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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - ACTS 1

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    1:1 _The Title_ is simply _Acts_ (praxeis) in Aleph, Origen, Tertullian, Didymus, Hilary, Eusebius, Epiphanius. _The Acts of the Apostles_ (praxeis apostolwn) is the reading of B D (Aleph in subscription) Athanasius, Origen, Tertullian, Cyprian, Eusebius, Cyril of Jerusalem, Theodoret, Hilary. _The Acts of the Holy Apostles_ (praxeis twn hagiwn apostolwn) is read by A2 E G H A K Chrysostom. It is possible that the book was given no title at all by Luke, for it is plain that usage varied greatly even in the same writers. The long title as found in the Textus Receptus (Authorized Version) is undoubtedly wrong with the adjective "Holy." The reading of B D, "_The Acts of the Apostles_," may be accepted as probably correct.

    {The former treatise} (ton men prwton). Literally, the first treatise. The use of the superlative is common enough and by no means implies, though it allows, a third volume. this use of prwtos where only two are compared is seen between the Baptist and Jesus (#Joh 1:15), John and Peter (#Joh 20:4). The idiom is common in the papyri (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 662, 669). The use of men solitarium here, as Hackett notes, is common in Acts. It is by no means true that men requires a following de by contrast. The word is merely a weakened form of mˆn=surely, indeed. The reference is to the "first treatise" and merely emphasizes that. The use of logos (word) for treatise or historical narrative is common in ancient Greek as in Herodotus 6 and 9. Plato (_Phaedo_, p. 61 B) makes a contrast between muqos and logos. {I made} (epoiesamen). Aorist middle indicative, the middle being the usual construction for mental acts with poiew. {O Theophilus} (o qeofile). The interjection o here as is common, though not in #Lu 1:3. But the adjective kratiste (most excellent) is wanting here. See remarks on Theophilus on ¯Lu 1:3. Hackett thinks that he lived at Rome because of the way Acts ends. He was a man of rank. He may have defrayed the expense of publishing both Luke and Acts. Perhaps by this time Luke may have reached a less ceremonious acquaintance with Theophilus. {Which Jesus began} (hwn erxato iesous). The relative is attracted from the accusative ha to the genitive h"n because of the antecedent pantwn (all). The language of Luke here is not merely pleonastic as Winer held. Jesus "began"both to do and to teach" (poiein te kai didaskein). Note present infinitives, linear action, still going on, and the use of te--kai binds together the life and teachings of Jesus, as if to say that Jesus is still carrying on from heaven the work and teaching of the disciples which he started while on earth before his ascension. The record which Luke now records is really the Acts of Jesus as much as the Acts of the Apostles. Dr. A. T. Pierson called it "The Acts of the Holy Spirit," and that is true also. The Acts, according to Luke, is a continuation of the doings and teachings of Jesus. "The following writings appear intended to give us, and do, in fact, profess to give us, that which Jesus _continued_ to do and teach after the day in which he was taken up" (Bernard, _Progress of Doctrine in the N.T._).

    1:2 {Until the day in which} (acri hes hemeras). Incorporation of the antecedent into the relative clause and the change of case hˆi (locative) to hˆs (genitive). {Was received up} (anelempqe). First aorist passive indicative of analambanw. Common verb to lift anything up (#Ac 10:16) or person as Paul (#Ac 20:13). Several times of the Ascension of Jesus to heaven (#Mr 16:19; Ac 1:2,11,22; 1Ti 3:16) with or without "into heaven" (eis ton ouranon). this same verb is used of Elijah's translation to heaven in the LXX (#2Ki 2:11). The same idea, though not this word, is in #Lu 24:51. See #Lu 9:51 for analemyis of the Ascension. {Had given commandment} (enteilamenos). First aorist middle participle of entellw (from en and tellw, to accomplish), usually in the middle, old verb, to enjoin. this special commandment refers directly to what we call the commission given the apostles before Christ ascended on high (#Joh 20:21-23; Mt 28:16-20; Mr 16:15-18; 1Co 15:6; Lu 24:44-49). He had given commands to them when they were first chosen and when they were sent out on the tour of Galilee, but the immediate reference is as above. {Through the Holy Spirit} (dia pneumatos hagiou). In his human life Jesus was under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. this applies to the choice of the apostles (#Lu 6:13) and to these special commands before the Ascension. {Whom he had chosen} (hous exelexato). Aorist middle indicative, not past perfect. The same verb (eklexamenos) was used by Luke in describing the choice of the twelve by Jesus (#Lu 6:13). But the aorist does not stand "for" our English pluperfect as Hackett says. That is explaining Greek by English. The Western text here adds: "And ordered to proclaim the gospel."

    1:3 {To whom also} (hois kai). He chose them and qen also manifested himself to these very same men that they might have personal witness to give. {Shewed himself alive} (parestesen heauton zwnta). To the disciples the first Sunday evening (#Mr 16:14; Lu 24:36-43; Joh 20:19-25), the second Sunday evening (#Joh 20:26-29), at the Sea of Tiberias (#Joh 21:1-23), on the mountain in Galilee (#Mt 28:16-20; Mr 16:15-18; 1Co 15:6), to the disciples in Jerusalem and Olivet (#Lu 24:44-53; Mr 16-19f.; Ac 1:1-11). Luke uses this verb paristemi 13 times in the Acts both transitively and intransitively. It is rendered by various English words (present, furnish, provide, assist, commend). The early disciples including Paul never doubted the fact of the Resurrection, once they were convinced by personal experience. At first some doubted like Thomas (#Mr 16:14; Lu 24:41; Joh 20:24f.; Mt 28:17). But after that they never wavered in their testimony to their own experience with the Risen Christ, "whereof we are witnesses" Peter said (#Ac 3:15). They doubted at first, that we may believe, but at last they risked life itself in defence of this firm faith. {After his passion} (meta to paqein auton). Neat Greek idiom, meta with the articular infinitive (second aorist active of pascw) and the accusative of general reference, "after the suffering as to him." For paqein used absolutely of Christ's suffering see also #Ac 17:3; 26:23. {By many proofs} (en pollois tekmeriois). Literally, "in many proofs." tekmerion is only here in the N.T., though an old and common word in ancient Greek and occurring in the _Koin‚_ (papyri, etc.). The verb tekmairw, to prove by sure signs, is from tekmar, a sign. Luke does not hesitate to apply the definite word "proofs" to the evidence for the Resurrection of Christ after full investigation on the part of this scientific historian. Aristotle makes a distinction between tekmerion (proof) and semeion (sign) as does Galen the medical writer. {Appearing} (optanomenos). Present middle participle from late verb optanw, late _Koin‚_ verb from root optw seen in oyomai, wfqen. In LXX, papyri of second century B.C. (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 83). Only here in the N.T. For optasia for vision see #Ac 26:19; Lu 1:22; 24:23. {By the space of forty days} (di' hemerwn tesserakonta). At intervals (dia, between) during the forty days, ten appearances being known to us. Jesus was not with them continually now in bodily presence. The period of forty days is given here alone. The Ascension was thus ten days before Pentecost when the Holy Spirit came. Moses was in the mount forty days (#Ex 24:18) and Jesus fasted forty days (#Mt 4:2). In the Gospel of Luke 24 this separation of forty days between the Resurrection and the Ascension is not drawn. {The things concerning the Kingdom of God} (ta peri tes basileias tou qeou). this phrase appears 33 times in Luke's Gospel, 15 times in Mark, 4 times in Matthew who elsewhere has "the kingdom of heaven," once in John, and 6 times in Acts. No essential distinction is to be drawn between the two for the Jews often used "heaven" rather than "God" to avoid using the Tetragrammaton. But it is noticeable how the word kingdom drops out of Acts. Other words like gospel (euaggelion) take the place of "kingdom." Jesus was fond of the word "kingdom" and Luke is fond of the idiom "the things concerning" (ta peri). Certainly with Jesus the term "kingdom" applies to the present and the future and covers so much that it is not strange that the disciples with their notions of a political Messianic kingdom (#Ac 1:6) were slow to comprehend the spiritual nature of the reign of God.

    1:4 {Being assembled together with them} (sunalizomenos). Present passive participle from sunalizw, an old verb in Herodotus, Xenophon, etc., from sun, with, and halizw, from hales, crowded. The margin of both the Authorized and the Revised Versions has "eating with them" as if from sun and hals (salt). Salt was the mark of hospitality. There is the verb halisthˆte en autwi used by Ignatius _Ad Magnes_. X, "Be ye salted in him." But it is more than doubtful if that is the idea here though the Vulgate does have _convescens illis_ "eating with them," as if that was the common habit of Jesus during the forty days (Wendt, Feine, etc.). Jesus did on occasion eat with the disciples (#Lu 24:41-43; Mr 16:14). {To wait for the promise of the Father} (perimenein ten epaggelian tou patros). Note present active infinitive, to keep on waiting for (around, peri). In the Great Commission on the mountain in Galilee this item was not given (#Mt 28:16-20). It is the subjective genitive, the promise given by the Father (note this Johannine use of the word), that is the Holy Spirit ("the promise of the Holy Spirit," objective genitive). {Which ye heard from me} (hen ekousate mou). Change from indirect discourse (command), infinitives cwrizesqai and perimenein after pareggeilen to direct discourse without any efe (said he) as the English (Italics). Luke often does this (_oratior ariata_). Note also the ablative case of mou (from me). Luke continues in verse #5 with the direct discourse giving the words of Jesus.

    1:5 {Baptized with water} (ebaptisen hudati) {and with the Holy Ghost} (en pneumati baptisqesesqe hagiwi). The margin has "in the Holy Ghost" (Spirit, it should be). The American Standard Version renders "in" both with "water" and "Holy Spirit" as do Goodspeed (American Translation) and Mrs. Montgomery (Centenary Translation). John's own words (#Mt 3:11) to which Jesus apparently refers use en (in) both with water and Spirit. There is a so-called instrumental use of en where we in English have to say "with" (#Re 13:10 en macairei, like macairei, #Ac 12:2). That is to say en with the locative presents the act as located in a certain instrument like a sword (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 589f.). But the instrumental case is more common without en (the locative and instrumental cases having the same form). So it is often a matter of indifference which idiom is used as in #Joh 21:8 we have twi ploiariwi (locative without en). They came {in} (locative case without en) the boat. So in #Joh 1:31 en hudati baptizwn baptizing in water. No distinction therefore can be insisted on here between the construction hudati and en pneumati (both being in the locative case, one without, one with en). Note unusual position of the verb baptisqesesqe (future passive indicative) between pneumati and hagiwi. this baptism of the Holy Spirit was predicted by John (#Mt 3:11) as the characteristic of the Messiah's work. Now the Messiah himself in his last message before his Ascension proclaims that in a few days the fulfilment of that prophecy will come to pass. The Codex Bezae adds here "which ye are about to receive" and "until the Pentecost" to verse #5. {Not many days hence} (ou meta pollas tautas hemeras). A neat Greek idiom difficult to render smoothly into English: "Not after many days these." The litotes (not many=few) is common in Luke (#Lu 7:6; 15:13; Ac 17:27; 19:11; 20:12; 21:39; 28:14; 28:2). The predicate use of tautas (without article) is to be noted. "These" really means as a starting point, "from these" (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 702). It was ten days hence. this idiom occurs several times in Luke (#Lu 24:21; Ac 24:21), as elsewhere (#Joh 4:18; 2Pe 3:1). In #Lu 2:12 the copula is easily supplied as it exists in #Lu 1:36; 2:2.

    1:6 {They therefore} (hoi men oun). Demonstrative use of hoi with men oun without any corresponding de just as in #1:1 men occurs alone. The combination men oun is common in Acts (27 times). Cf. #Lu 3:18. The oun is resumptive and refers to the introductory verses (#1:1-5), which served to connect the Acts with the preceding Gospel. The narrative now begins. {Asked} (erwtwn). Imperfect active, repeatedly asked before Jesus answered. {Lord} (kurie). Here not in the sense of "sir" (#Mt 21:30), but to Jesus as Lord and Master as often in Acts (#19:5,10, etc.) and in prayer to Jesus (#7:59). {Dost thou restore} (ei apokaqistaneis). The use of ei in an indirect question is common. We have already seen its use in direct questions (#Mt 12:10; Lu 13:23 which see for discussion), possibly in imitation of the Hebrew (frequent in the LXX) or as a partial condition without conclusion. See also #Ac 7:1; 19:2; 21:37; 22:25. The form of the verb apokaqistanw is late (also apokathista") omega form for the old and common apokaqistemi, double compound, to restore to its former state. As a matter of fact the Messianic kingdom for which they are asking is a political kingdom that would throw off the hated Roman yoke. It is a futuristic present and they are uneasy that Jesus may yet fail to fulfil their hopes. Surely here is proof that the eleven apostles needed the promise of the Father before they began to spread the message of the Risen Christ. They still yearn for a political kingdom for Israel even after faith and hope have come back. They need the enlightenment of the Holy Spirit (#Joh 14-16) and the power of the Holy Spirit (#Ac 1:4f.).

    1:7 {Times or seasons} (cronous e kairous). "Periods" and "points" of time sometimes and probably so here, but such a distinction is not always maintained. See #Ac 17:26 for kairous in the same sense as cronous for long periods of time. But here some distinction seems to be called for. It is curious how eager people have always been to fix definite dates about the second coming of Christ as the apostles were about the political Messianic kingdom which they were expecting. {Hath set} (eqeto). Second aorist middle indicative, emphasizing the sovereignty of the Father in keeping all such matters to himself, a gentle hint to people today about the limits of curiosity. Note also "his own" (idiai) "authority" (exousiai).

    1:8 {Power} (dunamin). Not the "power" about which they were concerned (political organization and equipments for empire on the order of Rome). Their very question was ample proof of their need of this new "power" (dunamin), to enable them (from dunamai, to be able), to grapple with the spread of the gospel in the world. {When the Holy Ghost is come upon you} (epelqontos tou hagiou pneumatos ef' humas). Genitive absolute and is simultaneous in time with the preceding verb "shall receive" (lemyesqe). The Holy Spirit will give them the "power" as he comes upon them. this is the baptism of the Holy Spirit referred to in verse #5. {My witnesses} (mou martures). Correct text. "Royal words of magnificent and Divine assurance" (Furneaux). Our word martyrs is this word martures. In #Lu 24:48 Jesus calls the disciples "witnesses to these things" (martures toutwn, objective genitive). In #Ac 1:22 an apostle has to be a "witness to the Resurrection" of Christ and in #10:39 to the life and work of Jesus. Hence there could be no "apostles" in this sense after the first generation. But here the apostles are called "my witnesses."His by a direct personal relationship" (Knowling). The expanding sphere of their witness when the Holy Spirit comes upon them is "unto the uttermost part of the earth" (hews escatou tes ges). Once they had been commanded to avoid Samaria (#Mt 10:5), but now it is included in the world program as already outlined on the mountain in Galilee (#Mt 28:19; Mr 16:15). Jesus is on Olivet as he points to Jerusalem, Judea, Samaria, the uttermost (last, eschatou) part of the earth. The program still beckons us on to world conquest for Christ. "The Acts themselves form the best commentary on these words, and the words themselves might be given as the best summary of the Acts" (Page). The events follow this outline (Jerusalem till the end of chapter 7, with the martyrdom of Stephen, the scattering of the saints through Judea and Samaria in chapter 8, the conversion of Saul, chapter 9, the spread of the gospel to Romans in Caesarea by Peter (chapter 10), to Greeks in Antioch (chapter 11), finally Paul's world tours and arrest and arrival in Rome (chapters 11 to 28).

    1:9 {As they were looking} (blepontwn autwn). Genitive absolute. The present participle accents the fact that they were looking directly at Jesus. {He was taken up} (epˆrthˆ). First aorist passive indicative of epairw, old and common verb meaning to lift up. In #Lu 24:51 we have "he was borne up" (anefereto) and in #Ac 1:2, 1:11; 1Ti 3:6 "was received up" (anelempqe). {Received} (hupelaben). Second aorist active indicative of hupolambanw, literally here "took under him." He seemed to be supported by the cloud. "In glory" Paul adds in #1Ti 3:16. {Out of their sight} (apo twn ofqalmwn autwn). From their eyes (apo with ablative case).

    1:10 {Were looking steadfastly} (atenizontes esan). Periphrastic imperfect active of atenizw, a late intensive verb (intensive a and teinw, to stretch). Common in Acts and also in #Lu 4:20; 22:56 as well as #Ac 10:4, which see. {As he went} (poreuomenou autou). Genitive absolute of present middle participle. They saw him slipping away from their eyes as the cloud bore him away. {Stood by them} (pareistekeisan autois). Past perfect active indicative of paristemi and intransitive (note i in B instead of ei for augment, mere itacism).

    1:11 {Who also} (hoi kai). Common use of kai pleonastic to show that the two events were parallel. this is the simplest way from Homer on to narrate two parallel events. {Why?} (ti). Jesus had told them of his coming Ascension (#Joh 6:62; 20:17) so that they should have been prepared. { this Jesus} (houtos ho iesous). _Qui vobis fuit eritque semper Jesus, id est, Salvator_ (Corn. a Lapide). The personal name assures them that Jesus will always be in heaven a personal friend and divine Savior (Knowling). {So in like manner} (houtws hon tropon). Same idea twice. "So in which manner" (incorporation of antecedent and accusative of general reference). The fact of his second coming and the manner of it also described by this emphatic repetition.

    1:12 {Olivet} (elaiwnos). Genitive singular. Vulgate _Olivetum_. Made like ampelwn. Here only in the N.T., usually to oros t"n Elai"n (the Mount of Olives), though some MSS. have Olivet in #Lu 19:29; 21:37. Josephus (_Ant_. VII. 9, 2) has it also and the papyri (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 170). {A sabbath day's journey off} (sabbatou ecwn hodon). Luke only says here that Olivet is a Sabbath day's journey from Jerusalem, not that Jesus was precisely that distance when he ascended. In the Gospel Luke (#24:50) states that Jesus led them "over against" (hews pros) Bethany (about two miles or fifteen furlongs). The top of Olivet is six furlongs or three-fourths of a mile. The Greek idiom here is "having a journey of a Sabbath" after "which is nigh unto Jerusalem" (ho estin eggus ierousalem), note the periphrastic construction. Why Luke mentions this item for Gentile readers in this form is not known, unless it was in his Jewish source. See #Ex 16:29; Nu 35:5; Jos 3:4. But it does not contradict what he says in #Lu 24:50, where he does not say that Jesus led them all the way to Bethany.

    1:13 {Into the upper chamber} (eis to huperwion). The upstairs or upper room (huper is upper or over, the adjective huper"ios), the room upstairs where the women staid in Homer, qen a room up under the flat roof for retirement or prayer (#Ac 9:37,39), sometimes a large third story room suitable for gatherings (#Ac 20:9). It is possible, even probable, that this is the "large upper room" (anwgeon mega) of #Mr 14:15; Lu 22:12. The Vulgate has _coenaculum_ for both words. The word is used in the N.T. only in Acts. It was in a private house as in #Lu 22:11 and not in the temple as #Lu 24:53 might imply, "continually" (dia pantos) these words probably meaning on proper occasions. {They were abiding} (esan katamenontes). Periphrastic imperfect active. Perfective use of kata, to abide permanently. It is possible that this is the house of Mary the mother of John Mark where the disciples later met for prayer (#Ac 12:12). Here alone in the N.T., though old compound. Some MSS. here read paramenontes. this could mean constant residence, but most likely frequent resort for prayer during these days, some being on hand all the time as they came and went. {Simon the Zealot} (Simon ho zelwtes). Called Simon the Cananaean (ho cananaios) in #Mt 10:4, Mr 3:18, but Zealot in #Lu 6:16 as here giving the Greek equivalent of the Aramaic word because Luke has Gentiles in mind. The epithet (member of the party of Zealots) clung to him after he became an apostle and distinguishes him from Simon Peter. See Vol. I on the Gospel of Matthew for discussion of the four lists of the apostles. {Judas the son of James} (joudas iakwbou). Literally, Judas of James, whether son or brother (cf. #Jude 1:1) we do not really know. "Of James" is added to distinguish him from Judas Iscariot (#Joh 14:22). However we take it, he must be identified with the Thaddaeus (=Lebbaeus) of Mark and Matthew to make the list in the third group identical. No name appears in Acts for that of Judas Iscariot.

    1:14 {With one accord} (homoqumadon). Old adverb in -don from adjective homoqumos and that from homos, same, and qumos, mind or spirit, with the same mind or spirit. Common in ancient Greek and papyri. In the N.T. eleven times in Acts and nowhere else save #Ro 15:6. See #Mt 18:19. {Continued} (esan proskarterountes). Periphrastic imperfect active of proskarterew, old verb from pros (perfective use) and karterew from karteros, strong, steadfast, like the English "carry on." Already in #Mr 3:9 which see and several times in Acts and Paul's Epistles. They "stuck to" the praying (tei proseucei, note article) for the promise of the Father till the answer came. {With the women} (sun gunaixin). Associative instrumental case plural of gune after sun. As one would expect when praying was the chief work on hand. More women certainly included than in #Lu 8:2; Mr 15:40f.; Mt 27:55f.; Lu 23:49; Mr 15:47; Mt 27:61; Lu 23:55f.; Mr 16:1; Mt 28:1; Lu 24:1f.; Joh 20:1, 11-18; Mt 28:9f. There were probably other women also whose testimony was no longer scouted as it had been at first. Codex Bezae adds here "and children." {And Mary the mother of Jesus} (kai mariam tei metri tou iesou). A delicate touch by Luke that shows Mary with her crown of glory at last. She had come out of the shadow of death with the song in her heart and with the realization of the angel's promise and the prophecy of Simeon. It was a blessed time for Mary. {With his brethren} (sun tois adelfois autou). With his brothers, it should be translated. They had once disbelieved in him (#Joh 7:5). Jesus had appeared to James (#1Co 15:7) and now it is a happy family of believers including the mother and brothers (half-brothers, literally) of Jesus. They continue in prayer for the power from on high.

    1:15 {Brethren} (adelfwn). Codex Bezae has "disciples." {Multitude of persons} (oclos onomatwn). Literally, multitude of names. this Hebraistic use of onoma=person occurs in the LXX (#Nu 1:2; 18:20; 3:40,43; 26:53) and in #Re 3:4; 11:13. {Together} (epi to auto). The word "gathered" is not in the Greek here, but it does occur in #Mt 22:34 and that is undoubtedly the idea in #Lu 17:35 as in #Ac 2:1,44,47; 1Co 11:20; 14:23. So also here. They were in the same place (to auto). {About a hundred and twenty} (hws hekaton eikosi). A crowd for "the upper room." No special significance in the number 120, just the number there.

    1:16 {Brethren} (andres adelfoi). Literally, men, brethren or brother men. More dignified and respectful than just "brethren." Demosthenes sometimes said andres aqenaioi. Cf. our "gentlemen and fellow-citizens." Women are included in this address though andres refers only to men. {It was needful} (edei). Imperfect tense of the impersonal dei with the infinitive clause (first aorist passive) and the accusative of general reference as a loose subject. Peter here assumes that Jesus is the Messiah and finds scripture illustrative of the treachery of Judas. He applies it to Judas and quotes the two passages in verse #20 (#Ps 69:25; 109:8). The Holy Spirit has not yet come upon them, but Peter feels moved to interpret the situation. He feels that his mind is opened by Jesus (#Lu 24:45). It is a logical, not a moral, necessity that Peter points out. Peter here claims the Holy Spirit as speaking in the scriptures as he does in #2Pe 1:21. His description of Judas as "guide" (hodegou) to those who seized (sullabousin) Jesus is that of the base traitor that he was. this very verb occurs in #Lu 22:54 of the arrest of Jesus.

    1:17 {Was numbered} (kateriqmenos en). Periphrastic past perfect passive indicative of katariqmew, old verb, but here only in the N.T. (perfective use of kata). {Received his portion} (elacen ton kleron). Second aorist active indicative of lagcanw, old verb, to obtain by lot as in #Lu 1:9; Joh 19:24, especially by divine appointment as here and #2Pe 2:1. kleros also means lot, an object used in casting lots (#Ac 1:26), or what is obtained by lot as here and #8:21, of eternal salvation (#Ac 26:18; Col 1:12), of persons chosen by divine appointment (#1Pe 5:3). From this latter usage the Latin _cleros, clericus_, our clergy, one chosen by divine lot. So Peter says that Judas "obtained by lot the lot of this ministry" (diakonias) which he had when he betrayed Jesus. The Master chose him and gave him his opportunity.

    1:18 {Now this man} (houtos men oun). Note men oun again without a corresponding de as in #1:6. Verses #18,19 are a long parenthesis of Luke by way of explanation of the fate of Judas. In verse #20 Peter resumes and quotes the scripture to which he referred in verse #16. {Obtained} (ektesato). First aorist middle indicative of ktaomai, to acquire, only in the middle, to get for oneself. With the covenant money for the betrayal, acquired it indirectly apparently according to #Mt 26:14-16; 27:3-8 which see. {Falling headlong} (prenes genomenos). Attic form usually pranes. The word means, not "headlong," but "flat on the face" as opposed to huptios on the back (Hackett). Hackett observes that the place suits admirably the idea that Judas hung himself (#Mt 27:5) and, the rope breaking, fell flat on his face and {burst asunder in the midst} (elakesen mesos). First aorist active indicative of laskw old verb (here only in the N.T.), to clang, to crack, to crash, like a falling tree. Aristophanes uses it of crashing bones. mesos is predicate nominative referring to Judas. {Gushed out} (execuqe). First aorist passive indicative of ekcew, to pour out.

    1:19 {Language} (dialektwi). Not a dialect of the Greek, but a different language, the Aramaic. So also in #2:6; 21:40. dialektos is from dialegomai, to converse, to speak between two (dia). {Akeldama} (hakeldamac). this Aramaic word Peter explains as "the field of blood." Two traditions are preserved: one in #Mt 27:7 which explains that the priests purchased this potter's field with the money which Judas flung down as the price of the blood of Jesus. The other in Acts describes it as the field of blood because Judas poured out his blood there. Hackett and Knowling argue that both views can be true. "The ill-omened name could be used with a double emphasis" (Hackett).

    1:20 {For it is written} (gegraptai gar). Luke here returns to the address of Peter interrupted by verses #18,19. Perfect passive indicative, the usual idiom in quoting scripture, stands written. #Ps 69 is often quoted as Messianic in Matthew and John. {His habitation} (he epaulis autou). Only here in the N.T., a country house, cottage, cabin. {His office} (ten episkopen autou). Our word bishopric (Authorized Version) is from this word, office of bishop (episcopos). Only that is not the idea here, but over-seership (epi, skopew) or office as in #1Pe 2:12. It means to visit and to inspect, to look over. The ecclesiastical sense comes later (#1Ti 3:1).

    1:21 {Must} (dei). Present necessity corresponding to the old necessity (edei) about Judas (verse #16). this sentence in verses #21,22 begins with dei. {That} (hwi). Locative case of the relative attracted to the case of the antecedent. {Went in and went out} (eiselqen kai exelqen). Constative aorist active. {With us} (ef' hemas). {Over us}, the margin has it. But the full phrase would be ef' hemas kai af' hemwn. He came to us and went from us (Knowling).

    1:22 {Beginning} (arxamenos). Aorist middle participle of arcw, agreeing (nominative) with ho kurios iesous (the Lord Jesus). The ministry of Jesus began with the ministry of John. Strictly speaking arxamenos should be the accusative and agree with martura (witness) in verse #22, but the construction is a bit free. The ministry of Jesus began with the baptism of John and lasted until the Ascension. {A witness with us of his resurrection} (martura tes anastasews autou sun hemin). this Peter considers the essential thing in a successor to Judas. The one chosen should be a personal witness who can speak from his own experience of the ministry, resurrection, and ascension of the Lord Jesus. One can easily see that this qualification will soon put an end to those who bear such personal testimony.

    1:23 {They put forward two} (estesan duo). First aorist active indicative (transitive) of histemi (not intransitive second aorist, though same form in the third person plural). Somebody nominated two names, Justus and Matthias.

    1:24 {Show us the one whom thou hast chosen} (anadeixon hon exelexw). First aorist active imperative of anadeiknumi, to show up, make plain. First aorist middle indicative second person singular of eklegw, to pick out, choose, select. In this prayer they assume that God has made a choice. They only wish to know his will. They call God the {heart-searcher} or {heart-knower} (kardiognwsta, vocative singular), a late word, here and #Ac 15:8 only in the N.T. Modern physicians have delicate apparatus for studying the human heart.

    1:25 {Apostleship} (apostoles). Jesus had called the twelve apostles. An old word for sending away, qen for a release, qen the office and dignity of an apostle (#Ac 1:25; Ro 1:5; 1Co 9:2; Gal 2:8). {To his own place} (eis ton topon ton idion). A bold and picturesque description of the destiny of Judas worthy of Dante's _Inferno_. There is no doubt in Peter's mind of the destiny of Judas nor of his own guilt. He made ready his own berth and went to it.

    1:26 {He was numbered} (sunkateyefisqe). To the Jews the lot did not suggest gambling, but "the O.T. method of learning the will of Jehovah" (Furneaux). The two nominations made a decision necessary and they appealed to God in this way. this double compound sunkatayefizw occurs here alone in the N.T. and elsewhere only in Plutarch (_Them_. 21) in the middle voice for condemning with others. sunyefizw occurs in the middle voice in #Ac 19:19 for counting up money and also in Aristophanes. yefizw with dapanen occurs in #Lu 14:28 for counting the cost and in #Re 13:18 for "counting" the number of the beast. The ancients used pebbles (yefoi) in voting, black for condemning, white (#Re 2:17) in acquitting. Here it is used in much the same sense as katariqmew in verse #17.

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