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  • ST. PAUL’S EPISTLE TO THE GALATIANS -
    FOOTNOTES


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    Rorer (1492-1557) came to Wittenberg in 1522, after studying at Leipzig. From the first he never missed an opportunity of hearing Luther lecture or preach, and it is to him we are chiefly indebted for Luther’s extant sermons. He was a welcome guest in the Luther household, where he became an almost daily visitor. After his ordination in 1525 — at the first Evangelical ordination service conducted by Luther — he held for a dozen years something like the position of an Archdeacon. He took part in the Marburg Colloquy, the Saxon Visitations and the Wittenberg Concord; and he acted as secretary to the Commission for the revision of Luther’s translation of the Bible. In 1537 he relinquished his ecclesiastical office in order to devote himself to the preparation of an edition of Luther’s collected works. Dietrich (1506-49) came to Wittenberg as a student in the same year as Rorer. In 1527 he became Luther’s private secretary and lived in his house. To him we owe part of our knowledge of Luther’s Table-Talk, and also the collection of Hauspostillen, or addresses given by Luther at family devotions. Dietrich left Wittenberg in 1535 to take a leading part in the establishment of the Reformation in his native Nuremberg. Cruciger (1504-48) was a native of Leipzig. In 1519 he heard the Leipzig Disputation between Luther and Eck, and in 1521 came as a student to Wittenberg. In 1525 he was appointed to a pastoral and educational post at Magdeburg, but was recalled three years later to become Deputy Professor of Theology and Minister of the Castle Church at Wittenberg. He worked in close association with both Luther and Melanchthon. He took the initiative in publishing some of Luther’s sermons, and collaborated with Rorer in preparing the earlier volumes of Luther’s collected works. In 1539 he played an important part in establishing the Reformation at Leipzig. WA 40, 1 1-688, and 40, 2 1-184. The reference in brackets at the heads of the pages in the present volume are to the Weimar edition. There were at least seven editions in the 17th century, eight in the 18th, and thirteen in the 19th. Three of the last-mentioned were published in America, as was also the drastically abridged (‘streamlined’) new translation of Th. Graebner in 1939. In an English edition dated 1845, the Rev. John Owen, M.A., attempted a new translation; but it failed to replace the ‘Middleton’ edition, and seems never to have been reprinted. Edwin Sandys: Bishop of Worcester, 1559-70, and of London, 1570-76; Archbishop of York, 1576-88. He was one of the Commissioners for the revision of the Liturgy in 1559, and one of the translators of the Bishops’ Bible, 1563-65. ‘And though his doctrine as touching a little circumstance of the Sacrament cannot be thoroughly defended, yet neither is that any great maruell in him, who being occupied in weightier points of religion, had no leisure to trauell in the searching out of this matter, neither ought it to be any preiudice to all the rest which he taught so soundly... And yet in the same matter of the Sacrament, notwithstanding that he differeth somewhat from Zuinglius, sticking too neare to the letter: yet he ioyneth not so with the Papist, that he leaueth there any transubstantiation or idolatrie. Wherefore the matter being no greater then so, nor directly against any article of our Greed, let not us be so nice, for one little wart to cast away the whole bodie... But he that can abide nothing with his blemish, let him, if he can, name any Doctor or writer (the Scripture onely except)... which hath not erred in some sentence or in some exposition of holy Scripture. But if he cannot so do, then let him learne... to take the best and leaue the worst (although there is no such matter in this booke to be feared, forasmuch as we hauing a respect to the simple haue purposely sponged out, and omitted such stumbling places being but few, which might offend) and to giue God thanks for any thing that is good, and namely for this which he hath given to us by Luther, in opening to us his grace, mercie and good will in his Sonne so excellently through the preaching of this man...’ In a letter to Bullinger at the end of March, 1535, Bucer wrote: ‘This commentary on Galatians that you complain about, was taken by Caspar Cruciger from Luther’s lectures three years ago, but has only now been published. He curses all charity and concord that can only be preserved at the peril of the Word of God. What is wrong with that? It is true that he says the Sacramentarians want that sort of concord; but who are the Sacramentarians? He means by Sacramentarians those who hold that there is nothing but bread and wine in the Sacrament. But you are not that sort of people; so this has no reference to you.’ (Bucer was wrong in thinking that Cruciger was responsible for the publication of the Commentary. See the Weimar editors’ preface, WA 40 1 , 2.) The passage in which Luther ‘curses all charity... etc.’ was one of those ‘sponged out’ by the English translators. It is found on p. 473 below. Cf., e.g., p. 146, n. 1 below. The name of Luther’s wife. The earlier commentaries are contained in WA 2, 436 ff. WA 40 1 , 2. A note facing the title-page of an English edition of 1760 says: ‘Whereas, Luther , in this Commentary, inveighs much against a Sect called Anabaptists , as they were a seditious and turbulent set of People; the candid Reader will find, in perusing these Discourses, that they were not at all like those Christian Congregations, at this Day, called Baptists.’ Sophistae — a derogatory name for the Schoolmen. The Elizabethan translators frequently thought it necessary to supply the adjective ‘popish,’ and this has usually been allowed to stand in the present edition. It is perhaps in place here to point out that after Luther’s time, and largely as a result of his work, the Roman Church itself underwent a considerable measure of reformation. Luther’s strictures, therefore, on late medieval ‘sophistry,’ ‘monkery’ and ‘popery,’ ought not to be applied without more ado to modern Roman — or any other — Catholicism. Luther himself says: ‘The Enthusiasts are as bad as the Pope... I am plagued by them both; for the Sacramentarians and the Anabaptists hate me more than they hate the Pope, and the Pope hates me more than he hates them.’ — WA Tischreden, 3, nr. 2875; Munchener Ausgabe, nr. 211, p. 135 f. Enthusiasm meant much the same in the 18th as in the 16th century, and there is a phrase in a reported conversation between Bishop Butler and John Wesley in 1739, which would almost serve as a definition of it.

    Although he does not use the word itself, the Bishop in effect accuses Wesley of Enthusiasm when he deprecates ‘the pretending to special revelations of the Holy Ghost’ — an accusation which Wesley is quick to rebut. (See Wesley’s Journal, Standard Edn., vol. 2, p. 256.) In his Ausgedruckte Entblossung Munzer declared that one who had never in his life heard or seen the Bible, might well possess a quite genuine Christian faith through being rightly taught by the Spirit, just as did all those who — without reference to any books — wrote the Holy Scriptures.’ — See K. Holl, Gesammelte Aufsatze, I, Luther, p. 431, n. 4; and C. Hinrichs, Luther und Munzer (Berlin, 1952), p. 107. ‘No sectary comes and says: This is what I say, but: My friends, here is the Word of God, this is what Christ says...’ — WA 34, 36. Cf. WA 29, 480; 37, 611. Luther had already had to deal with 2 Corinthians 3:6 on the anti- Roman front, and there is a full and illuminating discussion of it in his Answer to the Superchristian, Superspiritual, and Superlearned Book of Goat Emser of Leipzig (1521) — WA 7 , and WML (=Works of Martin Luther, 6 vols., Philadelphia, 1915-32), 3, 310-401. WA 23, 201 ff. WA 23, 203. Cf. G. Ebeling, Evangelische Evanglienauslegung (Munich, 1942), p. 336. WA 7, 456; WML 3, 127. R. Knox, Enthusiasm (Oxford, 1950), p. 128 f. There is abundant evidence of this in K. Holl’s studies of ‘Luther and the Enthusiasts’ and ‘Luther’s Contribution to Exegesis’ in Gesammelte Aufsatze , 1, pp. 420 ff. and 544 ff. See also G. Ebeling, op. cit ., pp. 311-357; R. Prenter, Spiritus Creator, Studier i Luthers Teologi (Copenhagen, 1946), pp. 114 ff. and 253 ff.; P.S. Watson, Let God be God, An interpretation of the theology of Luther (London, 1947), pp. 149 ff., esp. 165 ff. WA 20, 451. WA 7, 97 ff. Passages of this kind make it evident that Monsignor Knox has not interpreted his quotation from Luther in the spirit in which it was written! Luther admits no unmediated knowledge of God, and he holds no brief for mysticism — see P.S. Watson, op. cit., pp. 76 ff. and 94 ff. The Pope is not as bad as the Enthusiasts; he has always said that the external Word holds good.’ — WA 25, 5. ‘Not everything that the Pope says is wrong, for he still has the Sacrament of the Altar, Baptism, and the Ministry of the Word (Predigtamt). The Enthusiasts repudiate absolutely everything the Pope has; but I don’t. Yet even among them there is still the vocation and ordinance of preaching. No heresy is so bad that there isn’t quite a lot of good in it.’ — WA 23, 748; cf . 26, 147. WA 18, 653. vocale, mundlich. So Pope Boniface VIII (1294-1303) had decreed: Romanus pontifex jura omnia in scrinio pectoris sui censetur habere. This decree was incorporated into Canon Law (Lib. Sext. Decretal. 1, 1, tit. 2, cap. 1).

    See Francke, Libri Symbolici Ecolesiae Lutheranae, n. 15 on Art. Smalc. 3, 8, 3; and WML 2, 148. WA 50, 245. The passage continues: ‘And this he did, moreover, ‘through other external words, just as our Enthusiasts, although they contemn the external Word, by no means keep silence themselves, but fill the world with their talk and writing, as though the Spirit could not come through Scripture or the spoken word of the Apostles. But He must come through their speech and writing.’ See above. For an account of what Luther means by ‘the Word,’ see P.S. Watson, op. cit ., pp. 149-177. The passage continues: ‘And this is the cause in my mind, why the Pope and his Papists haue so little feeling and liking of Luthers doctrine, and all because they commonly are neuer greatly vexed in spirit with any deepe affliction, but rather deride them that are beaten downe with such conflicts and tentations of Satan, as they did by Luther... But... at length when they lie at the point of death, where death on the one side, and Gods Justice on the other side is before their eyes, for the most part either they despaire, or else, leauing all other helpes, they only sticke to faith and the blood of Christ Jesus, and in very deed many of them are glad to die Lutherans howsoever they hated Luther before.

    And what shall we say then of this doctrine of Luther? If the Papists themselves be glad to die in it, why are they unwilling to liue in it?’ The reference is to a passage in the Argument, not to Luther’s Preface. See his Journal for May 24th, 1738. For a criticism of John Wesley’s attitude, see Henry Carter, The Methodist Heritage, 1951, pp. 221 ff.; P.S. Watson, Let God be God, pp. 86 ff., 170 ff.; and ‘The Significance of Luther for Christians of other Communions,’ in World Lutheranism of Today, 1950, pp. 357 f. WA 39. Cf . also the following from On the Councils and the Churches (1539): ‘[The Antinomians] are fine Easter preachers, but shamefully poor Pentecost preachers, for they preach nothing de sanctificatione et vivificatione Spiritus Sancti, i.e., concerning sanctification by the Holy Ghost, but preach only about redemption by Christ, although Christ... has purchased redemption from sin and death in order that the Holy Ghost shall make new men of us, in place of the old Adam, so that we die unto sin and live unto righteousness, as St. Paul teaches (Romans 6), beginning and increasing this life here on earth, and completing it hereafter. What Christ has merited for us is not only gratia , “grace,” but also donum, the “gift” of the Holy Ghost, so that we might not only have forgiveness of sin, but also cease from sinning. Whoever, then, does not cease from sinning, but continues in his former wicked life, must have another Christ from the Antinomians... . But our Antinomians do not see that they preach Christ without the Holy Ghost and against the Holy Ghost, because they are willing to let the people continue in their old life and yet declare them saved, though the logic of it is that a Christian should have the Holy Ghost and lead a new life, or know that he has no Christ.’ — WA 50, 599 f.; WML V, 234 f. It is worth recalling that in both his Catechisms (1529) Luther teaches that reason is a gift of God; and in both he makes an exposition of the Ten Commandments the first thing to be learnt. Acts 14:15 f. 1 Corinthians 2:8. Cf. Luke 19:40. Genesis 3:15 Coniugium. Magistratus. Servitus. 1 Corinthians 6:15. Verum non arguatur vir . — Hosea, 4:4, Vulgate. Non stillabis super nos. The Vulgate text of Micah 2:6 reads: Non stillabit super istos. Cf. R.V. margin. 1 Corinthians 11:19. 2 Corinthians 1:12. i.e. thy power. Nunc enim homines suadeo an Deum? concisae et confusae. humanum. ft56a humanum. divinum. humano medio. humano medio. Lubrica, slippery. i.e. the flesh. i.e. the spirit.

    fta1 i.e. immediately or very soon.

    fta2 Archiepisopus, Archbishop.

    fta3 i.e. provided that.

    fta4 Epiikia .

    fta5 Officioso mendacio — a ‘white lie’

    fta6 i.e. provided that.

    fta7 Sophistae .

    fta8 animalis homo .

    fta9 larva veil or mask.

    fta10 tota (1st edn.: universa ) creatura .

    fta11 personae vel larvae .

    fta12 larva .

    fta13 ut maiores et ordinatores.

    fta14 auctor .

    fta15 episcopus — ‘bishop.’

    fta16 secundum faciem.

    fta17 in speciem.

    fta18 secundum fucum.

    fta19 aenigma,

    fta20 tenebras.

    fta21 theologia.

    fta22 i.e. outside.

    fta23 Decalogi — the Ten Commandments.

    fta24 The original reads simply: Theologia Sophistica.

    fta25 gratia gratificante.

    fta26 dilectione.

    fta27 monachus.

    fta28 omnes monachi.

    fta29 iustitiarius.

    fta30 Vera Christianismi ratio.

    fta31 quod Christiana iustitia non est inhaerens forma.

    fta32 Theologia Scholastica.

    fta33 haerentem.

    fta34 secundum substantiam facti.

    fta35 secundum intentionem praecipientis.

    fta36 habitum supernaturalem.

    fta37 informantem.

    fta38 informat.

    fta39 imo non objectum, sed, ut ita dicam, in ipsa fide Christus adest.

    fta40 formare et imbuere.

    fta41 inhaerens.

    fta42 de condigno.

    fta43 ex puris naturalibus.

    fta44 Vera Christianismi ratio.

    fta45 Propitiator.

    fta46 Propitiatorium.

    fta47 absconditum.

    fta48 Monachis et scholis.

    fta49 Sententiariorum — students and exponents of the ‘Sentences’ of Peter Lombard, the chief theological text-book of the Middle Ages.

    fta50 Missae — the 1575 version reads ‘Holy Communion.’

    fta51 Vera ratio Christianismi.

    fta52 charitatem Dei

    fta53 1st edn.: ‘Papists, Zwinglians, Anabaptists.’

    fta54 Cur non potius appellant Scapham scapham?

    fta55 magnifice et clarissime.

    fta56 nihil iuris.

    fta57 paradoxa .

    fta58 diabolus .

    fta59 pro sua persona .

    fta60 haerere et manere .

    fta61 inhaerens et conglutinatus .

    fta62 Haec inhaerentia .

    fta63 per conglutinationem et inhaesionem .

    fta64 iusti facti .

    fta65 naturalis vel animalis.

    fta66 larva .

    fta67 animalis .

    fta68 meritum congrui .

    fta69 facere quod in se est .

    fta70 praecepta Dei .

    fta70a facere quod in se est.

    fta70b facere quod in se est.

    fta71 de politicis, oeconomicis et naturalibus.

    fta72 politicis et oeconomicis rebus.

    fta73 vitiatam.

    fta74 naturalia.

    fta75 integra.

    fta76 spiritualia.

    fta77 corrupta.

    fta78 depravata.

    fta79 politia.

    fta80 oeconomia.

    fta81 de naturalibus integris, de dictamine rationis, de ratione deprecante ad optima.

    fta82 cucullos, rasuras — ‘cowls, tonsures.’

    fta83 merita cogni et condigni

    fta84 caritate .

    fta85 iustitiarii.

    fta86 larva .

    fta87 ut iustificaremur

    fta88 non ut iustos faceret iustos, sed ut peccatores faceret iustos.

    fta89 neque merito congrui aut condigni.

    fta90 evacuatio et frustratio.

    ftb1 inhaerens.

    ftb2 i.e., ‘forthwith,’ ‘immediately.’

    ftb3 opinionem fiduciam institias.

    ftb4 personam.

    ftb5 reputari ivstos apud deum.

    ftb6 ‘thou must know... meaning’ = scias non naturaliter, sed theologice illud sumi debers.

    ftb7 larvam.

    ftb8 totum cultum .

    ftb9 sermonem fidei.

    ftb10 nihil cooperatur .

    ftb11 omnes larvas electitiorum operum.

    ftb12 consummamini.

    ftb13 consummamini.

    ftb14 virtutes

    ftb15 virtutes .

    ftb16 virtutes et fructus.

    ftb17 phanatici spiritus.

    ftb18 contrarias virtutes.

    ftb19 virtutibus.

    ftb20 Evangelicos.

    ftb21 ratio.

    ftb22 non factas sunt virtutas.

    ftb23 virtutes .

    ftb24 consumat divinitatem.

    ftb25 summum cultum esse.

    ftb26 formaliter.

    ftb27imputare.

    ftb27 non imputatur,

    ftb28 imputatio seu reputatio.

    ftb29 formaliter.

    ftb30 nihil formae seu iustitae. ftb 31 fiducia. ftb 32 fidem.

    ftb33 cognationes.

    ftb34 Gentium.

    ftb35 non in loco Politico, sed Theologico et spirituali.

    ftb36 Oeconomus et Magistratus.

    ftb37 politicae.

    ftb38 metaphysice acceptis. ftb 39 fiunt iusti. ftb 40 iustificati. ftb 41 in Theologia. ftb 42 recto dictamine rationis. ftb 43 in Theologia. ftb 44Ut factor legis sit, non qui ex operibus fiat factor, qui ex persona per fidem iam facta fiat factor.

    ftb45 i.e., Theology.

    ftb46 i.e., provided that. ftb 47 in Theologiam. ftb 48 Theologia. ftb 49 rectam rationem et bonam voluntem. ftb 50 iustificant personam moraliter.

    ftb51 bonam intentionem.

    ftb52 Theologice.

    ftb53 Galatians 5:6; Luke 10:28; Matthew 19:17; Romans 10:5; Psalm 37:27.

    ftb54 Theologice.

    ftb55 est Fac totum (ut ita loquar).

    ftb56 humanitate nihil cooperante.

    ftb57 A patristic metaphor. The hook is the divinity of Christ, the worm his humanity. — (ED.).

    ftb58 ut fides incorporet et informet ‘facere.’

    ftb59 Theologicum.

    ftb60 Theologice.

    ftb61 Literally: ‘thou must consult, not the moral, but the theological grammar.’

    ftb62 Theologicam.

    ftb63 principale spectrum Christianorum.

    ftb64 Theologicam.

    ftb65 utraque est informis .

    ftb66 non Thelogice.

    ftb67 de bonis operibus Theologicis.

    ftb68 Theologice.

    ftb69 fides acquisista .

    ftb70 Politicus et Spiritualis.

    ftb71 in politico regno.

    ftb72 Theologice.

    ftb73 latrones — ‘thieves.’

    ftb74 fur.

    ftb75 lex.

    ftb76 pro sonte.

    ftb77sponte.

    ftb78 poenas .

    ftb79 est maledictio Dei.

    ftb80 sponte.

    ftb81 in Symbolo — ‘in the Creed.’

    ftb82 prae illo Solo, Christo — ‘for [the light of] that Sun, Christ.’

    ftb83 duello.

    ftb84 operum humanoram.

    ftb85 vere et naturaliter.

    ftb86 certa fiduca.

    ftb87 non coacte, sed sua sponte.

    ftb88 volens .

    ftb89 pro mea persona humanitatis et divinitatis.

    ftb90 exinanibo. Cf. Philippians 2:7.

    ftb91 ‘Person’ here stands for larva; in the other instances it represents persona .

    ftb92 nec amplius invenitur Peccatum, Mors et larva nostra.

    ftb93 firma fide.

    ftb94 voluntate dilectionis.

    ftb95 ratione illuminata fide.

    ftb96 nulla... larva peccatoris, nullum vestigium mortis.

    ftb97 proprie est Speculativa vita.

    ftb98 Theologica.

    ftb99 vitam Contemplativam et Activam.

    ftb100 Patres, Hieronymus et alii.

    ftb101 Phanaticus.

    ftb102 proprie .

    ftb103 aenigmata.

    ftb104 Gentibus maledictis.

    ftb105 In the 1st latin edition, there followed at this point a passage (WA 40 1 , 457 16-459, 24) which in the 2nd edition was transferred elsewhere (WA 40 1 , 419-420) It is accordingly to be found on pp. 259ff, above.

    ftb106 humana

    ftb107 cum ab humanis ad divina argumentamur . — ‘when we argue from the human to the divine.’

    ftb108 politicae et oeconomicae.

    ftb109 ab humanis ad divina.

    ftb110 inter sacra humana.

    ftb111 allegoria.

    ftb112 signa.

    ftb113 similitudo vel pictura allegorica.

    ftb114 ‘For the promises which the Scripture contained, were letters, to the which afterwards seals were added.’ — 1st. edn.

    ftb115 ante Christum revelatum.

    ftb116 expiare .

    ftb117 Quid igitur lex

    ftb118 or : to justify.

    ftb119 totam theologiam.

    ftb120 omnis iustitiarius.

    ftb121 electitiis cultibus.

    ftb122 sentiunt legem iustificare.

    ftb123 propter iustificationem.

    ftb124 ergo iustificat?

    ftb125 opinio.

    ftb126 electitia opera sua.

    ftb127 pii — 1st edn.: Evangelici.

    ftb128 spiritibus blasphemis in Sacramentum corpotis et sanguinis Christi, — spirits that do blaspheme the Sacrament of the body and blood of Christ.’

    ftb129 magnus Sanctus.

    ftb130 per ostensionem — ‘by being revealed.’

    ftb131 contritio.

    ftb132 locum habet.

    ftb133 usum.

    ftb134 sibi consulere velit.

    ftb135 plant actum est de salute tua.

    ftb136 per accidens.

    ftb137 utilissima ministra.

    ftb138 contrivit.

    ftb139 contritus.

    ftb140 contritio.

    ftb141 Theologice.

    ftb142 Qui serio ista sentiunt.

    ftb143 Theologice.

    ftb144 contritos,

    ftb145 spiritualiter.

    ftb146 contrivisti.

    ftb147 Psalm 82:7; 16; 42:7; 27:9; <190601> 6:1.

    ftb148 theologico.

    ftb149 legis populus .

    ftb150 rectitudo divinae voluntatis.

    ftb151 larvam.

    ftb152 civilibus motibus.

    ftb153 Theologicum.

    ftb154 liberi arbitrii. — ‘free choice.’

    ftb155 bona voluntas .

    ftb156 purifacatis.

    ftb157 Nihil habet consilii.

    ftb158 sanctificati.

    ftb159 Theologicum usum.

    ftb160 Theologicam vocem.

    ftb161 larvata.

    ftb162 et populo cum lege convenisset.

    ftb163 mediatorem agit.

    ftb164 in sua natura iucundissimas voces.

    ftb165 summum ac suavissimum bonum.

    ftb166 ratio humana.

    ftb167 Motus nostra dignitate.

    ftb168 ex mera sua bonitate. . .

    ftb169 pro illis este.

    ftb170 contritus.

    ftb171 malitiam.

    ftb172 Atque sit nos Christi capaces reddit.

    ftb173 mortificant.

    ftb174 vires humanas.

    ftb175 monachatus.

    ftb176 opera et merita congrui et condigni.

    ftb177 cultus.

    ftb178 universam sinceram Theologiam.

    ftb179 dogmata.

    ftb180 sed est pro illis.

    ftb181 omnia, ‘all things.’

    ftb182 promissio ex fide Christi Jesu.

    ftb183 promissio ex fide Christi Jesu.

    ftb184 non est data tantum ad mortem.

    ftb185 quale et quantum.

    ftb186 simpiciter ad mortem.

    ftb187 Theologice .

    ftb188 et summam malitiam adorare.

    ftb189 hoc commodi habet lex.

    ftb190 nisi hanc fidem exiguam haberent.

    ftb191 paterfamilias.

    ftb192 Rorer’s MS reads: ‘If the multitude did not believe death, hell, then no magistrate by any force could restrain them, no paterfamilias, preacher, teacher, would be enough.’

    ftb193 malos. (The word ‘wicked’ generally represents impius, though this in some instances is rendered by ‘ungodly’).

    ftb194 Theologice.

    ftb195 spiritualis.

    ftb196 Theologice .

    ftb197 spiritualiter .

    ftb198 i.e., provided that.

    ftb199 spiritualis .

    ftb200 Genesis 4:13; as R.V. mg.

    ftb201 negavit se deum habere.

    ftb202 conclusio vel carcer civiliter

    ftb203 Theologice carcer est.

    ftb204 i.e., in theory.

    ftb205 affectum .

    ftb206 haeret.

    ftb207 tamen ad magnum impulsum.

    ftb208 humanae rationi.

    ftb209mathematica coniunctio.

    ftb210 The reference is to the Peasants’ Revolt (1524).

    ftb211 libertatem Evangelicam absolvere homines ab omnibus legibus.

    ftb212 regia via.

    ftb213 Politico et Theologico.

    ftb214 frugem.

    ftb215 i.e., provided that.

    ftb216 conteruntur.

    ftb217 contritionem.

    ftb218 ut ex fide iustificemur.

    ftb219 legitima.

    ftb220nihil iuris.

    ftb221 i.e., ‘forthwith,’ ‘at once.’

    ftb222 Vivificator.

    ftb223 ubi novus homo in baptismo fit.

    ftb224 cultum

    ftb225 per Politicam aut Oeconomicam justitiam.

    ftb226 fides Christi et in Chistum.

    ftb227 non speculative, sed realiter, praesentissime et efficacissime.

    ftc1 spiritualiter seu Theologice .

    ftc2 Theologica servitus.

    ftc3 cum Deo agit.

    ftc4 sic affectus sis.

    ftc5 studiosus Christianae Theologias.

    ftc6 ius.

    ftc7 vere pii.

    ftc8 Sancti.

    ftc9 ius.

    ftc10 tyrannidem.

    ftc11 iure.

    ftc12 per superabundantiam.

    ftc13 i.e., provided that.

    ftc14 natus ex Deo ab aeterno, ex Virgine in tempore.

    ftc15 quod fecit et sustinuit legem.

    ftc16 animalis homo.

    ftc17 hominem civiliter bonum.

    ftc18 in gratia.

    ftc19 consulenda est Theologia .

    ftc20 in societate Ecclesias.

    ftc21 privatim.

    ftc22 in so haeremus.

    ftc23 in gratia.

    ftc24 quod certo statuat se esse in gratia.

    ftc25 iustificat nos.

    ftc26 invocantem.

    ftc27 clamantem.

    ftc28 de divino favore.

    ftc29 Pontificem.

    ftc30 non speculative, sed re vera.

    ftc31 formaliter dicta.

    ftc32 gratia.

    ftc33 ad religiones et ordines sanctos.

    ftc34 benignum.

    ftc35 quin Deus sit placatus et ex animo nobis faveat.

    ftc36 istud monstrum incertitudinis.

    ftc37 Pontificem.

    ftc38 Theologia.

    ftc39 politica.

    ftc40 paternitatem .

    ftc41 servus.

    ftc42 humana ratione et sensu.

    ftc43 meretur.

    ftc44 mere passive, non active contingit ei haereditas .

    ftc45 corporalibus rebus.

    ftc46 e conspectu et corde.

    ftc47 paternitas.

    ftc48 in quod (sc. On the Seed).

    ftc49 sive sis monachus, sive ethnicus, etc.

    ftc50 quia necesse est eun de Deo fingere formam, quae nusquam est.

    ftc51 cultus.

    ftc52 qui natura Deus est.

    ftc53 verus et naturalis.

    ftc54 cultus.

    ftc55 externam larvam.

    ftc56 Christus est consummatio legis.

    ftc57 generalis et propria.

    ftc58 propria et vera.

    ftc59 vere.

    ftc60 quid sit voluntas ipsius.

    ftc61 quid velit, quid non velit.

    ftc62 sine cognitione divinitatis.

    ftc63 ipsa ratio fateri cogitur.

    ftd1 notitia nostra de Deo est mere passiva.

    ftd2 pulcherrime instituta.

    ftd3 Doctorum suum.

    ftd4 Hebrew? (Lat: habitum).

    ftd5 arquirat habitum desperationis .

    ftd6 infelicem illam operum Hebrew.

    ftd7 tremendus .

    ftd8 in agone.

    ftd9 comparavit sibi hunc habitum.

    ftd10 i.e., the Summa of St. Thomas Aquinas, the ‘Angelic Doctor.’

    ftd11 servire.

    ftd12 politice.

    ftd13 Theologice.

    ftd14 or ‘be in bondage.’

    ftd15 liberrime.

    ftd16 ut communione utatur.

    ftd17 Episcopos.

    ftd18 initie caussae Evangelicas.

    ftd19 per phanaticos spiritus.

    ftd20 phanaticorum.

    ftd21 Neque humanus, ut lapsum in homicidium. . . sed Satanicus est.

    ftd22 salute.

    ftd23 tentatio ibidinus.

    ftd24 phanaticis spiritibus.

    ftd25 scandalossima.

    ftd26 in administratione politica et ecclesiastica.

    ftd27 Quid erat beatitudo vestra?

    ftd28 ut ipsos aemullemini.

    ftd29 Potestamem.

    ftd30 Pontifex.

    ftd31 for... thing’ = qui zelat propter rem bonam.

    ftd32 tali fiducia.

    ftd33 figuram.

    ftd34 faciem.

    ftd35 fiducia.

    ftd36 aliena.

    ftd37 1st edn.: imaginem Dei seu Shristi.

    ftd38 deformatam et depravatam.

    ftd39 The MS on which this sentence is based reads: Imago Christi, Dei: ita sentire, affici, velle, intelligere, sicut Christus vel Christus vel ipsum Christum. Est autem ista voluntus, Spiritus Christi, quod mortuus pro peccatis nostris ad obedientam Patris. Then follows: hoc credere est habere imaginem quam Christus. Das ist ‘novus homo qui generatur’ etc.

    ftd40 Parabolis.

    ftd41 non sit legalis.

    ftd42 Or: the name given unto him of God.

    ftd43 per Allegoriam.

    ftd44 bonam politam et oeconomiam.

    ftd45 patria.

    ftd46 Literalem, Tropologicam, Allegoricum et Anagogicum.

    ftd47 Hae differentiae essentiales sunt populi fidei et legis.

    ftd48 St. Thomas Aquinas.

    ftd49 paedagogian.

    ftd50 ut commodius doceri possint.

    ftd51 conscientia peccati.

    ftd52 civilem dominationem.

    ftd53 iure divino.

    ftd54 1st edn: hi, praesertim Anabaptistae.

    ftd55 occupat.

    ftd56 a phanaticis .

    ftd57 propter doctrinam pietatis.

    ftd58 omnes, quicunque tandem sunt, institiarios .

    ftd59 administrationem ecclesiasticam et politicam.

    ftd60 caelibatus.

    ftd61 contra speciosissimos eius sanctos.

    ftd62 benefacta et officia pietatis.

    ftd63 perdite.

    fte1 Romano Pontifici.

    fte2 impune.

    fte3 politica libertate.

    fte4 Theologice seu spiritualiter.

    fte5 qua nihil potentius et horribilius in mundo est.

    fte6 in certamine.

    fte7 libertatem Christi.

    fte8 omnes actiones nostras.

    fte9 non imputari, sed condonari.

    fte10 propitium Deum.

    fte11 valde tenaciler adhaeret rationi.

    fte12 politica.

    fte13 numquam quieti et pacati sunt.

    fte14 operatores legis.

    fte15 ut more vukgi loquar.

    fte16 duplici contritione conteruntur.

    fte17 maior et potior pars degenerat hodie paulatim in Epicuraeos.

    fte18 sententium novam quidem, sed certam et veram.

    fte19 ociosum.

    fte20 cultus.

    fte21 ut semper sit in metu, ac sentiat reatum et pavores.

    fte22 gratiam.

    fte23 propiciatorem, interpellatorem et consolatorem.

    fte24 larva.

    fte25 debitor est totius legis servandae.

    fte26 religiose.

    fte27 res ipsa.

    fte28 exempla optimarum legum et morum.

    fte29 tantum abesse, ut lege iustificemur.

    fte30 negationem Christi.

    fte31 Evacuati estis.

    fte32 fiduciam legis.

    fte33 ad iusticiam, ‘to righteousness’.

    fte34 cum suis Religiosis.

    fte35 expiationem.

    fte36 i.e. , to frighten.

    fte37 spiritu ex fide.

    fte38 ne sit Phanaticus et ex se Magister natus. Rorer’s MS. reads: ne sit phanaticus spiritus sibiipsi magister factus.

    fte39 nondum est in re, sed adhuc in spe.

    fte40 ut experientia docti scimus.

    fte41 sensitivam iusticam.

    fte42 non est visibilis, non est sensibilis.

    fte43 notitia.

    fte44 pusillanimitatem.

    fte45 sine voluntate.

    fte46 dictatam.

    fte47 in politia.

    fte48 intellectum fide informatum.

    fte49 fortitudo Theologica.

    fte50 consummata.

    fte51 omnium iusticiariorum.

    fte52 vere pii.

    fte53 per charitatem efficax.

    fte54 fides acquisita.

    fte55 informatam per charitatem.

    fte56 gratia gratum faciens.

    fte57 acquiriri.

    fte58 per chariatem operatur.

    fte59 operatrix.

    fte60 fides acquisita.

    fte61 ex fide per charitatem.

    fte62 per charitatem OPERATUR.

    fte63 urget.

    fte64 operarios.

    fte65 cultus.

    fte66 impii.

    fte67 totam vitam Christianam.

    fte68 absolute sit Christianus.

    fte69 personatibus et larvis.

    fte70 qui nescit.

    fte71 ut diluvii ¾ ‘the Flood.’

    fte72 corrumpit.

    fte73 sacramentarii.

    fte74 Nichts ist Inn die Augen gut ¾ proverb.

    fte75 servare pacem et charitatem cum omnibus.

    fte76 i.e., provided that.

    fte77 cohaerent enim et quodam communi vinculo continentur.

    fte78 Nor patitur ludum fama, fides, oculus ¾ proverb.

    fte79 in Symbolo.

    fte80 larvam diaboli induit.

    fte81 larvam Dei.

    fte82 sceleratissimi nebulones.

    fte83 res Christiana.

    fte84 sectas.

    fte85 phanatici homines.

    fte86 officia pietatis.

    fte87 bonos mores.

    fte88 admonet de bonis moribus.

    fte89 Evangelicos.

    fte90 lasciviam.

    fte91 sanctos.

    fte92 i.e., the law of love, imposed as a yoke on the ‘flesh’ to check and restrain it.

    fte93 bonum alicui velle.

    fte94 animo.

    fte95 bene velle.

    fte96 lex naturae.

    fte97 iuris humani.

    fte98 vitio.

    fte99 ex suis cogitationibus.

    fte100 aeterna sunt, ‘are eternal.’

    fte101 esu.

    fte102 rituum legalium.

    fte103 consummati estis.

    fte104 divina est potentia.

    fte105 agrestes mores et importunitatem.

    fte106 habitus.

    fte107 animal.

    fte108 Rorer’s MS reads: Nulla persona nobilior, in qua debeo exercere charitatem; non animali; homo naturaliter constitutus ad civilitatem et societatem, non animal in terris, quod liblicher quam homo. Ideo nihil potuit constitui amari quam proximus.

    fte109 habitus diligendi.

    fte110 humanitatem.

    fte111 natura humana.

    fte112 genuus vitae.

    fte113 sacri illi homines, ut auri fames. An echo of Virgil’s auri sacra fames?

    fte114 statum.

    fte115 concupiscentiam.

    fte116 belli homines.

    fte117 a praeceptis argumentari et concludere ad opera.

    fte118 nullius sancti.

    fte119 sanctis.

    fte120 sine hac

    fte121 libidinem.

    fte122 adolescentes.

    fte123 universa politia.

    fte124 politiam Spiritus.

    fte125 ipsum peccatum.

    fte126 Propiciatoris nostri.

    fte127 ‘fovere carnem,’ Romans 13:14 (where Luther’s German rendering is: ‘take care of the body, yet not so that it become wanton.’)

    fte128 libidine.

    fte129 cupiditatibus.

    fte130 concupiscentiam carnis.

    fte131 libidinem.

    fte132 ociosum.

    fte133 aliquando sensisse libidinem.

    fte134 libidnem.

    fte135 capitalem, rotundam et perfectam.

    fte136 concupiscentiam.

    fte137 actum esse de salute mea.

    fte138 libidinem.

    fte139 Propiciatorem.

    fte140 non imputari.

    fte141 etiam mala necesse est cooperare in bonum.

    fte142 unusquisque sanctus.

    fte143 iustificari.

    fte144 Propiciatorem.

    fte145 mortale.

    fte146 substantiam facti.

    fte147 Propiciatorem.

    fte148 piis.

    fte149 irreprehensibilis.

    fte150 non sequatur sensum suum.

    fte151 libide.

    fte152 avoritis.

    fte153 aut destinata malitia.

    fte154 tristitia spiritus.

    fte155 libido.

    fte156 Sophistarum Sancti.

    fte157 Sapientibus Stoicorum.

    fte158 in rerum natura.

    fte159 coelibem vitam agunt.

    fte160 abstemii sunt.

    fte161 i.e., provided that.

    fte162 destinata malitia.

    fte163 concupiscentiam carnis.

    fte164 reputat eos iustos.

    fte165 iucundissima.

    fte166 in Simbolo (sic.).

    fte167 inaccessibili. Cf. 1 Timothy 6:16.

    fte168 secundum sensum.

    fte169 The reference is to the third article of the Creed.

    fte170 Christum Propiciatorem.

    fte171 species libidinis.

    fte172 omnes cultus.

    fte173 legit horas canonicas, sacrificat etc.

    fte174 voluntatem concupiscibilem.

    fte175 voluntatem irascibilem.

    fte176 rationis seu intellectus.

    fte177 baptismata.

    fte178 in Oeconomia aut Politia.

    fte179 non est una et eadem doctrina.

    fte180 cultus et mens.

    fte181 sensus,

    fte182 comessationes.

    fte183 de rebus spiritualissimis.

    fte184 maximam utilitatem et fructum.

    fte185 ut exhilararet nos.

    fte186 pontificem.

    fte187 per patientiam.

    fte188 which Luther interprets as assiduitas patientiae.

    fte189 candorem.

    fte190 sc. Because he puts his trust in God alone.

    fte191 Continentia.

    fte192 sobrietas, temperantia seu moderatio.

    fte193 castitas seu continentia.

    fte194 rite vocati.

    fte195 sine vocatione.

    fte196 ordinem.

    fte197 i.e., the Reformation

    fte198 fide et moribus.

    fte199 ‘Sicut homines solent peccare.’

    fte200 qui praesunt ecclesiis.

    fte201 mentes.

    fte202 fiduciae.

    fte203.ordinem deserimus.

    fte204.salvo primo ordine.

    fte205.morosi.

    fte206.moribus.

    fte207.applausum.

    fte208.ministerium.

    fte209.gloriam.

    fte210.eis applaudere.

    fte211.unusquisque doctor.

    fte212.accidens glorias.

    fte213.traducet..

    fte214.mendaciis haereticorum.

    fte215.sacrarum literarum.

    fte216.nobiles.

    fte217.item pre Missis, Vigiliis etc.

    fte218.the lies of heretics’.

    fte219.carnalia et spiritualia.

    fte220.merces.

    fte221.evangelici

    fte222.evangelici.

    fte223.nobilitas, cives et rustici.

    fte224.communi sensu.

    fte225.non deficientes: ‘if we faint not’ (A.V., R.V.).

    fte226.qui sunt in nostra societate fidei.

    fte227.phanatici homines. (Rorer’s MS has: Oecolampadium, Karolostadium.)

    fte228.iustificemini.

    fte229.puram etque divinam.

    fte230.impios cultus.

    fte231.Ego sum reus omnium animarum vestrian.

    fte232.cultibus.

    fte233.i.e., into religious orders.

    fte234.ingressum religionis.

    fte235.Paulus et quilibet sanctus seu Christianus.

    fte236.nascitur.

    fte237.non verbales, sed reales.

    fte238.mentem.

    fte239.contingere rustitiam, ‘attain to righteousness’.

    fte240.non imputetur.

    fte241.gratiam.

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