of he in Advent and Lent. Alleluia is added to he in Eastertide.” This is now to be the normal conclusion, according to Luther’s appointment: Salutation, Benedicamus; thus the C.S.B.
Ft132 Alleluia was added to he missa est during Eastertide. It and Benedicamus had their own proper melodies; cf. the Bamberg Missal in the section following the Proper Prefaces; also Romans Mis., p. 335.
Luther now proposes to add it to Benedicamus; but makes its use permissive.
Ft133 There were other musical settings to Benedicamus used only at Vespers.
Ft134 The “customary Benediction” was, Benedicat vos omnipotens Deus, Pater, et Filius et Spiritus Sanctus. May God Almighty bless you, the Father, the Son t, and the Holy Ghost. Durandus, IV, 59; Rietschel, I, 393.
Ft135 The proposed use of the Aaronitic Benediction is peculiar to Luther.
There is no historical precedent for its suggestion in that part of the Church with which Luther was familiar. In the second book of the Apostolic Constitutions it is held up as an example as to the manner in which the people are to be blessed after Communion, but not appointed as a form of benediction. It is used as a benediction in the Mozarabic Missal, and referred to by Isadore of Seville in his commentary on the Divine Office. One wonders whether Luther might have been familiar with these very widely separated and singular uses, but the weight of probability is that he was not.
It is far more likely that Luther’s love for Holy Scripture and his passion to employ it in every conceivable way led him here. Rietschel I, 402.
Ft136 That is: Jehovah Himself prepared and appointed this benediction.
Ft137 There is liberty of action here, apparently without any restriction whatever. Is it the same old uncertainty notwithstanding an apparent leaning toward the Scriptural precedent? But one thing is to be remembered that the Church is returning to communion of the people in both kinds after hundreds of years of communion of the laity in but one kind. How shall this be done? Where is the precedent?
Experimentation now brings a settled practice in a short period.
Ft138 That is, the appointments of the Mass in the foregoing paragraphs would have to be adapted to whatever method of administration would be pursued.
Ft139 The principles here enunciated by Luther are ideal and theoretically conform to Evangelic teaching but the practical issues were an entirely different matter! The points of view that centered themselves in ceremonies, etc., and that persisted, the divergences which arose, the offenses created thereby, resulted, notwithstanding such writings as this, in a motley of interpretation and practice. Luther apparently felt these issues rather keenly and knew they had to be met as witness his Exhortation to the Christians in Livonia concerning Public Worship and Unity, 1525. On the one side was the common man accustomed to a life and practice born in him, inherited from generations before him, wedded to them, superstitiously, jealously clinging to many; on the other is the Teaching of the Word and its direct applications.
Nevertheless while practical issues might force certain qualifications, the Gospel still required the emphasis of the ideal; such things remained adiaphora. It was a difficult situation.
Cf. Aug. Conf. Art. 15, 21, 22, 24, etc.
Jacoby , Die Liturgik der Reformatoren.
Ehrenfeuchter , Theorie des christlichen kultus.
Kliefoth , D. christlichen Kultus.
Shoberlein , Liturg. Ausbau d. Gemsindegottesdiensts.
Rietschel , Lehrbuch d. Liturgik.
To gain the Roman point of view see Thalhofer-Eisenhofer, Katholische Lituroile.
Ft140 The historic liturgical vestments used by the officiant and assistants when celebrating the Mass. First was the garment which is now known as the cassock. In the case of monks, for example, Luther, who was an Augustinian, the monk’s habit served instead. Over this the celebrant, robing for Mass, put on the amice, alb, girdle; maniple, stole, and chasuble in turn. The deacon of the Mass wore all of these except the chasuble; instead of this he put on a dalmatic, but the stole was worn differently than the priest. The sub-deacon wore amice, alb, girdle, maniple, and tunicle. These vestments and their use run back into the far past and are the object of much symbolic interpretation by commentators on the Mass. For example, see Durandus, III, cc. 1-19.
Ft141 The wealth of vestments, both quantity and quality, owned by countless churches in Luther’s day is a matter of history. Some of them were glorious almost beyond description, the splendor of their adornment, magnificence of the needle-worker’s art made of them something more than treasures. “Excess” had entered here; and the motives were not single and pure.
However, here again, the common people were accustomed, wedded to this use. More churches and sections retained them at first than abrogated them, but usually the use was limited to the cassock, alb and chasuble, possibly the stole also. Many of the KOO definitely retain or permit their use; others are silent; comparatively few order them abrogated.
Luther, at first, continued to use the historic vestments; then, one may imagine, to show that he considered such things “free,” did pretty much as he pleased. He preachd in alb, in his monk’s garb, and finally in his doctor’s robe.
See Daniel, II, p. 90f, Note 1; Rietschel, I, 151.
Ft142 The evangelic principle.
Ft143 That is, according to the ritualistic benediction of the Rituale.
Ft144 Evidently meaning that such articles might be “set apart” by Word and Prayer; in other words an evangelic blessing.
Ft145 Speratus: Eyngefurt dutch die Bischoff, des gerewels gleich wye all ander der gleichen lepperey — nonsense, frivolous stuff.
Ft146 That is, belonging to all.
Ft147 Aula, inner court; therefore Sanctuary or Holy of Holies.
Ft148 The Confessional as such would necessarily be summarily dismissed, but the necessity not only for declaration of intention, but for examination and the evangelic ministry of true confession and comforting absolution remained. Here is the natural sequence — “private confession” as a requisite to participation and as a safeguard to the sacrament. The latter appears not for the sacrament’s sake but for the health of the soul of the prospective communicant: and therein is the true evangelic cure of souls and not a development of a Protestant penitential system or discipline. See p. 95.
Ft149 The foregoing paragraphs are extremely interesting when one compares the simplicity of pastoral personal ministration indicated here, with the great penitential system in force in the Roman Church. There every specific sin or wrong or need has its “remedy.” but usually a remedy which the one confessing must work out according to the canonically scheduled process or suffer the penalty there specified.
Here is the simplicity of the Gospel where discipline is administered for spiritual health and where the ministry is sympathetically, lovingly personal in relationship and administration.
Ft150 Luther evidently is thinking of the architectural arrangement of the usual Gothic church where the Chancel consists of Choir and Sanctuary. The prospective communicants are to gather in a group in the Choir.
Ft151 The sense of this is, that people are not to approach without notice, — having gone to confession, — or to walk up, mingling with others who have, and hide themselves away in a group. The open segregation of the communicants is for salutary purposes as well as practical.
Ft152 Absolutely required of those who propose to make their communion.
Luther of course is thinking of the abuses connected therewith and the consequent offenses.
Ft153 That is, rigorous fasting.
Ft154 Utranque speciem, both Elements, the bread and the wine.
Ft155 That is, take Him at His word and receive the sacrament according to His institution.
Ft156 Active participation by the common people in the Mass as far as response or hymn was concerned amounted to little or nothing at this period, although during the late Middle Ages the people in Germany had been permitted to sing vernacular “hymns” immediately after certain parts of the Mass. In some sections this custom was permitted to continue, some dioceses being less rigorous in enforcing discontinuance. Luther’s effort to restore congregational participation in distinctive liturgical responds and songs took form in his suggested Orders and what was more to the point, in versifications of certain parts of the services and in a variety of hymns. Cf. for example the Deutsche Messe.
Ft157 Cf. the prefaces to the various hymn books by Luther; translated in this edition.
Ft158 This is a pre-Reformation hymn which was used variously: as a post communion hymn, or at processions, sometimes after the Gradual on Corpus Christi. Text, Wackernagel, II, 748.
Luther revised it shortly after this writing by adapting the first stanza and adding two more. His revised text appeared for the first time in Eyn Enchiridion, Erfurt, 1524. This text follows:
Got sey gelobet un gebenedeyet der uns selber hat gespeyset. Mit seynes fleische und reit seinem blut. das gyb uns herr gott zu gutte.
Kirieleyson. Herr durch deynen heiligen leichnam, der you deyner mutter Maria karo, und das heylige blut hylff uns herr aus aller nott.
Der heylig leichnam yst fur uns gegeben, zum todt das wir dardurch leben. Nicht grosser gutte kund er uns geschencken, dabey wir sein soln gedencken. Kirieleyson. Herr deyn lieb so gross dich zwungen hat, das dein blut an uns gross wunder that. Und bezalt unser schult, das uns Got ist worden holt. Kirieleyson.
Got geb uns allen seyner gnaden segen, das wir gehen auff seynen wegen. In rechter lieb und brudlicher trewe, das uns die speys nicht gerewe. Kyrieleyson. Herr dein heylig geyst uns nymer has, duns gel> zuhalten rechte Mass. Das dein arm Christenheytt, leb ynn fryd und eynigkeit. Kyrieleyson. See Kirchen.buch, No. 243; also Annotations to Luther’s Hymns in this volume.
Ft159 Saint Barbara, Virgin and Martyr, commemorated December 4. For the purely legendary account of her life and martyrdom see Catholic Encyclopedia, II, 285.
Because of the legend that her father was struck by lightning on account of his part in her martyrdom, St. Barbara came to be regarded by the common people as the patron saint in time of danger from thunder storms and fire and later on, by analogy, as the protector of artillery men and miners. The fact that she was also called upon as intercessor to assure the receiving of the sacraments of Penance and the Holy Eucharist at the hour of death probably led to this allusion by Luther.
Ft160 A popular pre-Reformation hymn; see Wackernagel, 2:44; Koch 1:208.
Nu bitten wir den heiligen Geist, umb den rechten glauben aller meist, das er uns behfite an unserm ende, wenn wir helm faren ams diesera dende. Kyrioleys.
To this stanza Luther added the following some time after the writing of the Formula missae and published the revised hymn in 1524:
Du werdes liecht gib uns deinen schein, fern uns Ihesum Christ kennen allein, Das wir an jn bleiben, dem trewen helland der uns bracht hat, zum rechten vaterland. Kyrioleis.
Du sfisse lieb schenck uns deine gunst, has uns empfinden der liebe brunst, Das wir uns von hertzen einander lieben, und ym friede auff einem sinn bleiben. Kyrioleis.
Du hochster troster jnn aller not, hilff das wir nieht furchten schand noch rod, Das inn uns die sinhen nich verzagen, wenn der feind wird das leben verklagen. Kyrioleis.
See Kirehenbuch No. 139; also Annotations on Luther’s Hymns in this volume.
Ft161 A Christmas hymn of the Reformation period; authorship unknown; first appeared in Enchiridion, Zwickau, 1528; from there taken over into other early Reformation hymnals, for example the first Leipzig hymn book, Enchiridion Geistlicher Gesenge, etc., printed by Michael Blum, 1530. Text quoted from this latter book. See also Wackernagel, III, 520.
Ein kindelein so lobelich, ist uns geporen heute, von einer Jungfraw sewberlich, zu trost uns armen leuten. Wer uns das kindlein nicht geporn, so weren wir allzumal verloren, das hell ist unser alle, Ey du susser Jhesu Christ, das du mensch geporen bist, behut uns fur der helle.
Die zeit ist nu gar freudenreich, zu lobe gottes namen, Das Christus you dem himelreich, auff erden ist gekomen. Es ist ein gros demutigkelt, die Gott you himel bey uns thet, ein kneeht ist er gewarden, on alle sunde uns gleich, dadurch wir werden ewig reich, tregt uuser sunde burden.
Wol dem der dis gleuben ist, mit gantzem hertzen trawen, dem wird die seligkeit gewis, wol den die darauff bawen. Das Christus hat genug gethan fur uns darumb er ausgegangen, you Gott dem ewigen vater. O wunder uber wunderthat, Christus tregt unser missethat, und stillet unsern hadder.
Des danck jm alle Christenheit, fur solche grosse gute, und bite sein barmhertzigkeit, das er uns fort behute, fur falscher ler und bosem wahn, daryn wir han lange zeit gestan, er wil uns das vergeben, Gott vater son und heilig geist wir bitten you dir allermeist, has uns im friede leben.
Ft162 That is, of the Church Year. Luther spoke of some of the Festivals earlier in this writing; see pp. 86, 87; cf. p. 63.
Ft163 A Latin term taken over from common use into ecclesiastical and in the latter connection used as a technical term meaning any day of the week which is not a festival and, strictly speaking, not a fast day; although this distinction was not always made, for example, the old sacramentaries speak of Good Friday as Feria sexta in parasceve.
A ferial use is a week-day use, or one in contrast to a festival use.
Ft164 That is the daily Mass, customarily celebrated by the incumbent without communicants.
Ft165 The eight canonical hours of daily prayer and the eight offices to be recited at these hours. They were Matins, Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, Nones, Vespers, and Campline.
These Offices and the various appointments or “propers” comprised the Roman Breviary. See Durandus, V, cc. 1-10.
Luther’s reference here to “Matins of three lessons” is to the ferial office when but one Nocturn was said; at the Sunday or Festival Office of Matins, three Nocturns were said. The Breviary speaks of a Nocturn as “Watch of the Night”; Matins would normally be said after Midnight and before Dawn. A Nocturn consisted of a group of Psalms with proper Antiphons, three Lessons and three Responsories; the Sunday or Festival Matins had three Nocturns, therefore nine Lessons and nine Responsories. Cf. Breviarium Romanum, either Sunday at Matins, or the Propers de tempore, etc. For convenience see The Roman Breviary, translated by the Marquess of Bute, Vol. 1:4ff, Sunday at Matins, and 180, Propers for Advent Sunday.
Ft166 In Cathedral and some parish churches Matins and Vespers, the latter with Campline following immediately, were said “in choir,” that is in the church publicly; and these hours were attended more or less by devoted lay-folk.
Reformation usage crystallized in the public use of Matins and Vespers.
Lauds and Prime were combined with Matins to form the Matin Office; and Campline was combined with Vespers to form the Vesper Office.
As Luther writes, these Hours were almost entirely composed of Scriptural elements; although some of the variable propers, such as, Responsories, Antiphons, and Lections composed of legendary histories, were quite the opposite and inspired the strong opposition of Luther and others against their continuance.
Ft167 A de tempore use is one proper to a Season.
Ft168 That is the propers for the Hours of Saints’ Days, which in most cases were especially obnoxious to Luther.
Ft169 Quite frankly Luther expresses his favor for retention of daily Matins and Vespers in a number of his writings because of their educational value to the youth. His idea was to have them participate actively in these services both in singing and reading, thereby making them acquainted with, and fluent in, Latin and also the Scriptures.
Ft170 The whole Psalter was so parceled out among the daily Hours that in the course of a week all of the Psalms were said.
Ft171 There are three anthem-form responses in the course of the Services which are similar in structure but quite different in purpose. They are the Introit and Gradual of the Mass and the Responsory of the Hours.
Reference has been made to the Introit and Gradual above. The Gradual and Responsory are both connected with liturgical lessons, thus being similar in use, but they differ in content. The Gradual usually is composed of Psalm verses, though this is not invariable, but always of Scripture; and the Verse is taken from the context. On the other hand the Responsory is seldom composed of Psalm verses and frequently is made up of passages which are not Scripture at all and its Verse is not usually taken from the context. The unique feature of the Responsory is its “Answer” or “Resumption” which appears here and there throughout the text. This is taken up in the course of the Responsory and fitted in very cleverly, proving this feature to have been designed. Another feature is the brief form of the Gloria Petri; the “As it was, etc.” is omitted. Some commentators claim this to be proof of the antiquity of the Responsory as the Sicut erst, etc. came into rather general use only about the sixth century. The number and variety of the Responsories is remarkable; their unseripturalness inspired Luther’s advice. See C.S.B., p 191ff.
Ft172 It does not take any great amount of imagination to realize that this sentence was born of the experience of the past. The compulsory use of the Hours of the Breviary, notwithstanding the wealth and variety of material, all too soon became mere mechanical and monotonous repetition without spiritual value to say nothing of the proper spirit of approach to, and worship of, God.
Ft173 Over against the Breviary appointment of the Psalter, — as in Luther’s day: to be said through once every week, — a Reformation use gradually took form. This eventuated in a rather arbitrary division of the Psalter, Psalms 1-100 being appointed for Matins, Psalms 101-150 for Vespers. However certain High Days retained their customary “proper” Psalms.
Furthermore Luther favored a continuous reading of the Scriptures chapter by chapter of book after book. Cf. his other major liturgical writings. While this suggestion was experimented with in some places and carried out thoroughly in others, it fortunately did not displace the proper liturgical Epistles and Gospels Ft174 See Von ordnung gottis diensis; translation this volume, p. 60ff.
Ft175 See Von ordnung gottis diensts and Note 154 above.
Ft176 Homilia, — brief expositions of the Scriptures read. Capitulum, — technical name for the short Scripture passage read, — “The Chapter.”
Luther carries both the reading and exposition back to Apostolic precedent, which is, of course, well authenticated.
Ft177 But Thou, O Lord, have mercy upon us. Response: Thanks be to God.
The Respond after the Lesson. Cf. C.S.B. in loco.
Ft178 See Julian, Dict. of Hymnology, p. 1119.
Ft179 Latin, unctioni, — unction — “the unction from above.” Speratus’ translation is interpretive: Wo nicht, wist yhrs besser zu machen, so wollen wir ewrem geyst, der euch salbet vnd leret, gem stat geben.
Ft180 That is, a source of wealth.
Ft181 Luther is referring to Matthew Beszkav, Johann Dolsch, George Elner and Johann Volmar.
Ft182 See the Introductions to the Taufbuchlin, the Von ordenung, the Formula missae, and the General Introduction in this volume.
Ft183 See the Introduction to this pamphlet in Weimar 18:8ff.
Ft184 The invariable part of the Liturgy of the Mass in which the consecration of the bread and wine is effected.
Ft185 Stillmesse — Used in the title of the pamphlet where Luther means “The Abomination of the Canon of the Mass”; and here where he means that part which is said at the altar either almost inaudibly or in secret. The term is capable of a third meaning — Low Mass, i.e., a said Mass with a modicum of ceremony but this is not in place here; the emphasis is on secret, i.e., that which the people could not, or were not intended to hear.
Ft186 deyne heylige gemeyne Christliche Kirche.
Ft187 Christlichen — catholice.
Ft188 In the old Missales the rubrics are brief and simple always. Luther has translated them exactly in all cases but one.
The minute directions for the priest for the celebration of Mass appeared in other books such as a Directorium or an Instruction. The modern Missal prints many of these in the text of the Canon and others in the General Rubrics.
Ft189 Dyrmunge — The specific portion of the Canon during which, whereby, the consecration is effected.
Ft190 Luther’s remark!
Ft191 Luther — angeschriben — ascriptam. This has been long acknowledged to be the most difficult passage in the Canon, one not only difficult to translate but more to interpret. There have been many attempts at the latter; almost every commentator on the Mass of any importance advances his own. Dr. Fortesque translates, “This our offering, do thou, O God, vouchsafe in all things to bless, consecrate, approve, make reasonable and acceptable Ft192 Opfer — hostiam — the sacrificial victim.
Ft194 See Formula missae this volume, p. 91.
Ft195 See zusamen halten — preserve her, — keep her united.
Ft196 The pax — salutation is omitted.
Ft197 That is, he communicates himself after crossing himself with the consecrated Host.
Ft198 The Milan Missal of 1474 is the first printed missal. The period is used indiscriminately for comma, colon and semi-colon; the u is used both for u and v; e many times covers the diphthong which would be used in later spelling.
Ft199 Cf. Introduction to the Formula missae, this volume, p. 67ff.
Ft200 See the comparative table, this volume, p. 38; and p. 90.
Ft201 See page 89f, this volume.
Ft202 By Erasmus.
Ft203 Wider die himml, proph. Erg. 1:78ff; W. 18.
Ft204 Nicolas Hausmann in Zwickau, who was always consulting Luther about something or other, and to whom Luther directed his Formula missae the next year, prepared a German Mass in 1525, in which he placed German words under the notes of the Latin Service. He sent this to Luther for his judgment. The latter thought the German words should be sung in a German and not in a Latin manner! A year before Hausmann had proposed a conference of Luther’s supporters to determine upon uniform ceremonies (Fendt, 177). Luther vetoed the proposition. The next year, 1526, Hausmann wished Luther to prepare a Directory for Services (Ordinaries ceremonialius); Luther replied: “Do it yourself”! (Enders 5:52; 328. Erg. 1:77).
Ft205 Cf. Archer and Reed, Psalter and Cantides, p. 7.
Ft206 E. 142, p. 278; W. 19, p. 50ff; De Wette 3:36.
Ft207 This is the mystical Luther speaking. But the practical Luther, conscious of the heritage of history and art, and alive to the best means of impressing and influencing men, never attempted to introduce such a form of Service. That remained for Zinzendorf and the Pietists.
Ft208 Luther’s third type of Service.
Ft209 Liturgisch — musikaIische Geschichte der Evangelischen Gottesdienste von 1523 bis 1700, pp. 28ff.
Ft210 Paraphrases of the Lord’s Prayer were not unknown before Luther, but apparently the use of one in the Communion Service was a novelty.
The idea of an Exhortation also had medieval precedent. Hausmann, in Zwickau, a year or more before, had proposed a German Exhortation in place of the Preface, and had submitted the same to Luther, who suggested abbreviating it, but did not oppose the idea.
Ft211 Cf. Kawerau’s observations (p. 356) on results of this two-fold consecration, etc., (Smend 269).
Ft212 On the Elevation and Adoration of the Sacrament in Germany before the Reformation, see Hauck 5:336. For Luther’s opinions, see De Wette, 5:478, 541ff. 762, “Kurtzer bekenntniss” 1544, etc. For abuses in Lutheran circles, Sehling, Kirch. Gesetsgebung unter Morgtz you Sachsen, pp. 50, 64.
Ft213 While nearly all Luther’s Collects in his different Services are translations or renderings of Latin originals, this beautiful Collect seems in large part new. Drews (Beitruge zu Luthers liturgischen Reformen, p. 95) suggests a rather remote Latin source.
Ft214 The classic exposition of Luther’s pedagogical view of worship is by Kliefoth, pp. 93ff. (Sinend 267).
Ft215 See Enders V. 257, Drews W. A. 19:51, Kawerau B. A. 7:162.
Ft216 This highly interesting account is given in full, in Latin, in Kolde, Analecta Lutherana, 226ff. (217ff.?) A German version is given in Fendt, p. 192.
Ft217 Weimar Ed. 18, 123.
Ft218 Facsimile in Weimar Ed., 19, 70.
Ft219 Luther’s Correspondence, Smith and Jacobs, 2, 340.
Ft220 So Walther in Weimar Ed. 19, 50. Kawerau places this on the succeeding Sunday, following Erlangen Ed., 14, 2, 278, where the material appears as the conclusion of the sermon on the twenty-first Sunday after Trinity on the Gospel, John 4:47-54.
Ft221 Here as elsewhere in this treatise the Sacrament of the Altar is called simply the Sacrament.
Ft222 See page 83 in this volume.
Ft223 The Bohemian Brethren, a resultant of the movement called forth by John Hus. They had received episcopal ordination through the Waldenses and were otherwise related to them. The name “Waldensian” was first given them by their enemies. See Realencyk. 5:452. Also Vol. 2:140 of this edition.
A similar complaint concerning their disregard of other languages is found in Luther’s educational treatise, “To the Mayors and Councilmen of the Cities of Germany, etc.” 1524.
Ft224 Luther’s ideal of a Christian congregation based on “elective affinity” rather than mere residence within a given parish marked out by the State. The latter is still the determining factor in the State Churches of Europe.
Ft225 See page 173.
Ft226 Luther’s re-publication in 1522 of his “Brief Explanation of the Ten Commandments, the Creed and the Lord’s Prayer,” first published in 1520, together with the Ave Maria and eight Psalms. Later editions contained other additions, It was the forerunner of his Catechisms. See the “Brief Explanation” in Vol. 1:351ff.
Ft227 The Gulden, the gold coin issued by the rulers of the estates bordering on the Rhine, had come into general circulation in Germany in Luther’s day. Its value is given as equal to 60 Kreuzer. See Brock, haus, Conversationslexicon, 10:714.
Schoenhof, in Money and Prices, New York, 1897, p. 611 assigns to a Kreuzer a value of two thirds of a cent. Values, however, were not entirely stable. The Hungarian Gulden which found its way especially into Eastern Germany, was considered to have greater value than the Rhenish. See Erich Born, Das Zeitalter des Denars, Leipzig, 1924, p. 435.
Ft228 The Gulden, the gold coin issued by the rulers of the estates bordering on the Rhine, had come into general circulation in Germany in Luther’s day. Its value is given as equal to 60 Kreuzer. See Brock, haus, Conversationslexicon, 10:714.
Schoenhof, in Money and Prices, New York, 1897, p. 611 assigns to a Kreuzer a value of two thirds of a cent. Values, however, were not entirely stable. The Hungarian Gulden which found its way especially into Eastern Germany, was considered to have greater value than the Rhenish. See Erich Born, Das Zeitalter des Denars, Leipzig, 1924, p. 435.
Ft229 A silver coin, first put into circulation by Frederick the Wise and other Saxon princes in 1498, so called from the Schreckenberg, where the silver mines were located. Its value was 12 Kreuzer. It was also called Engelgroschen, from its design, representing an angel with the shield of Saxony. See Brockhaus, 10:61.
On the value of a Kreuzer, see note on page 186.
Ft230 General heads, i.e., in a topical study of the Scriptures.
Ft231 The system of pericopes of the Medieval Church, lessons for every Sunday and festival day of the Church Year, which Luther retained although not entirely pleased with some of the selections. He regretted, too, the omission of some passages on faith from Paul’s letters. See his references to the subject in Formula missae, p. 87 this volume.
Ft232 Antiphon, the musical introduction to the chanting of Psalms, by which the precentor gave indication of the Tone in which the Psalm was to be sung. It was usually a verse from the Psalm itself and was repeated by the full choir at the close of the Psalm.
The service parts here mentioned are taken from the Breviary, as the “Mass” was taken from the Missal. The Te Deum was the canticle of Matins, the Benedictus the canticle of Lauds.
The Collects, the sentence prayers of the Ancient Church, beautiful in form and comprehending within brief compass all the elements of prayer.
The Benedicamus (Bless we the Lord) was the customary form of concluding the exercises of the “Hours.”
Ft233 The chief, or Communion Service. “Falsely are our Churches accused of abolishing the Mass, for the Mass is retained on our part and celebrated with the highest reverence.”
Augsburg Confession, Art. 24. Jacobs, Book of Concord, p. 50.
Ft234 Students of theology at the University.
Ft235 See above.
Ft236 See p. 172, this volume.
Ft237 See page 177, this volume.
Ft238 See above, p. 173.
Ft239 Of the eight Gregorian Psalm Tones (chants) Luther mentions here and subsequently the first, fifth and eighth. “The antiquity of the Psalm Tones is so great that no one has succeeded in tracing their exact origin with any degree of certainty.” Archer and Reed in The Psalter and Cantides, where examples and full bibliography can be found. See also Realencyk 26, 219ff.
Ft240 Here the Psalm is given in full, with the musical notation. [This is to be the Introit. Luther had expressed a desire to use the entire Psalm here, in the Formula; see page 86, P. Z. S.] Ft241 In the Roman Mass the Kyrie was sung nine times. [Cf. Formula, p. 87.] Ft242 On one note, F faut (double designation), without modulation. See Weimar Ed. 19, 55.
Ft243 See Luther’s Collects, this volume, pp. 319, 325. [P. Z. S.] Ft244 Luther’s text gives the musical notation with these rules.
Ft245 The Epistle for the Third Sunday in Advent, 1 Corinthians 4:1-5, is here given in full, with musical notation for intoning.
Ft246 The first stanza of this hymn is one of the few examples of popular hymns in the vernacular used in church in pre-Reformation times.
Luther added three stanzas and published it in 1524. Translated by Miss Winkworth: “Now let us pray the Holy Ghost.” (Christian Singers, 38). See Julian, Diet. of Hynmology, 821. Also Berlin Ed. 8, 7. [Cf. Formula missae, Note 141, p. 114f, this volume, and trader Luther’s Hymns, p. 305, this volume. P. Z. S.] Ft247 Musical notation accompanies both the rules and the lesson in Luther’s text. The whole Gospel lesson is given, John 1:19-28.
Ft248 Luther’s own versification of the Creed which he published in 1524.
See below, Luther’s Hymns, p. 304.
Ft249 Only one half of Luther’s “Kirchenpostille,” sermons on the Gospels for the Church Year, had been published (1525) by this time. The other part appeared in 1527. See Koestlin-Kawerau, 2:153.
Ft250 The Breviary prescribed the reading of homilies from the Church fathers. [On the Homily cf. Formula missae, p. 100, this volume, P. Z.
S.] Ft251 See Weimar Ed. 38, 231; similar complaints by Luther, Erlangen Ed. 31, 351; Vol. 1 of this ed. p. 224.
Ft252 Cf. the Introduction to, and the text of, A Preface, this volume, p. 135ff. P. Z. S.] Ft253 Luther gives the musical notation.
Ft254 i.e. the bread.
Ft255 This suggestion of Luther’s did not crystallize into permanent usage The Braunschweig Order of 1528 prepared by Bugenhagen, adopted it; in the Wittenberg Order of 1533 it no longer finds mention. It survives in the Order for the Communion of the Sick of the United Lutheran Church in America.
Ft256 The first stanza of this hymn is another pre-Reformation hymn which Luther published with additional stanzas in 1524. R. Massie’s translation “May God be praised henceforth, and blest forever” is found in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal. Julian, Dict. 444. [Cf. Formula missae, note 139, p. 114, this volume; also Annotations to Luther’s Hymns, this volume, p. 301. P. Z. S.] Ft257 A Latin hymn ascribed to John Hus, a German version of which Luther published in 1524 under the title: “The Hymn of St. John Hus improved.” Only the first stanza is taken directly from the Latin.
Translated into English by W. M. Reynolds, “Lord Jesus Christ, to Thee we pray,” first published in the Evangelical Review, Oct. 1819. It is found in the Ohio Lutheran Hymnal. See Julian, 598. [Cf. Annotations to Luther’s Hymns, this volume, p. 301. P. Z. S.] Ft258 “O Christ, Thou Lamb of God,” a modified form of a portion of the Gloria in excelsis, based on John 1:29, one of the very oldest parts of the liturgy. It was in use at the Communion service in the time of Pope Sergius I (687-701) and probably earlier. Julian, 30.
Ft259 The custom of having all the communicants gather and stand in the chancel or altar space until they approach the altar to kneel and receive the elements has survived in some congregations, particularly in the Western portion of the United States. Likewise the separation according to sex. [Cf. Formula missae, this volume, p. 95. P. Z. S.] Ft260 Cf. Formula missae, this volume, p. 95; On Betbuchlein; see note 6, p. 186.
Ft261 The elevation of the host after consecration is a high moment in every celebration of the Mass in the Roman Catholic Church. It was not abolished in Luther’s own church until 1542. Its abolition elsewhere at an earlier date had raised the accusation of sympathy with Zwinglian views on the doctrine of the real presence. See Koestlin-Kawerau, 2:578. [See Formula missae, this volume, p. 90, and notes 91 and 92, p. 108. P. Z. S.] Ft262 “Jesaiah dem Propheten das geschah.” This versification of the Sanctus appeared at this place for the first time with a tune by Luther himself.
Neither verse nor tune are in Luther’s best vein and found but limited acceptance. An English translation was published by Dr. W. M.
Reynolds in the Evangelical Review, Gettysburg, 1853, beginning, “isaiah, filled with deep prophetic awe.” Other English translations are mentioned in Julian, Dict. of Hymnology, 584. Cf. Annotations to Luther’s Hymns, this volume, p. 305.
Ft263 [Cf. Luther’s Collects, this volume, p. 329. P.Z.S.] Ft264 The whole passage, 1 Corinthians 4:1-8 is given here with musical notation.
Ft265 Matthew 6:24-34 is given here, the Gospel for the fifteenth Sunday after Trinity. The musical notation accompanies.
Ft266 The Purification of St. Mary, now known in the Lutheran Church Calendar as the Presentation of our Lord. The day is February 2.
Ft267 Literally hungercloth, a blue veil for the altar during Lent, the season of fasting.
Ft268 In the Palm Sunday processions, which usually included an ass (Palmesel), the tree branches were cast on and after the ass.
Ft269 The pictures of the saints in the churches were also veiled during Lent.
On this and the foregoing see Weimar Ed. 30, 257f.
Ft270 Rituale Romanum, 13: Exi ab eo...
Ft271 RR, 13: Accipe signum crucis...
Ft272 Omnipotens sempiterne deus, pater domini nostri Jesu Christi, respicere digneris super hunt famulum tuum, quem ad rudiments fidel vocare dignatus es, omnent cecitatem cordis expelle; disrumpe atones laqueos sathane, quibus fuerat colligatus; aperi ei domine ianuam pietatis tue: ut signo sapientie tue imbutus ornnium cupiditatum fetoribus careat: et ad suavem odorem preceptorum tuorum letus tibi in ecclesia tua deserviat et proficiat de die in diem: ut idoneus efficiatur accedere ad gratiam baptismi percepta medicina. Per eundem Christum dominum nostrum. Amen. — Gelasian Sacramentary. Muratori, 1:533; Wilson, 46. Gerbert, Lit Allemanica, 1:249, 2:6.
Gregorian, Muratori, 2:60, cf. 152.
Lietzmann, 49; Oratio ad catechumenum faciendum. Magdeburg Agenda, 1497.
Ft273 Luther’s Collects are annotated in this volume, see below p. 319ff.
Ft274 Deus immortale praesidium omnium postulantium, liberatio supplicam, pax rogantium, vita credentium, resurrectio mortuorum, te invoco super hunc famulum tuum N. qui baptismi tui donum petit ac eternam consequi gratiam spiritali regeneratione desiderat, accipe eum domine.
Et quia dignatus es dicere Petite et accipietis, quaerite et invenietis, pulsate et aperietur vobis, petenti itaque premium porrige et ianuam pande pulsanti ut aeternam celestis lauachri benedictionem consecutus promissa tui muneris regna percipiat. Per Christum dominum nostrum.
Gregorian, Muratori, 2:155. Magdeburg Agenda. RR. 33: Ordo Baptismi Adultorum.
Ft275 That is Wisdom, not the salt; the German is die; deliberately made this by Luther.
Ft276 RR, 14: Accipe sal sapientiae...
Ft277 The Sindfiutoebet. On Luther as the author of this prayer, see: Daniel, 2:192; Hofling, 2:53f; Jakoby, 1:303. See also Drews, Beitrage zu Luthers liturgischen Reformen. 5:112ff.
For the Latin collect, which evidently contributed some of the elements of the prayer, see RR, 14: Deus patrum nostrorum... See also, this volume, pp. 321, 323.
Ft278 RR. 15: Ergo maledicite....
Ft279 RR, 15: Exorcizo re, immunde spiritus...
Ft280 Eternam ac mitissimam pietatem tuam deprecor domine sancte pater omnipatens aeterne deus qui es auctor luminis et veritatis, ut super hunt famulum tuum N. benedictionem tuam infundas, ut digneris eum illuminate limine intelligentiae tuae, munda eum et sanctifica, da illi scientiam banam ut dignus efficiatur ad gratiam baptismi tui, teneat firmam spem, consilium rectum, doctrinam sanctam, ut aptus sit ad percipiendam gratiam baptismi tui. Per eundem Christum d. n. Magdeburg Agenda. Gelasian Sac — Wilson, 49. R.R., 15.
Ft281 RR, 16.
Ft282 RR, 17: Ephpheta...
Ft283 RR, 17.
Ft284 RR, 16.
Ft285 RR, 17.
Ft286 RR, 18.
Ft287 RR, 17.
Ft288 RR, 18.
Ft289 There were three modes of administering baptism in use at this period: immersio , i.e. total immersion of the child in the font; superfusio, i.e. holding the naked child over the font and pouring water over him profusely; infusio, i.e. dipping only the head of the child in the font.
Luther strongly favored immersion Cf. his Sermon on the Sacrament of Baptism, Erlangen Ed. 21:229. One of the early editions of the Tauffbuchlin has an interesting cut on the title page depicting the baptism of a child. The administrator is holding the infant on his left hand over the font and is pouring water over his head from his right hand. Two sponsors, a man and a woman, stand to the right of the font, and a server, holding an open book toward the administrator, stands to the left. In the lower left-hand corner the date ‘24 is quite plain, the artist’s initials are undecipherable. The mode authorized in the Rituale Romanum, p. 18, is pouring on the infant’s head in the sign of the cross, but where customary, the child may be immersed.
Ft290 RR, 18: Ego te baptizo...
Ft291 That is, over the font.
Ft292 RR, 19: Deus omnipotenus...
Ft293 Hauben, hood, in this Order; Westerhembd, christening robe, in the Revised Order. The term is derived from vestis, the white cloth placed over the naked child immediately after it had been baptized, — immersed. So present RR, 19. Dressing those who have been baptized in white is a most ancient Christian custom.
Ft294 RR, 19: Accipe vesterm...
Ft295 RR, 19: Accipe lampadem...
Ft296 This statement in a very short time became the Preface to the Order.
Even some of the editions in 1525 carry it as such.
Ft297 Here the penitent enumerates in particular the sins which distress him.
Ft298 Some old Missals reverse this order.
Ft299 It is well-nigh impossible to render einfeltigen satisfactorily in English by using one word. Luther has the average pastor in mind, who did not have any great amount of education.
Ft300 That is, the candidates for ordination.
Ft301 Latin, ordinator, the English term being merely a transliteration of the Latin but a correct usage. Ordinandus, one to be ordained, hence ordinand.
Ft302 Minister, presbyter, priest: A variety of terms for the ministerial office.
Such use of a group of terms is typical of the unsettled, and one may say indeterminate, state of affairs at Luther’s time in matters connected with Liturgy and practice.
Ft303 Veni Sancte Spiritus, reple tuorum corda fidelium: et tui amoris in els ignem accende: Qui per diversitatem linguarum cunctarum gentes in unitate fidel congregasti. Alleluia. Alleluia. Daniel, Thesaurus hymnologicus, 2:315.
This Latin antiphon dates at least from the eleventh century. It is used in the Roman Order for Ordination, and appears in the Mass for Pentecost in the Missale.
Luther versified this antiphon and added original stanzas, making a hymn of four stanzas of eight lines each.
This hymn, Komm heiliger Geist, Herre Gott, appeared as early as 1524 in Eyn Enchiridion, Erfurt.
For the German text see, Kirchenbuch, No. 140; of. also C.S.B. No. 146. The Order for Ordination of the C.S.B. does not appoint this antiphon, but begins the Office with the Veni Creator Spiritus.
Ft304 This Versicle and Response are connected with the Collect, Of the Holy Spirit. The use of versicle and response with prayer and other forms in Liturgy and Offices is both ancient and widespread.
The Collect would be read by the Ordinator still kneeling, on the completion of the Latin Antiphon.
Note the use of the Latin here. Many of the outstanding and wellknown parts of Liturgy and Offices continued to be used in the Latin form throughout the Reformation period.
Ft305 The Collect: Deus, qui [hodierna die] corda fidellum Sancti Spiritus illustratione docuisti: da nobis in eodem Spiritu recta sapere: et de ejus semper consolatione gaudere. Per Dominum...in unitate ejusdem Spiritus Sancti Deus. Proper Collect for the Mass of Pentecost. Mis.
Rom. and proper Collect of Pentecost, C.S.B., p. 114. See also Order for Ordination, C.S.B, p. 456.
Ft306 That is, the highest step before the altar; in other words, Go to the altar.
Ft307 C.S.B., p. 457.
Ft308 That is in the foregoing scripture passages.
Ft309 Nurture; train.
Ft310 Note the simplicity of the obligation and its immediate connection with the scriptural description of the Office.
Ft311 Note that the “Form” of Ordination, or the specific act is the “Laying on of hands and prayer” — New Testament; and the prayer is, of course (!), the Lord’s Prayer.
Ft312 See C.S.B., p. 459.
Ft313 See C.S.B., p. 459.
Ft314 See C.S.B., p. 460.
Ft315 Nun bitten wir den heiligen Geist. For text, see Kirchenbuch, No. 139.
Stanza one comprised a vernacular hymn of pre-Reformation times.
This has been ascribed to Bertholdt of Regensberg who died 1272.
Luther took this popular hymn and added three stanzas to it. This first appeared in the Geystliche gesangk Buchleyn, Wittenberg, 1524.
Lutheran practice during the Reformation period and since has been to use this Luther hymn at Celebration of Holy Communion, the Ordination of Ministers, and before the Sermon.
Ft316 Possibly a direct entrance into the Consecration of Holy Communion.
Ft317 A rather involved rubric which simply means that the Ordinator may commune at whatever place in the Office he pleases!
Ft318 Processions — at this period a Bittgang with which the Litany always was connected.
Ft319 Cf. p. 197ff this volume.
Ft320 See the notes connected with the collects below.
Ft321 Reference to both Kirchenbuch and Common Service Book in the Comparative Table has been omitted as the Notes connected with the versions are used to serve this purpose of comparison.
Ft322 The Magdeburg Brev. and the Brev. of the Augustinian Eremites offer texts which approximate the text to which Luther was accustomed. The Latina Lit. Cot. is the text of the Enchiridion piarum prec. of 1529.
The Deutsche Lit. is the text of the Small Cate. of 1529.
Ft323 Repeated after each prex.
Ft324 Te rogamus etc. follows each prex, beginning Ut.
Ft325 cf. prex: Ut dominum apostolicum.
Ft326 Presiding priest, hence Bishop.
Ft327 Each prex and respond will be found in the German Litany, unless marked “o” — omitted. Where there is a variation the character “v” is used. Unless otherwise noted, each prex and respond will be found in The Litany of the Common Service Book; see p. 236ff, large text edition.
Ft328 simulate: — lit., enmity toward someone who is like us; therefore, rivalry, feud, dissension. Party jealousy is probably the truest rendering; dissension, next.
Ft329 The normal division between prex and respond is not carried out here.
The division is as here indicated; the second choir continuing, Paraclete. Free us, Lord.
Ft330 tribulationis — foelicitatls: — a deliberate contrast. It is difficult to indicate the division in these preces. The second choir takes up with the last syllable of tribulationis and of foeticitatis, thus, — nis nostrae.
Libera nos Domine.... — tis nostrae, etc. These divisions are forced by the musical setting of the prex and respond.
Ft331 The divisions in the Latin.
Ft332 All of the following preces include the verb digneris, and therefore each prex should begin, That thou wouldest deign. The word expresses both the humility of the petitioner and the condescension of the one petitioned.
Ft333 sectas: — exactly what is meant, sects.
Ft334 scandala: — scandals would be better if rightly understood.
Ft335 errantes — seductos: — those wandered from the right path; those led or turned aside, seduced; hence, distant from the truth or true way.
Ft336 conterere: — much stronger, grind, crush.
Ft337 incrementum: — increase by rich growth.
Ft338 Either morally fallen or through error.
Ft339 confortare: — a word frequently met in Latin collects and really means far more than to strengthen, — to build a mighty wall of protection about as well as to increase the ability, — the morale, — to defend and stand fast.
Ft340 pusillanimes: — insignificant, puny ones, hence timid, which is better than weak.
Ft341 concordiam: — unity, harmony existing between king and people.
Ft342 tueri : — protect, guard, care for.
Ft343 praesidibus: — those who form the guard or escort, or a patrol.
Ft344 Cf. the scriptural phrase, “joyful mother of children.”
Ft345 Libera: — literally, to set free (a) from slavery, (b) from a debt.
Ft346 fovere : — nurse.
Ft347 The respond is repeated after each prex.
Ft348 ministros: — a term covering the lower orders of clergy and all church servers.
Ft349 miserere: — pity, be sorry for; then, have mercy upon.
Ft350 convertere: — both convert in the usual sense and to change the attitude toward.
Ft351 German Litany, versicle 1. C.S.B., versicle 3. — <19A310> Psalm 103:10 Vulgate.
Ft352 affectum: — a condition of mind, hence emotions, passions, desires; longing is a possibility.
Ft353 Moerentium: — those who are sad, who grieve, who lament.
Ft354 Quaint, but exactly so; “Listen to!”
Ft355 Like a back-breaking yoke.
Ft356 pitfalls, temptations.
Ft357 Thus literally; annihilated; the sense being “may be shorn of all power and made ineffective to attract or harm.”
Ft358 The good and gracious will of God is to be the active protection; providence does not carry the full force.
Ft359 lit. followings: that is, reproaches of conscience because of yielding to temptations; recriminations, or derisions of the scoffer who sees the fall of the pious. In no case does this mean the temptations themselves.
Ft360 German Litany, collect 1 C.S.B. collect 3.
On the sources of the versicles and collects see this edition 319ff and Drews, Studien sur Geschichte des Gottesdiensts, etc. Parts 4 and 5, Beitruge su Luhers liturgischen Reformen, p. 47ff; 53ff. For this collect see p. 55. Althaus, Zur Einfuhrung in die Quellengeschichte der kirchlichen Kollekten, etc. p. 12, asserts that Luther used the versions of the old Latin collects for his Litany as they appear in an appendix to the Psalmorum Liber, issued by Andreas Crantander, Basel, 1524. Luther’s collects preserve the variations from the originals, which the Crantander version shows.
Ft361 This versicle and collect inserted in the 1533 edition, and retained thereafter. German Litany, versicle 4.
Ft362 lit., our God of salvation.
Ft363 German Litany, versicle 4. C.$.B., versicle 2. Psalm 79:9.
Ft364 i.e., all ranks of clergy, etc.
Ft365 The collect termination is seldom complete in the original Latin form; usually the briefest of all is used, see the collect 1 above; frequently merely a catch-word such as here, per Christum, etc. or per Dominum.
The priest would, of course, know the remainder to be supplied.
On terminations of collects see The Common Service Book, General Rubrics, 1, p. 484.
This collect is number 4 in the German Litany and in C.S.B. it is number 2. See Drews, p. 57.
Ft366 German Litany, versicle 2 with collect 1. Not in C.S.B. <19A606> Psalm 106:6 Vulgate.
Ft367 Cf. Ezekiel 18:23; 33:11; 2 Peter 3:9.
Ft368 vindictam: — vindicta was the rod with which the praetor touched the slave who was to be manumitted.
Ft369 i.e. our dissembling or concealing.
Ft370 German Litany, collect 2, but compare. C.S.B. collect 1, which follows the German Litany. See Drews, p. 58.
Ft371 German Litany, versicle 3. CS.B, versicle 4. <19E302> Psalm 143:2.
Ft372 German Litany, collect 3. C.S.B., collect 4. See Drews, p. 59.
Ft373 German Litany, versicle 2. C.S.B., versicle 5: Psalm 50:15.
Ft374 lasting and uninterrupted.
Ft375 that the eternal destruction we deserve may pass from us and this gracious mercy realized be an aid in our correction.
Ft376 Luther has evidently combined the address of collect 3 above with the petition of this, and rendering them freely has written collect 2 of German Litany. C.S.B., collect 5, follows the original. See Drews, p. 60.
Ft377 Irrsal: deviation from the right path.
Ft379 Stund Kirchenbuch: Not.
Ft380 Latin Litany: — Catholicam.
Ft381 Cf. Latin Litany in loco.
Ft383 i.e., the body of councillors; possibly, by inference, the government.
Ft384 This is an addition in the German Litany.
Ft385 Behut: — really better preserve, as coloquially used: Behut dich Gott, God preserve you!
Ft387 Note the omission of the Lord’s Prayer.
Ft388 <19A310> Psalm 103:10 Vul.
Ft389 <19A606> Psalm 106:6 Vul.
Ft390 See Kirchenbuch: The 1 Versicle and Collect appear there as number 3; the 2nd Versicle not used. C.S.B. Versicle No. 1 and collect — No. 3.
Ft391 Psalm 30:5.
Ft392 Psalm 50:15.
Ft393 Kirchenbuch: This Collect as number 1; Versicle 1 not used; Versicle 2 used with Collect 5. C.S.B. Versicle I not used; Versicle No. 2 and collect — No. 5.
Ft394 <19E302> Psalm 143:2.
Ft395 Kirchenbuch: Versicle and Collect as number 4. C.S.B. Vet. and Col.
No. Ft396 This Versicle and Collect appear for the first time in the 1533 edition of the German Litany.
Ft397 Psalm 79:9.
Ft398 Kirchenbuch: Versicle and Collect as number 2. C.S.B. Ver. and Col.
Ft399 Now cease mournings.
Ft400 For if we believe.
Ft401 The bodies of the saints.
Ft402 We are in peace.
Ft403 Psalm 96:1.
Ft404 Malachi 1:10.
Ft405 Malachi 1:11.
Ft406 Whether deliberately or not, a play on words, for which Luther is quite noted: — Valentin Bapst — Valentin Pope; romischen Papst, also spelled Bapst at times, the Roman Pope.
Ft407 A mistake by Luther; he evidently meant Michael Weiss (Weisse), who was born about 1480, in Neisse, Silesia. He took priest’s orders and for a time was a monk at Breslau; but after reading some of Luther’s earlier writings, he, with two other monks, abandoned the monastery and took refuge in the Bohemian Brethren’s House at Leutomischl. He edited the first German hymnal of the Bohemian Brethren in 1531, which contained 155 numbers, all apparently either translations or originals by himself. Many of these passed into a wide usage. Luther included a number of his hymns in this Bapst book. Weiss died in 1534.
Ft408 That is, they know all about the external form of humility and do a lot of bending and bowing in their worship, but I do not want to be worshiped in mere empty forms.
Ft409 Reference is made to the Saturn Missal as it is the outstanding and the most easily available of the northern family of uses.
Ft410 ENDERS 4:22;SMITH &JACOBS, Luther’s Correspondence 2:141.
Ft411 Cf.ENDERS 4:261;SMITH &JACOBS, op. cit., 210.
Ft412 This was first published in 1523, in connection with the historical books, to which alone it refers.
Ft413 i.e., An allegorical meaning.
Ft414 Wehrgesetz mehr dem Lehrgesetz .
Ft415 Cf. Vol. 2, p. 354 this edition.
Ft416 Mose ampt drinnen .
Ft417 i.e., The name “new testament” implies that there is another testament that is henceforth “old.”
Ft418 i.e., The inner meaning, which is reached by interpreting the Old Testament as a book of allegories.
Ft419 Die gemachten Sunden , i.e., sins against the ceremonial law; Cf. above, pp. 374, 375.
Ft420 This section appears only in the first edition, of 1523.
Ft421 i.e., Jahweh, or Jehovah.
Ft422 i.e., “Lord.”
Ft423 Lumpenprediger und Puppenschreiber .
Ft424 “To make a fool of.”
Ft425 “To play the fool for.”
Ft426 See above, p. 365.
Ft427 Dies drite Theil werde mussen herhalten . The “third part” is the third portion of the Old Testament. See Introduction.
Ft428 This Preface was published in Latin in 1529. An earlier Preface appeared in connection with Luther’s first translation of the Psalms in 1524. It is printed in Erlangen Ed., 37, pp. 107-110.
Ft429 See above p. 385.
Ft430 “Know thyself.”
Ft431 German, Die Spruche .
Ft432 Ehe sie sich umsicht .
Ft433 i.e., The torturer’s wheels.
Ft434 i.e., Proverbs.
Ft435 Narren oder Thoren .
Ft436 “Wanted, but not granted.”
Ft437 “Who has luck, gets the bride.”
Ft438 Es gehet den Krebsgang .
Ft439 For Luther “Epicurean” is synonymous with “unbeliever.”
Ft440 i.e., An ephod ( Judges 8:27).
Ft441 Ishi , not Baali .
Ft442 “My master.”
Ft443 i.e., An interpretation.
Ft444 i.e., South or North.
Ft445 Dunkelmeister .
Ft446 For this legend see Realencyk . 8:714; Scheft-Herzog Encyc . 6:36; Jewish Encyc . 6:636.
Ft447 This legend was known to the Fathers of the ancient Church. It is referred to by Tertullian and Jerome. Cf. Realencyk . 8:649; Scheft- Herzog Encyc . 6:120. It is called by the Jewish Encyc. (7:102) “A Christian legend.”
Ft448 Cf. Vol. 2, p. 161.
Ft449 Cf. above, p. 398.
Ft450 For this statement Luther is probably dependent on the notice of Jerome in his Preface to Ezekiel . Cf.HASTINGS, Bible Dictionary , 1:819.
Ft451 Nicholas of Lyre (d. 1340). His commentaries on the Bible were the most popular of all pre-Reformation works of the kind. Luther used them extensively, especially in his Commentary on Genesis . Cf. Realencyk . 12:28ff. Cath. Encyc . 11:63.
Ft452 Contrary to the practice usually followed in this edition of Luther’s Works , the editors have included only a portion of this Preface. The Book of Daniel was published separately in 1530, with a dedication to John Frederick of Saxony (printed inSMITH &JACOBS, Luther’s Correspondence 2:516ff) in which Luther expressed his conviction that the end of the world was near at hand. The Preface was, in effect, a brief commentary on the entire book. The concluding portion of the Preface is here translated. The translation is made from Erlangen Ed . 41:321ff.
Ft453 See above, p. 397.
Ft454 On this tradition, of. Jewish Encyc . 1:533.
Ft455 i.e., “Servant of the Lord.”
Ft456 English, “True.”
Ft457 i.e., Plays on words. Luther furnishes several illustrations in Hebrew and German, which are without point when translated.
Ft458 i.e., A comforter; of. above.
Ft459 i.e., The Song of Habakkuk. Cf. Ch. 3:2.
Ft460 English Version, “The anointed prince.”
Ft461 i.e., Receive a share of their wealth.
Ft462 English (A. V.), “The desire of all nations.”
Ft463 English, “The flying roll,” Zechariah 5:1-8.
Ft464 English A. V. “Dealt treacherously with.” Malachi 3:15.
Ft465 The section enclosed in brackets appears only in the edition of 1522.
Ft466 Evangelium .
Ft467 The 1522 edition adds here, “Thus one may be sure that there is only one Gospel, just as there is only one book, the New Testament, one faith, and one God, Who gives the promise.”
Ft468 Cf. Vol. 1, pp. 302f.
Ft469 The section in brackets is in the edition of 1522, but is omitted from later editions.
Ft470 See, especially, the Preface to James, below, p. 477.
Ft471 i.e., “Commit sin.”
Ft472 Cf. Vol. 1, pp. 57f.
Ft473 i.e., Pleasure in the law and love for it.
Ft474 Sich in die freie Schanz schlahen .
Ft475 This text has been preferred to the briefer preface of 1522.
Ft476 Rottengeister .
Ft477 Cf. Vol. 2, pp. 37ff.
Ft478 From this point the text is identical with that of 1522.
Ft479 The followers of Cerinthus, one of the earliest of the Gnostic teachers.
Cf.HASTINGS, Dict. of the Apostolic Church , 1 (1916), p. 172, 646, andPRE, 3: 777.
Ft480 In Luther’s order, the four are Hebrews, James, Jude and Revelation.
Ft481 An interpretation explaining away the apparent meaning.
Ft482 Luther had for this the authority of Jerome, De Viris Illustribus , 2, and Eusebius, Eccl. History 2:23, and 3:25.
Ft483 See above, p. 447, n. 11 and 477.
Ft484 Amt .
Ft485 Or, “lay emphasis on Him” (Christum treiben ).
Ft486 This is Luther’s rendering of “the spirit that dwelleth in you lusteth to envy” (A. V.).
Ft487 The bracketed words appear in the edition of 1522 only.
Ft488 The edition of 1522 reads, from this point, “Therefore I will not have him, in my Bible, numbered among the true chief books, though I would not thereby prevent anyone from putting him where he pleases and estimating him as he pleases; for there are many good sayings in him. One man is no man in worldly things; how, then, should this single man alone avail against Paul and all the other Scriptures?”
Ft489 Eusebius, HE, 3:25.
Ft490 Spiridion of Cyprus, one of the more prominent members of the Council of Nicaea in 325.
Ft491 Hilary of Poitiers (d. 367), “the Athanasius of the West.” See Realencyk., 8:58ff.
Ft492 The famous Christian apologist of the second century. In the later years of his life he advocated strict asceticism, which caused his name to be associated with Encratism. Eusebius (HE, 4:28) calls him its founder.
Ft493 A party in the Eastern Church which practiced strict asceticism, forbidding the eating of meat, the drinking of wine, and the intercourse of the sexes.
Ft494 The disciples of Pelagius and Coelestius, who taught, in the fifth century, a doctrine of salvation by works. Their doctrine was vigorously opposed by Augustine, and was condemned by the Council of Ephesus in 431.
Ft495 A teacher o£ heresy in Rome after 140.
Ft496 The same as the Montanists.
Ft497 Not a Christian sect, but followers of a religion that came out of Persia, in the fourth century, and was, for a time, a vigorous competitor of Christianity.
Ft498 Disciples of Montanus, a Phrygian “prophet,” who claimed immediate inspiration by the Holy Ghost, and sought to revive the Christian institution of prophecy. Luther has their claim of immediate inspiration here in mind.
Ft499 Cf. Vol. 4, pp. 206f, 248, 298, 313, 332f.
Ft500 The great Christian scholar of the third century (d. c254). He developed a philosophical Christianity, which was subsequently regarded as containing heretical doctrines. He was condemned as a heretic in 543 and again in 553.
Ft501 Luther confuses the Carthaglan, Novatus, with the Roman presbyter Novatian. The two men lived at the same time (c. 250), and both were involved in schismatic movements, the one at Carthage, the other in Rome. The Novatianists called themselves Cathari (“the pure”), in contrast with the Church, which received back into its membership persons who had been guilty of mortal sins, especially idolatry. They founded a church of their own, which continued in existence, in some places, until the seventh century.
Ft502 The Donatistic schism arose in Northern Africa around 313. The Donatists alleged that the validity of an official act of a bishop, or other clergyman, depended on his character: a bishop guilty of mortal sin was not truly a bishop. They separated from the church and existed as a sect for more than a century.
Ft503 Arius, of Alexandria, the founder of the Arian heresy (d. 336).
Ft504 This was officially declared by Boniface VIII, in the bull Unam Sancram (1302) — “We are taught by the words of the Gospel that two swords, the spiritual and the temporal, are in his (the pope’s) power.”
Ft505 Cf. Vol. 2, p. 153.
Ft506 Gehet etlichermasse im schwange .
Ft507 The men who comprised the papal court at Rome. Cf. Vol. 2, p. 88, n. 3.
Ft508 A reference to the sack of Rome by the army of Charles V, in 1527.
Ft509 i.e., The final draught of the wine of God’s wrath.
Ft510 This preface was omitted from later editions. See Introduction.