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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 2 CORINTHIANS 2

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    2:1 {That I would not come again to you with sorrow} (to me palin en lupei pros humas elqein). Articular second aorist active infinitive with negative me in apposition with touto ( this ) preceding. What does Paul mean by "again" (palin)? Had he paid another visit besides that described in #Ac 18 which was in sorrow (en lupei)? Or does he mean that having had one joyful visit (that in #Ac 18) he does not wish the second one to be in sorrow? Either interpretation is possible as the Greek stands and scholars disagree. So in #12:14 "The third time I am ready to come" may refer to the proposed second visit (#1:15f.) and the present plan (a third). And so as to #13:1. There is absolutely no way to tell clearly whether Paul had already made a second visit. If he had done so, it is a bit odd that he did not plainly say so in #1:15f. when he is apologizing for not having made the proposed visit ("a second benefit").

    2:2 {Who qen?} (kai tis?). For this use of kai see on »Mr 10:26; Joh 9:36. The kai accepts the condition (first class ei--lup") and shows the paradox that follows. lupew is old word from lupe (sorrow) in causative sense, to make sorry. {Maketh glad} (eufrainwn). Present active participle of old word from eu, well, and fren, mind, to make joyful, causative idea like lupew.

    2:3 {I wrote this very thing} (egraya touto auto). Is this (and egraya in verses #4,9,12) the epistolary aorist referring to the present letter? In itself that is possible as the epistolary aorist does occur in the N.T. as in #8:18; 9:3 (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 854f.). If not epistolary aorist as seems improbable from the context and from #7:8-12, to what epistle does he refer? To #1Co 5 or to a lost letter? It is possible, of course, that, when Paul decided not to come to Corinth, he sent a letter. The language that follows in verses #3,4; 7:8-12 can hardly apply to I Corinthians. {Should have sorrow} (lupen scw). Second aorist (ingressive) active subjunctive of ecw, should get sorrow, after hina me negative final particles. {From them of whom} (af' hwn). Antecedent omitted, apo toutwn af' hwn (from those from whom). {I ought} (edei me). Imperfect for unrealized present obligation as often and like English. {Having confidence} (pepoiqws). Second perfect active participle of peiqw (#1:9).

    2:4 {Anguish} (sunoces). Ablative case after ek (out of). Old word from sunecw, to hold together. So contraction of heart (Cicero, _contractio animi_), a spiritual _angina pectoris_. In N.T. only here and #Lu 21:25. {With many tears} (dia pollwn dakruwn). He dictated that letter "through tears" (accompanied by tears). Paul was a man of heart. He writes to the Philippians with weeping (klaiwn) over the enemies of the Cross of Christ (#Php 3:18). He twice mentions his tears in his speech at Miletus (#Ac 20:19-31). {But that ye might know the love} (alla ten agapen hina gnwte). Proleptic position of agapen and ingressive second aorist active subjunctive gnwte, come to know.

    2:5 {If any} (ei tis). Scholars disagree whether Paul refers to #1Co 5:1, where he also employs tis, toioutos, and satanas as here, or to the ringleader of the opposition to him. Either view is possible. In both cases Paul shows delicacy of feeling by not mentioning the name. {But in part} (alla apo merous). "But to some extent to you all." The whole Corinthian Church has been injured in part by this man's wrongdoing. There is a parenthesis ({that I press not too heavily}, hina me epibar") that interrupts the flow of ideas. epibarew, to put a burden on (epi, baros), is a late word, only in Paul in N.T. (here and #1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8). He does not wish to give pain by too severe language.

    2:6 {Punishment} (epitimia). Late word for old Greek to epitimion (so papyri), from epitimaw, to show honor to, to award, to adjudge penalty. Only here in N.T. {By the many} (hupo twn pleionwn). By the more, the majority. If Paul refers to the case in #1Co 5, they had taken his advice and expelled the offender.

    2:7 {So that on the contrary} (hwste tounantion). The natural result expressed by hwste and the infinitive. tounantion is by crasis for to enantion and accusative of general reference. {Rather} (mallon). Absent in some MSS. {Lest by any means} (me pws). Negative purpose. {Swallowed up} (katapoqei). First aorist passive subjunctive of katapinw, to drink down (#1Co 15:54). {With his overmuch sorrow} (tei perissoterai lupei). Instrumental case, "by the more abundant sorrow" (comparative of adjective perissos).

    2:8 {To confirm} (kurwsai). First aorist active infinitive of old verb kurow, to make valid, to ratify, from kuros (head, authority). In N.T. only here and #Ga 3:15.

    2:9 {That I might know the proof of you} (hina gnw ten dokimen humwn). Ingressive second aorist active subjunctive, come to know. dokime is proof by testing. Late word from dokimos and is in Dioscorides, medical writer in reign of Hadrian. Earliest use in Paul and only in him in N.T. (#2Co 2:9; 8:2; 9:13; 13:3; Ro 5:4; Php 2:22). {Obedient} (hupekooi). Old word from hupakouw, to give ear. In N.T. only in Paul (#2Co 2:9; Php 2:8; Ac 7:39).

    2:10 {In the person of Christ} (en proswpwi cristou). More exactly, "in the presence of Christ," before Christ, in the face of Christ. Cf. enwpion tou qeou (#4:2) in the eye of God, enwpion kuriou (#8:21).

    2:11 {That no advantage may be gained over us} (hina me pleonekteqwmen). First aorist passive subjunctive after hina me (negative purpose) of pleonektew, old verb from pleonektes, a covetous man (#1Co 5:10f.), to take advantage of, to gain, to overreach. In N.T. only in #1Th 4:6; 2Co 2:11; 7:2; 12:17f. "That we may not be overreached by Satan." {His devices} (autou ta noemata). noema from noew to use the nous is old word, especially for evil plans and purposes as here.

    2:12 {To Troas} (eis ten trwiada). Luke does not mention this stop at Troas on the way from Ephesus to Macedonia (#Ac 20:1f.), though he does mention two other visits there (#Ac 16:8; 20:6). {When a door was opened unto me} (quras moi anewigmenes). Genitive absolute with second perfect passive participle of anoignumi. Paul used this very metaphor in #1Co 16:9. He will use it again in #Col 4:3. Here was an open door that he could not enter.

    2:13 {I had no relief} (ouk esceka anesin). Perfect active indicative like that in #1:9, vivid dramatic recital, not to be treated as "for" the aorist (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 896, 898ff.). He still feels the shadow of that restlessness. anesis, from aniemi, to let up, to hold back, is old word for relaxing or release (#Ac 24:34). {For my spirit} (twi pneumati mou). Dative of interest. {Because I found not Titus} (twi me heurein me titon). Instrumental case of the articular infinitive with negative me and accusative of general reference me, "by the not finding Titus as to me." {Taking my leave of them} (apotaxamenos autois). First aorist middle participle of apotassw, old verb, to set apart, in middle in late Greek to separate oneself, to bid adieu to as in #Mr 6:46.

    2:14 {But thanks be unto God} (twi de qewi caris). Sudden outburst of gratitude in contrast to the previous dejection in Troas. Surely a new paragraph should begin here. In point of fact Paul makes a long digression from here to #6:10 on the subject of the Glory of the Christian Ministry as Bachmann points out in his _Kommentar_ (p. 124), only he runs it from #2:12-7:1 (_Aus der Tiefe in die Hohe_, Out of the Depths to the Heights). We can be grateful for this emotional outburst, Paul's rebound of joy on meeting Titus in Macedonia, for it has given the world the finest exposition of all sides of the Christian ministry in existence, one that reveals the wealth of Paul's nature and his mature grasp of the great things in service for Christ. See my _The Glory of the Ministry (An Exposition of II Cor. 2:12-6:10_). {Always} (pantote). The sense of present triumph has blotted out the gloom at Troas. {Leadeth in triumph} (qriambeuonti). Late common _Koiné_ word from qriambos (Latin _triumphus_, a hymn sung in festal processions to Bacchus). Verbs in -eu" (like maqeteuw, to make disciples) may be causative, but no example of qriambeuw has been found with this meaning. It is always to lead in triumph, in papyri sometimes to make a show of. Picture here is of Paul as captive in God's triumphal procession. {The savor} (ten osmen). In a Roman triumph garlands of flowers scattered sweet odor and incense bearers dispensed perfumes. The knowledge of God is here the aroma which Paul had scattered like an incense bearer.

    2:15 {A sweet savor of Christ} (cristou euwdia). Old word from eu, well, and oz", to smell. In N.T. only here and #Php 4:18; Eph 5:2. In spreading the fragrance of Christ the preacher himself becomes fragrant (Plummer). {In them that are perishing} (en tois apollumenois). Even in these if the preacher does his duty.

    2:16 {From death unto death} (ek qanatou eis qanaton). From one evil condition to another. Some people are actually hardened by preaching. {And who is sufficient for these things?} (kai pros tauta tis hikanos?). Rhetorical question. In himself no one is. But some one has to preach Christ and Paul proceeds to show that he is sufficient. {For we are not as the many} (ou gar esmen hws hoi polloi). A bold thing to say, but necessary and only from God (#3:6).

    2:17 {Corrupting} (kapeleuontes). Old word from kapelos, a huckster or peddlar, common in all stages of Greek for huckstering or trading. It is curious how hucksters were suspected of corrupting by putting the best fruit on top of the basket. Note Paul's solemn view of his relation to God as a preacher ({from God} ek qeou, {in the sight of God} katenanti qeou, {in Christ} en Christ"i).

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