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1. Likewise (omoiwv). Rev., in like manner; better, because likewise in popular speech has, wrongly, the sense of also. Peter means in like manner with servants (ch. ii. 18).
Be in subjection (upotassomenai). Lit., being in subjection, or submitting yourselves; the same word which is used of the submission of servants (ch. ii. 18).
Be won (kerdhqhsontai). Rev., be gained. The word used by Christ, Matt. xviii. 15: "gained thy brother."
2. While they behold (epopteusantev). See on ch. ii. 12. Conversation. See on ch. i. 15. Rev., behavior.
Coupled with fear (en fobw). Lit., in fear.
3. Of plaiting (emplokhv). Only here in New Testament. Compare 1 Timothy ii. 9. The Roman women of the day were addicted to ridiculous extravagance in the adornment of the hair. Juvenal ("Satire," vi.) satirizes these customs. He says: "The attendants will vote on the dressing of the hair as if a question of reputation or of life were at stake, so great is the trouble she takes in quest of beauty; with so many tiers does she load, with so many continuous stories does she build up on high her head. She is tall as Andromache in front, behind she is shorter. You would think her another person." The hair was dyed, and secured with costly pins and with nets of gold thread. False hair and blond wigs were worn.
4. Meek (praeov). See on Matt. v. 5.
Of great price (polutelev). The word used to describe costly raiment, 1 Timothy ii. 9.
7. According to knowledge. With an intelligent recognition of the nature of the marriage relation.
The woman (tw gunaikeiw). Not a noun, however, as would appear from the ordinary rendering, but an adjective, agreeing with skeuei, vessel, as does also ajsqenesterw, weaker. Both are attributes of vessel; the female vessel as weaker. So Rev., in margin.
Vessel (skeuei). Compare 1 Thess. iv. 4. The primary idea of vessel, which is formed from the Latin vasellum, the diminutive of vas, a vase, is that of the receptacle which covers and contains; the case or protecting cover. Hence it is allied, etymologically, with vest, vestment, and wear. It is used in the New Testament
(2) Of the man, as containing the divine energy, or as a subject of divine mercy or wrath, and hence becoming a divine instrument. Thus Paul is a chosen vessel to bear God's name (Acts ix. 15). Vessels of wrath (Rom. ix. 22); of mercy (Rom. ix. 23). So of the woman, as God's instrument, along with man, for his service in the family and in society.
Giving (aponemontev). Only here in New Testament. The word means, literally, to portion out, and is appropriate to the husband as controlling what is to be meted out to the wife.
Hindered (egkoptesqai). So A.V. and Rev., and the best texts, and the majority of commentators. The word means, literally, to knock in; make an incision into; and hence, generally, to hinder or thwart (Gal. v. 7; 1 Thessalonians ii. 18). Some, however, read ejkkoptesqai, to cut off or destroy.
8. Of one mind (omofronev). Rev., like-minded. Only here in New Testament. Compare Rom. xii. 16; xv. 5; Philip. ii. 2, etc. Indicating unity of thought and feeling. From oJmov, one and the same, and frhn, the mind.
Having compassion one of another (sumpaqeiv). Only here in New Testament, though the kindred verb is found Heb. iv. 15; x. 34. The rendering is needlessly diffuse. Rev., much better, compassionate; sympathetic, in margin. Interchange of fellow-feeling in joy or sorrow. Our popular usage errs in limiting sympathy to sorrow.
Love as brethren (filadelfoi). Rev., more strictly, loving as brethren. Only here in New Testament.
Pitiful (eusplagcnoi). Only here and Eph. iv. 32. Rev., better, tender-hearted. From eu, well, and splagcna, the nobler entrails, which are regarded as the seat of the affections, and hence equivalent to our popular use of heart. The original sense has given rise to the unfortunate translation bowels in the A.V., which occurs in its literal meaning only at Acts i. 18.
Courteous. The A.V. has here followed the reading of the Tex. Rec., filofronev. But the best texts read tapeinofronev, humble-minded. So Rev. This occurs nowhere else in the New Testament, though the kindred noun tapeinofrosunh, humility, is found often. See on tapeinov, lowly, notes on Matt. xi. 29.
9. Rendering evil, etc. See Rom. xii. 17.
Blessing (eulogountev). Not a noun governed by rendering, but a participle. Be not rendering evil, but be blessing.
10. Will love (qelwn agapan). Not the future tense of love, but the verb to will, with the infinitive: he that desires or means to love. Rev., would love.
11. Eschew (ekklinatw). The old word eschew is from the Norman eschever, to shun or avoid. It reappears in the German scheuen, to be startled or afraid, and in the English shy, and to shy (as a horse). The Greek word here occurs only twice elsewhere (Rom. iii. 12; xvi. 17), where Rev. renders turn aside and turn away. It is compounded of ejk, out of, and klinw, to cause to bend or slope; so that the picture in the word is of one bending aside from his course at the approach of evil. Rev., turn away from.
13. Followers (mimhtai). Lit., imitators. But the best texts read zhlwtai, zealots. So Rev., zealous.
14. Blessed. See on Matt. v. 3.
15. Sanctify the Lord God. The A.V. follows the Tex. Rec., reading ton Qeon, God, instead of ton Criston, Christ, which is the reading of the best texts. The article with Christ shows that kurion, Lord, is to be taken predicatively. Render, therefore, as Rev., sanctify Christ (the Christ) as Lord.
Ready to give an answer (etoimoi prov apologian). Lit., ready for an answer. Answer is our word apology, not in the popular sense of excuse, but in the more radical sense of defence. So it is translated Acts xxii. 1; Philip. i. 7, 16. Clearing of yourselves, 2 Cor. vii. 11. Meekness. See on Matt. v. 5.
16. Having a good conscience (suneidhsin econtev agaqhn). The position of the adjective shows that it is used predicatively: having a conscience good or unimpaired. Compare Heb. xiii. 18, "We have a good conscience (kalhn suneidhsin)." Suneidhsiv, conscience, does not occur in the gospels, unless John viii. 1-11 be admitted into the text. Nor is it a word familiar to classical Greek. It is compounded of sun, together with, and eijdenai, to know; and its fundamental idea is knowing together with one's self. Hence it denotes the consciousness which one has within himself of his own conduct as related to moral obligation; which consciousness exercises a judicial function, determining what is right or wrong, approving or condemning, urging to performance or abstinence. Hence it is not merely intellectual consciousness directed at conduct, but moral consciousness contemplating duty, testifying to moral obligation, even where God is not known; and, where there is knowledge of God and acquaintance with him, inspired and directed by that fact. A man cannot be conscious of himself without knowing himself as a moral creature. Cremer accordingly defines the word as "the consciousness man has of himself in his relation to God, manifesting itself in the form of a self-testimony, the result of the action of the spirit in the heart." And further, "conscience is, essentially, determining of the self-consciousness by the spirit as the essential principle of life. In conscience man stands face to face with himself." Conscience is, therefore, a law. Thus Bishop Butler: "Conscience does not only offer itself to show us the way we should walk in, but it likewise carries its own authority with it, that it is our natural guide, the guide assigned us by the Author of our nature; it therefore belongs to our condition of being; it is our duty to walk in that path and follow this guide." And again, "That principle by which we survey, and either approve or disapprove our own heart, temper, and actions, is not only to be considered as what it, in its turn, to have some influence, which may be said of every passion, of the lowest appetites; but likewise as being superior; as from its very nature claiming superiority over all others; insomuch that you cannot form a notion of this faculty, conscience, without taking in judgment, direction, superintendency. This is a constituent part of the idea, that is, of the faculty itself; and to preside and govern, from the very economy and constitution of man, belongs to it. Had it strength as it had right; had it power as it had manifest authority, it would absolutely govern the world" (Sermons II. and III., "On Human Nature").
Conscience is a faculty. The mind may "possess reason and distinguish between the true and the false, and yet be incapable of distinguishing between virtue and vice. We are entitled, therefore, to hold that the drawing of moral distinctions is not comprehended in the simple exercise of the reason. The conscience, in short, is a different faculty of the mind from the mere understanding. We must hold it to be simple and unresolvable till we fall in with a successful decomposition of it into its elements. In the absence of any such decomposition we hold that there are no simpler elements in the human mind which will yield us the ideas of the morally good and evil, of moral obligation and guilt, of merit and demerit. Compound and decompound all other ideas as you please, associate them together as you may, they will never give us the ideas referred to, so peculiar and full of meaning, without a faculty implanted in the mind for this very purpose" (McCosh, "Divine Government, Physical and Moral"). Conscience is a sentiment: i.e., it contains and implies conscious emotions which arise on the discernment of an object as good or bad. The judgment formed by conscience awakens sensibility. When the judicial faculty pronounces a thing to be lovable, it awakens love. When it pronounces it to be noble or honorable, it awakens respect and admiration. When it pronounces it to be cruel or vile, it awakens disgust and abhorrence. In scripture we are to view conscience, as Bishop Ellicott remarks, not in its abstract nature, but in its practical manifestations. Hence it may be weak (1 Cor. viii. 7, 12), unauthoritative, and awakening only the feeblest emotion. It may be evil or defiled (Heb. x. 22; Tit. i. 15), through consciousness of evil practice. It may be seared (1 Tim. iv. 2), branded by its own testimony to evil practice, hardened and insensible to the appeal of good. On the other hand, it may be pure (2 Tim. i. 3), unveiled, and giving honest and clear moral testimony. It may be void of offense (Acts xxiv. 16), unconscious of evil intent or act; good, as here, or honorable (Heb. xiii. 18). The expression and the idea, in the full Christian sense, are foreign to the Old Testament, where the testimony to the character of moral action and character is born by external revelation rather than by the inward moral consciousness.
Falsely accuse (ephreazontev). Compare Luke vi. 28; the only other passage where the word occurs, Matt. v. 44, being rejected from the best texts. The word means to threaten abusively; to act despitefully. Rev., revile.
18. The just for the unjust. But the Greek without the article is more graphic: just for unjust.
In the flesh. The Greek omits the article. Read in flesh, the material form assumed in his incarnation.
In the spirit. Also without the article, in spirit; not as A.V., by the Spirit, meaning the Holy Ghost, but referring to his spiritual, incorporeal life. The words connect themselves with the death-cry on the cross: "Father, into thy hands I commend my spirit." Huther observes, "Flesh is that side of the man's being by which he belongs to earth, is therefore a creature of earth, and accordingly perishable like everything earthy. Spirit, on the other hand, is that side of his being according to which he belongs to a supernal sphere of being, and is therefore not merely a creature of earth, and is destined to an immortal existence."
Thus we must be careful and not understand spirit here of the Spirit of God, as distinguished from the flesh of Christ, but of the spiritual nature of Christ; "the higher spiritual nature which belonged to the integrity of his humanity" (Cook).
19. By which (en w). Wrong. Rev., correctly, in which: in the spiritual form of life; in the disembodied spirit.
In prison (en fulakh). Authorities differ, some explaining by 2 Peter ii. 4; Jude 6; Apoc. xx. 7, as the final abode of the lost. Excepting in the last passage, the word occurs nowhere else in the New Testament in a metaphorical sense. It is often translated watch (Matt. xiv. 25; Luke ii. 8); hold and cage (Apoc. xviii. 2). Other explain as Hades, the kingdom of the dead generally.
20. In which (eiv hn). Lit., into which. A pregnant construction; into which they were gathered, and in which they were saved.
By water (dia). Rev., through. Some take this as instrumental, by means of water; other as local, by passing through the water, or being brought safely through the water into the ark. Rev., in margin, were brought safely through water.
21. The like figure whereunto. Following a rejected reading, w, to which; so that the literal rendering would be the antitype to which. Read o ajntitupon, which, the antitype or as an antitype; i.e., which water, being the antitype of that water of the flood, doth now save you, even baptism. Rev., which, after a true likeness doth now, etc. 'Antitupon, figure, or antitype, is from ajnti, over against, and tupov, a blow. Hence, originally, repelling a blow: a blow against a blow; a counterblow. So of an echo or of the reflection of light; then a correspondence, as of a stamp to the die, as here. The word occurs only once elsewhere, Heb. ix. 24: "the figures of the true."
Answer (eperwthma). Only here in New Testament. In classical Greek the word means a question and nothing else. The meaning here is much disputed, and can hardly be settled satisfactorily. The rendering answer has no warrant. The meaning seems to be (as Alford), "the seeking after God of a good and pure conscience, which is the aim and end of the Christian baptismal life." So Lange: "The thing asked may be conceived as follows: 'How shall I rid myself of an evil conscience? Wilt thou, most holy God, again accept me, a sinner? Wilt thou, Lord Jesus, grant me the communion of thy death and life? Wilt thou, O Holy Spirit, assure me of grace and adoption, and dwell in my heart?' To these questions the triune Jehovah answers in baptism, 'Yea!' Now is laid the solid foundation for a good conscience. The conscience is not only purified from its guilt, but it receives new vital power by means of the resurrection of Jesus Christ." This is the sense of ejperwtan eijv, in the only place where it occurs in scripture, 2 Sam. xi. 7 (Sept.): "David asked of him how Joab did (eperwthsen eiv eirhnhn Iwab)." Lit., with reference to the peace of Joab. Rev. renders, the interrogation, and puts inquiry, appeal, in margin.
22. Gone into heaven. Perhaps with the scene of the ascension in Peter's mind.