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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 1 CORINTHIANS 15

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    15:1 {I make known} (gnwrizw). See on ¯12:3 for this common verb. As if in reproach. {The gospel which I preached unto you} (to euaggelion ho eueggelisamen humin). Cognate accusative, "the gospel which I gospelized unto you." Note augment e after eu- like compound verb with preposition. Note repetition of relative (ho, en hwi, di hou, and tini like relative) without kai (and), asyndeton.

    15:2 {In what words I preached it unto you} (tini logoi eueggelisamen humin). Almost certainly tis (tini logoi, locative or instrumental, in or with) here is used like the relative hos as is common in papyri (Moulton, _Prolegomena_, p. 93f.; Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 737f.). Even so it is not clear whether the clause depends on gnwrizw like the other relatives, but most likely so. {If we hold it fast} (ei katecete). Condition of first class. Paul assumes that they are holding it fast. {Except ye believed in vain} (ektos ei me eikei episteusate). For ektos ei me see on ¯14:5. Condition of first class, unless in fact ye did believe to no purpose (eikei, old adverb, only in Paul in N.T.). Paul holds this peril over them in their temptation to deny the resurrection.

    15:3 {First of all} (en prwtois). Among first things. _In primis_. Not to time, but to importance. {Which I also received} (ho kai parelabon). Direct revelation claimed as about the institution of the Lord's Supper (#11:23) and same verbs used (paredwka, parelabon). Four items given by Paul in explaining "the gospel" which Paul preached. Stanley calls it (verses #1-11) the creed of the early disciples, but "rather a sample of the exact form of the apostle's early teaching, than a profession of faith on the part of converts" (Vincent). The four items are presented by four verbs (died, apeqanen, was buried, etafe, hath been raised, egegertai, appeared, wfqe). {Christ died} (cristos apeqanen). Historical fact and crucial event. {For our sins} (huper twn hamartiwn hemwn). huper means literally over, in behalf, even instead of (#Ga 3:13), where used of persons. But here much in the sense of peri (#Ga 1:14) as is common in _Koin‚_. In #1Pe 3:18 we have peri hamartiwn, huper adikwn. {According to the Scriptures} (kata tas grafas). As Jesus showed (#Lu 22:37; 24:25) and as Peter pointed out (#Ac 2:25-27; 3:35) and as Paul had done (#Ac 13:24f.; 17:3). Cf. #Ro 1:2ff.

    15:4 {And that he was buried} (kai hoti etafe). Note hoti repeated before each of the four verbs as a separate item. Second aorist passive indicative of qaptw, old verb, to bury. this item is an important detail as the Gospels show. {And that he hath been raised} (kai hoti egegertai). Perfect passive indicative, not egerqe like {rose} of the King James' Version. There is reason for this sudden change of tense. Paul wishes to emphasize the permanence of the resurrection of Jesus. He is still risen. {On the third day} (tei hemerai tei tritei). Locative case of time. Whether Paul had seen either of the Gospels we do not know, but this item is closely identified with the fact of Christ's resurrection. We have it in Peter's speech (#Ac 10:40) and Jesus points it out as part of prophecy (#Lu 24:46). The other expression occasionally found "after three days" (#Mr 10:34) is merely free vernacular for the same idea and not even #Mt 12:40 disturbs it. See on ¯Lu 24:1 for record of the empty tomb on the first day of the week (the third day).

    15:5 {And that he appeared to Cephas} (kai hoti wfqe kefai). First aorist passive indicative of the defective verb horaw, to see. Paul means not a mere "vision," but actual appearance. John uses efanerwqe (#Joh 21:14) from fanerow, to make manifest, of Christ's appearance to the seven by the Sea of Galilee. Peter was listed first (prwtos) among the Apostles (#Mt 10:2). Jesus had sent a special message to him (#Mr 16:7) after his resurrection. this special appearance to Peter is made the determining factor in the joyful faith of the disciples (#Lu 24:34), though mentioned incidentally here. Paul had told all these four facts to the Corinthians in his preaching. He gives further proof of the fact of Christ's resurrection. There are ten appearances given besides the one to Paul. Nine are in the Gospels (Mary Magdalene in John and Mark, the other women in Matthew, the two going to Emmaus in Luke, Simon Peter in Luke and I Corinthians, the ten apostles and others in Luke and John and Mark, the eleven and others in John, the seven by the sea in John, to over five hundred in Galilee in Matthew and Paul and Mark, to the apostles in Jerusalem in Luke and Mark and Acts and I Corinthians) and one in I Corinthians above (to James). It will be seen that Paul mentions only five of the ten, one, that to James, not given elsewhere. What he gives is conclusive evidence of the fact, particularly when re-enforced by his own experience (the sixth appearance mentioned by Paul). The way to prove this great fact is to start with Paul's own witness given in this undoubted epistle. The natural way to understand Paul's adverbs of time here is chronological: {qen} (eita), {qen} (epeita), {qen} (epeita), {qen} (eita), {last of all} (escaton pantwn). {To the twelve} (tois dwdeka). The technical name. Only ten were present, for Judas was dead and Thomas was absent (#Joh 20:24).

    15:6 {To above five hundred brethren at once} (epanw pentakosiois adelfois efapax). epanw here is just an adverb with no effect on the case. As a preposition with the ablative see #Mt 5:14. this incident is the one described in #Mt 28:16 the prearranged meeting on the mountain in Galilee. The strength of this witness lies in the fact that the majority (hoi pleious) of them were still living when Paul wrote this epistle, say spring of A.D. 54 or 55, not over 25 years after Christ's resurrection.

    15:7 {To James} (iakwbwi). The brother of the Lord. this fact explains the presence of the brothers of Jesus in the upper room (#Ac 1:14). {To all the apostles} (tois apostolois pasin). The Ascension of Christ from Olivet.

    15:8 {As unto one born out of due time} (hwsperei twi ektrwmati). Literally, as to the miscarriage (or untimely birth). Word first occurs in Aristotle for abortion or miscarriage and occurs in LXX (#Nu 12:12; Job 3:16) and papyri (for miscarriage by accident). The verb titrwskw means to wound and ek is out. Paul means that the appearance to him came after Jesus had ascended to heaven.

    15:9 {The least} (ho elacistos). True superlative, not elative. Explanation of the strong word ektrwma just used. See #Eph 3:8 where he calls himself "less than the least of all saints" and #1Ti 1:15 the "chief" (prwtos) of sinners. Yet under attack from the Judaizers Paul stood up for his rank as equal to any apostle (#2Co 11:5f.,23). {Because I persecuted the church of God} (ediwxa ten ekklesian tou qeou). There were times when this terrible fact confronted Paul like a nightmare. Who does not understand this mood of contrition?

    15:10 {What I am} (ho eimi). Not, {who} (hos), but {what} (ho), neuter singular. His actual character and attainments. All "by the grace of God" (cariti qeou). {I labored more abundantly than they all} (perissoteron autwn pantwn ekopiasa). this is sober fact as shown by the Acts and Paul's Epistles. He had tremendous energy and used it. Genius is work, Carlyle said. Take Paul as a specimen.

    15:11 {So we preach, and so ye believed} (houtws kerussomen, kai houtws episteusate). this is what matters both for preacher and hearers. this is Paul's gospel. Their conduct in response to his message was on record.

    15:12 {Is preached} (kerussetai). Personal use of the verb, Christ is preached. {How say some among you?} (pws legousin en humin tines?). The question springs naturally from the proof of the fact of the resurrection of Christ (verses #1-11) and the continual preaching which Paul here assumes by condition of the first class (ei--kerussetai). There were sceptics in Corinth, possibly in the church, who denied the resurrection of dead people just as some men today deny that miracles happen or ever did happen. Paul's answer is the resurrection of Christ as a fact. It all turns on this fact.

    15:13 {Neither hath Christ been raised} (oude cristos egegertai). He turns the argument round with tremendous force. But it is fair.

    15:14 {Vain} (kenon). _Inanis_, Vulgate. Old word, empty. Both Paul's preaching and their faith are empty if Christ has not been raised. If the sceptics refuse to believe the fact of Christ's resurrection, they have nothing to stand on.

    15:15 {False witnesses of God} (yeudomartures tou qeou). Late word, but yeudomarturew, to bear false witness, old and common. The genitive (tou qeou) can be either subjective (in God's service) or objective (concerning God). Either makes good sense. {Because we witnessed of God} (hoti emarturesamen kata tou qeou). Vulgate has _adversus Deum_. this is the more natural way to take kata and genitive, {against God} not as equal to peri (concerning). He would indeed make God play false in that case, {if so be that the dead are not raised} (eiper ara nekroi ouk egeirontai). Condition of first class, assumed as true. Note both per intensive particle {indeed} and Ara inferential particle {therefore}.

    15:16 Repeats the position already taken in verse #13.

    15:17 {Vain} (mataia). Old word from adverb maten (#Mt 15:9), void of truth, a lie. Stronger word than kenon in verse #14. {Ye are yet in your sins} (eti este en tais hamartiais humwn). Because the death of Christ has no atoning value if he did not rise from the dead. In that case he was only a man like other men and did not die for our sins (verse #3).

    15:18 {qen also} (ara kai). Inevitable inference. {Have perished} (apwlonto). Did perish. Second aorist middle indicative of apollumi, to destroy, middle, to perish (delivered up to eternal misery). Cf. #8:11.

    15:19 {We have hoped} (elpikotes esmen). Periphrastic perfect active indicative. Hope limited to this life even if "in Christ." {Only} (monon) qualifies the whole clause. {Most pitiable} (eleeinoteroi). Comparative form, not superlative, of old adjective eleeinos, to be pitied, pitiable. If our hope is limited to this life, we have denied ourselves what people call pleasures and have no happiness beyond. The Epicureans have the argument on us. Paul makes morality turn on the hope of immortality. Is he not right? Witness the breaking of moral ties today when people take a merely animal view of life.

    15:20 {But now} (nuni de). Emphatic form of nun with -i added (cf. #12:18). It is the logical triumph of Paul after the _reductio ad impossibile_ (Findlay) of the preceding argument. {The first-fruits} (aparce). Old word from aparcomai, to offer firstlings or first-fruits. In LXX for first-fruits. In papyri for legacy-duty, entrance-fee, and also first-fruits as here. See also verse #23; 16:15; Ro 8:23, etc. Christ is "first-born from the dead" (#Col 1:18). Others raised from the dead died again, but not so Jesus. {That sleep} (twn kekoimemenwn). Perfect middle participle as in #Mt 27:52 which see. Beautiful picture of death from which word (koimaomai) comes our cemetery.

    15:21 {By man also} (dai di' anqrwpou). That is Jesus, the God-man, the Second Adam (#Ro 5:12). The hope of the resurrection of the dead rests in Christ.

    15:22 {Shall be made alive} (zwopoieqesontai). First future passive indicative of zwopoiew, late verb (Aristotle) to give life, to restore to life as here. In verse #36 zwopoieitai is used in the sense of natural life as in #Joh 5:21; 6:63 of spiritual life. It is not easy to catch Paul's thought here. He means resurrection (restoration) by the verb here, but not necessarily eternal life or salvation. So also pantes may not coincide in both clauses. All who die die in Adam, all who will be made alive will be made alive (restored to life) in Christ. The same problem occurs in #Ro 5:18 about "all," and in verse #19 about "the many."

    15:23 {Order} (tagmati). Old military term from tassw, to arrange, here only in N.T. Each in his own division, troop, rank. {At his coming} (en tei parousiai). The word parousia was the technical word "for the arrival or visit of the king or emperor" and can be traced from the Ptolemaic period into the second century A.D. (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 368). "Advent-coins were struck after a parousia of the emperor." Paul is only discussing "those that are Christ's" (#3:23; Ga 5:24) and so says nothing about judgment (cf. #1Th 2:19; 3:13; 4:15; 5:23).

    15:24 {qen cometh the end} (eita to telos). No verb ginetai in the Greek. Supply "at his coming," the end or consummation of the age or world (#Mt 13:39,49; 1Pe 4:7), {When he shall deliver up} (hotan paradidwi). Present active subjunctive (not optative) of paradidwmi with hotan, whenever, and so quite indefinite and uncertain as to time. Present subjunctive rather than aorist paradwi because it pictures a future proceeding. {To God, even the Father} (twi qewi kai patri). Better, "to the God and Father" or to "His God and Father." The Kingdom belongs to the Father. {When he shall have abolished} (hotan katargesei). First aorist active subjunctive with hotan, indefinite future time. Simply, "whenever he shall abolish," no use in making it future perfect, merely aorist subjunctive. On katargew see #1Co 6:13; 13:8,10,11. {Rule} (arcen), {authority} (exousian), {power} (dunamin). All forms of power opposing the will of God. Constative aorist tense covering the whole period of conflict with final victory as climax.

    15:25 {Till he hath put} (acri hou qei). Second aorist active subjunctive of tiqemi, "till he put" (no sense in saying "hath put," merely effective aorist tense for climax. acri (hou), mecri (hou), hews (hou) all are used for the same idea of indefinite future time.

    15:26 {The last enemy that shall be abolished is death} (escatos ecqros katargeitai ho qanatos). A rather free translation. Literally, "death (note article, and so subject) is done away (prophetic or futuristic use of present tense of same verb as in verse #24), the last enemy" (predicate and only one "last" and so no article as in #1Jo 2:18).

    15:27 {He put} (hupetaxen). First aorist active of hupotassw, to subject. Supply God (qeos) as subject (#Ps 8:7). See #Heb 2:5-9 for similar use. Cf. #Ps 8. {But when he saith} (hotan de eipei). Here Christ must be supplied as the subject if the reference is to his future and final triumph. The syntax more naturally calls for God as the subject as before. Either way makes sense. But there is no need to take eipei (second aorist active subjunctive) as _a futurum exactum_, merely "whenever he shall say." {Are put in subjection} (hupotetaktai). Perfect passive indicative, state of completion, final triumph. {It is evident that} (delon hoti). Supply estin (is) before hoti. {He is excepted who did subject} (ektos tou hupotaxantos). "Except the one (God) who did subject (articular aorist active participle) the all things to him (Christ)."

    15:28 {And when all things have been subjected} (hotan de hupotagei ta panta). Second aorist passive subjunctive of hupotassw, not perfect. Merely, "when the all things are subjected unto him." The aorist subjunctive has given translators a deal of needless trouble in this passage. It is prophecy, of course. {That God may be all in all} (hina ei ho qeos panta en pasin). The final goal of all God's redemptive plans as Paul has so well said in #Ro 11:36. Precisely this language Paul will use of Christ (#Col 3:11).

    15:29 {Else} (epei). Otherwise, if not true. On this use of epei with ellipsis see on ¯5:10; 7:14. {Which are baptized for the dead} (hoi baptizomenoi huper twn nekrwn). this passage remains a puzzle. Stanley gives thirteen interpretations, no one of which may be correct. Over thirty have been suggested. The Greek expositors took it to be about the dead (huper in sense of peri as often as in #2Co 1:6) since baptism is a burial and a resurrection (#Ro 6:2-6). Tertullian tells of some heretics who took it to mean baptized in the place of dead people (unsaved) in order to save them. Some take it to be baptism over the dead. Others take it to mean that Paul and others were in peril of death as shown by baptism (see verse #30). {At all} (holws). See on ¯5:1.

    15:30 {Why do we also stand in jeopardy every hour?} (ti kai hemeis kinduneuomen pasan h"ran?). We also as well as those who receive baptism which symbolizes death. Old verb from kindunos (peril, danger), in N.T. only here and #Lu 8:23. Paul's Epistles and Acts (especially chapter #Ac 19) throw light on Paul's argument. He was never out of danger from Damascus to the last visit to Rome. There are perils in Ephesus of which we do not know (#2Co 1:8f.) whatever may be true as to an Ephesian imprisonment. G. S. Duncan (_St. Paul's Ephesian Ministry_, 1930) even argues for several imprisonments in Ephesus. The accusative of time (pasan h"ran) naturally means all through every hour (extension).

    15:31 {I protest by that glorying in you} (ne ten humeteran kaucesin). No word for "I protest." Paul takes solemn oath by the use of ne (common in Attic) with the accusative. Only here in N.T., but in LXX (#Ge 42:15f.). For other solemn oaths by Paul see #2Co 1:18,23; 11:10f.,31; Ro 9:1. For kaucesis see on ¯1Th 2:19. The possessive pronoun (humeteran) is objective as emen in #1Co 11:24. {I die daily} (kaq' hemeran apoqneskw). I am in daily peril of death (#2Co 4:11; 11:23; Ro 8:36).

    15:32 {After the manner of men} (kata anqrwpon). Like men, for applause, money, etc. (#4:9ff.; Php 3:7). {If I fought with wild beasts at Ephesus} (ei eqeriomacesa en efeswi). Late verb from qeriomacos, a fighter with wild beasts. Found in inscriptions and in Ignatius. Those who argue for an Ephesian imprisonment for Paul and Ephesus as the place where he wrote the imprisonment epistles (see Duncan's book just mentioned) take the verb literally. There is in the ruins of Ephesus now a place called St. Paul's Prison. But Paul was a Roman citizen and it was unlawful to make such a one be a qeriomacos. If he were cast to the lions unlawfully, he could have prevented it by claiming his citizenship. Besides, shortly after this Paul wrote II Corinthians, but he does not mention so unusual a peril in the list in #2Co 11:23f. The incident, whatever it was, whether literal or figurative language, took place before Paul wrote I Corinthians. {What doth it profit me?} (ti moi to ofelos?). What the profit to me? {Let us eat and drink} (fagwmen kai piwmen). Volitive second aorist subjunctives of esqiw and pinw. Cited from #Isa 22:13. It is the outcry of the people of Jerusalem during the siege of Jerusalem by the Assyrians. At Anchiale near Tarsus is a statue of Sardanapalus with the inscription: "Eat, drink, enjoy thyself. The rest is nothing." this was the motto of the Epicureans. Paul is not giving his own view, but that of people who deny the resurrection.

    15:33 {Be not deceived} (me planasqe). Do not be led astray (planaw) by such a false philosophy of life. {Evil company} (homiliai kakai). Evil companionships. Old word, homilia, from homilos (a crowd, gang, bunch). Only here in N.T. Good manners (eqe). Old word (kin to eqos) custom, usage, morals. Good morals here. this line of poetry (iambic) occurs in Menander. It may be a current proverb. Paul could have gotten it from either source.

    15:34 {Awake up righteously} (ekneyate dikaiws). Wake up as if from drunkenness. eknefw, only here in N.T. sin not (me hamartanete). Stop sinning. {No knowledge of God} (agnwsian qeou). Old word for ignorance, in N.T. only here and #1Pe 2:15. Ignorance of God, agnosticism. Some today (agnostics) even take pride in it instead of shame (entropen, turning in on oneself). See on ¯6:5 for entrope.

    15:35 {But some one will say} (alla erei tis). Paul knows what the sceptics were saying. He is a master at putting the standpoint of the imaginary adversary. {How} (pws). this is still the great objection to the resurrection of our bodies. Granted that Jesus rose from the dead, for the sake of argument, these sceptics refuse to believe in the possibility of our resurrection. It is the attitude of Matthew Arnold who said, "Miracles do not happen." Scientifically we know the "how" of few things. Paul has an astounding answer to this objection. Death itself is the way of resurrection as in the death of the seed for the new plant (verses #36f.). {With what manner of body} (poiwi swmati). this is the second question which makes plainer the difficulty of the first. The first body perishes. Will that body be raised? Paul treats this problem more at length (verses #38-54) and by analogy of nature (Cf. Butler's famous _Analogy_). It is a spiritual, not a natural, body that is raised. swma here is an organism. {Flesh} (sarx) is the swma for the natural man, but there is spiritual (pneumatikon) swma for the resurrection.

    15:36 {Thou foolish one} (afrwn). Old word (a privative, fren), lack of sense. It is a severe term and justified by the implication "that the objector plumes himself on his acuteness" (Robertson and Plummer). Proleptic position of su (thou) sharpens the point. Sceptics (agnostics) pose as unusually intellectual (the intelligentsia), but the pose does not make one intelligent. {Except it die} (ean me apoqanei). Condition of third class, possibility assumed. this is the answer to the "how" question. In plant life death precedes life, death of the seed and qen the new plant.

    15:37 {Not the body which shall be} (ou to swma to genesomenon). Articular future participle of ginomai, literally, "not the body that will become." The new {body} (swma) is not yet in existence, but only the seed (kokkos, grain, old word, as in #Mt 13:31). {It may chance} (ei tucoi). Fourth class condition as in #14:10 which see. Paul is rich in metaphors here, though usually not so (Howson, _Metaphors of St. Paul_). Paul was a city man. We sow seeds, not plants (bodies). The butterfly comes out of the dying worm.

    15:38 {A body of its own} (idion swma). Even under the microscope the life cells or germ plasm may seem almost identical, but the plant is quite distinct. On sperma, seed, old word from speirw, to sow, see on ¯Mt 13:24f.

    15:39 {The same flesh} (he aute sarx). Paul takes up animal life to show the great variety there is as in the plant kingdom. Even if evolution should prove to be true, Paul's argument remains valid. Variety exists along with kinship. Progress is shown in the different kingdoms, progress that even argues for a spiritual body after the body of flesh is lost. {Of beasts} (ktenwn). Old word, from ktaomai, to possess, and so property. See #Lu 10:34. {Of birds} (ptenwn). Old word from petomai, to fly, winged, flying. Only here in N.T.

    15:40 {Celestial} (epourania). Old word, from epi, upon, ouranos, heaven, existing in heaven. Paul now rises higher in the range of his argument, above the merely {terrestrial} (epigeia, upon earth, epi, ge) bodies. He has shown differences in the bodies here on earth in plants and in the animal kingdom and now he indicates like differences to be seen in the heavens above us. {Is one} (hetera men) {--is another} (hetera de). Antithesis that admits glory for bodies on earth and bodies in the heavens. Experience does not argue against a glory for the spiritual body (#Php 3:21).

    15:41 {For one star differeth from another star in glory} (aster gar asteros diaferei en doxei). A beautiful illustration of Paul's point. asteros is the ablative case after diaferei (old verb diaferw, Latin _differo_, our _differ_, bear apart). On aster see #Mt 2:7 and astron #Lu 21:25. Stars differ in magnitude and brilliancy. The telescope has added more force to Paul's argument. {In glory} (en doxei). Old word from dokew, to think, to seem. So opinion, estimate, qen the shekinah glory of God in the LXX, glory in general. It is one of the great words of the N.T. Jesus is termed the glory in #Jas 2:1.

    15:42 {So is the resurrection of the dead} (houtws kai he anastasis twn nekrwn). Paul now applies his illustrations to his argument to prove the kind of body we shall have after the resurrection. He does it by a series of marvellous contrasts that gather all his points. The earthly and the risen beings differ in duration, value, power (Wendt). {It is sown} (speiretai). In death, like the seed (#37). {In incorruption} (en afqarsiai). Late word from a privative and fqeirw, to corrupt. In LXX, Plutarch, Philo, late papyrus of a Gnostic gospel, and quotation from Epicurus. Vulgate _incorruptio_. The resurrection body has undergone a complete change as compared with the body of flesh like the plant from the seed. It is related to it, but it is a different body of glory.

    15:43 {In weakness} (en asqeneiai). Lack of strength as shown in the victory of death. {In power} (en dunamei). Death can never conquer this new body, "conformed to the body of His glory" (#Php 3:21).

    15:44 {A natural body} (swma yucikon). See on ¯2:14 for this word, a difficult one to translate since yuce has so many meanings. Natural is probably as good a rendering as can be made, but it is not adequate, for the body here is not all yuce either as soul or life. The same difficulty exists as to a spiritual body (swma pneumatikon). The resurrection body is not wholly pneuma. Caution is needed here in filling out details concerning the yuce and the pneuma. But certainly he means to say that the "spiritual body" has some kind of germinal connection with the "natural body," though the development is glorious beyond our comprehension though not beyond the power of Christ to perform (#Php 3:21). The force of the argument remains unimpaired though we cannot follow fully into the thought beyond us. {If there is} (ei estin). "If there exists" (estin means this with accent on first syllable), a condition of first class assumed as true. {There is also} (estin kai). There exists also.

    15:45 {Became a living soul} (egeneto eis yucen zwsan). Hebraistic use of eis in predicate from LXX. God breathed a soul (yuce) into "the first man." {The last Adam became a life-giving spirit} (ho eschatos Adam eis pneuma z"opoioun). Supply egeneto (became). Christ is the crown of humanity and has power to give us the new body. In #Ro 5:12-19 Paul calls Christ the Second Adam.

    15:46 {However that is not first which is spiritual, but that which is natural} (all' ou prwton to pneumatikon, alla to yucikon). Literally, "But not first the spiritual, but the natural." this is the law of growth always.

    15:47 {Earthly} (co‹kos). Late rare word, from cous, dust. {The second man from heaven} (ho deuteros anqrwpos ex ouranou). Christ had a human (yucikon) body, of course, but Paul makes the contrast between the first man in his natural body and the Second Man in his risen body. Paul saw Jesus after his resurrection and he appeared to him "from heaven." He will come again from heaven.

    15:48 {As is the earthly} (hoios ho coikos). Masculine gender because of anqrwpos and correlative pronouns (hoios, toioutoi) of character or quality. All men of dust (co‹koi) correspond to "the man of dust" (ho co‹kos), the first Adam. {As is the heavenly} (hoios ho epouranios). Christ in his ascended state (#1Th 4:16; 2Th 1:7; Eph 2:6,20; Php 3:20f.).

    15:49 {We shall also bear} (foresomen kai). Old MSS. (so Westcott and Hort) read foreswmen kai. Volitive aorist active subjunctive, Let us also bear. Ellicott strongly opposes the subjunctive. It may be merely the failure of scribes to distinguish between long o and short o. Paul hardly means to say that our attaining the resurrection body depends on our own efforts! A late frequentative form of ferw.

    15:50 {Cannot inherit} (kleronomesai ou dunantai). Hence there must be a change by death from the natural body to the spiritual body. In the case of Christ this change was wrought in less than three days and even qen the body of Jesus was in a transition state before the Ascension. He ate and could be handled and yet he passed through closed doors. Paul does not base his argument on the special circumstances connected with the risen body of Jesus.

    15:51 {A mystery} (musterion). He does not claim that he has explained everything. He has drawn a broad parallel which opens the door of hope and confidence. {We shall not all sleep} (pantes ou koimeqesomeqa). Future passive indicative of koimaomai, to sleep. Not all of us shall die, Paul means. Some people will be alive when he comes. Paul does not affirm that he or any qen living will be alive when Jesus comes again. He simply groups all under the phrase "we all." {But we shall all be changed} (pantes de allagesomeqa). Second future passive indicative of allassw. Both living and dead shall be changed and so receive the resurrection body. See this same idea at more length in #1Th 4:13-18.

    15:52 {In a moment} (en atomwi). Old word, from a privative and temnw, to cut, indivisible: Scientific word for _atom_ which was considered indivisible, but that was before the day of electrons and protons. Only here in N.T. {In the twinkling of an eye} (en ripei ofqalmou). Old word ripe from riptw, to throw. Only here in N.T. Used by the Greeks for the flapping of a wing, the buzz of a gnat, the quivering of a harp, the twinkling of a star. {At the last trump} (en tei escatei salpiggi). Symbolical, of course. See on ¯1Th 4:16; Mt 24:31.

    15:53 {Must put on} (dei endusasqai). Aorist (ingressive) middle infinitive, put on as a garment. {Immortality} (aqanasian). Old word from aqanatos, undying, and that from a privative and qneskw, to die. In N.T. only here and #1Ti 6:16 where God is described as having immortality.

    15:54 {Shall have put on} (endusetai). First aorist middle subjunctive with hotan whenever, merely indefinite future, no _futurum exactum_, merely meaning, "whenever shall put on," not "shall have put on." {Is swallowed up} (katepoqe). First aorist passive indicative of katapinw, old verb to drink down, swallow down. Perfective use of kata- where we say "up," "swallow up." Timeless use of the aorist tense. Paul changes the active voice katepien in #Isa 25:8 to the passive. Death is no longer victory. Theodotion reads the Hebrew verb (_bulla_, for _billa_,) as passive like Paul. It is the "final overthrow of the king of Terrors" (Findlay) as shown in #Heb 2:15.

    15:55 {Victory} (nikos). Late form of nike. {O death} (qanate). Second instance. Here Paul changes Hades of the LXX for Hebrew Sheol (#Hos 13:14) to death. Paul never uses Hades. {Thy sting} (sou to kentron). Old word from kentrew, to prick, as in #Ac 26:14. In #Re 9:10 of the sting of locusts, scorpions. The serpent death has lost his poison fangs.

    15:56 {The power of sin} (he dunamis tes hamartias). See #Ro 4:15; 5:20; 6:14; 7; Ga 2:16; 3:1-5:4 for Paul's ideas here briefly expressed. In man's unrenewed state he cannot obey God's holy law.

    15:57 {But thanks be to God} (twi de qewi caris). Exultant triumph through Christ over sin and death as in #Ro 7:25.

    15:58 {Be ye steadfast, unmovable} (hedraioi ginesqe, ametakinetoi). "Keep on becoming steadfast, unshaken." Let the sceptics howl and rage. Paul has given rational grounds for faith and hope in Christ the Risen Lord and Savior. Note practical turn to this great doctrinal argument. {Work} (ergon), {labor} (kopos, toil). The best answer to doubt is work.

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