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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - ACTS 10

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    10:1 {Cornelius} (kornelios). The great Cornelian family of Rome may have had a freedman or descendant who is {centurion} (hekaton-tarces, leader of a hundred, Latin _centurio_). See on ¯Mt 8:5. These Roman centurions always appear in a favorable light in the N.T. (#Mt 8:5; Lu 7:2; 23:47; Ac 10:1; 22:25; 27:3). Furneaux notes the contrasts between Joppa, the oldest town in Palestine, and Caesarea, built by Herod; the Galilean fisherman lodging with a tanner and the Roman officer in the seat of governmental authority. {Of the band called the Italian} (ek speires tes kaloumenes italikes). A legion had ten cohorts or "bands" and sixty centuries. The word speires (note genitive in -es like the Ionic instead of -as) is here equal to the Latin _cohors_. In the provinces were stationed cohorts of Italic citizens (volunteers) as an inscription at Carnuntum on the Danube (Ramsay) has shown (epitaph of an officer in the second Italic cohort). Once more Luke has been vindicated. The soldiers could, of course, be Roman citizens who lived in Caesarea. But the Italian cohorts were sent to any part of the empire as needed. The procurator at Caesarea would need a cohort whose loyalty he could trust, for the Jews were restless.

    10:2 {Devout} (eusebes). Old word from eu (well) and sebomai (to worship, to reverence), but rare in the N.T. (#Ac 10:2,7; 2Pe 2:1). It might refer to a worshipful pagan (#Ac 17:23, sebasmata, objects of worship), but connected with "one that feared God" (foboumenos ton qeon) Luke describes "a God-fearing proselyte" as in #10:22,35. this is his usual term for the Gentile seekers after God (#13:16, 26;17:4,17, etc.), who had come into the worship of the synagogue without circumcision, and were not strictly convert, though some call such men "convert of the gate" (cf. #Ac 13:43); but clearly Cornelius and his family were still regarded as outside the pale of Judaism (#10:28,34; 11:1,8; 15:7). They had seats in the synagogue, but were not Jews. {Gave much alms} (poiwn eleemosunas pollas). Doing many alms (the very phrase in #Mt 6:2), a characteristic mark of Jewish piety and from a Gentile to the Jewish people. {Prayed} (deomenos). Begging of God. Almsgiving and prayer were two of the cardinal points with the Jews (Jesus adds fasting in his picture of the Pharisee in #Mt 6:1-18).

    10:3 {Coming in} (eiselqonta). Ingressive second aorist active participle, not present. So punctiliar, "saw come," not "saw coming." So also "say" or "speak," not "saying." Luke repeats the account of this vision to Cornelius twice (#10:30; 11:13) and also the story of the vision to Peter (#10:1-16,28; 11:5).

    10:4 {Lord} (kurie). Cornelius recognizes the angel of God (verse #3) as God's messenger. {Are gone up} (anebesan). Timeless second aorist active indicative of anabainw. Gone up like the smoke of incense in sacrifices. {For a memorial} (eis mnemosunon). Old word from mnemwn. The only other instance in the N.T. is by Jesus about the act of Mary of Bethany (#Mt 26:13; Mr 14:9). His prayers and his alms proved his sincerity and won the ear of God.

    10:5 {Fetch} (metapemyai). First aorist middle (indirect, for one's self) imperative of metapempw, usual voice in ancient Greek with this verb in sense of sending another for one's own sake. Only in Acts in the N.T. See also #10:22.

    10:6 {Lodgeth} (xenizetai). Present passive indicative of xenizw old verb from xenos, a stranger as a guest. So to entertain a guest as here or to surprise by strange acts (#Ac 17:20; 1Pe 4:4). {Whose} (hwi). To whom, dative of possession. {By the seaside} (para qalassan). Along by the sea. Note accusative case. Outside the city walls because a tanner and to secure water for his trade. Some tanneries are by the seashore at Jaffa today.

    10:8 {Rehearsed} (exegesamenos). See on ¯Lu 24:35. All the details about the vision. The soldier was "devout" like Cornelius and would protect the two household servants (oiketwn).

    10:9 {On the morrow} (tei epaurion). Locative case of article with the compound adverb (hemerai day being understood), the second day after leaving Caesarea, 28 miles from Joppa. The third day (the next morrow, verse #23) they start back home and the fourth day (on the morrow again, verse #24) they reach Caesarea. {As they} (ekeinwn). The party of three from Caesarea. Genitive absolute with present participle hodoiporountwn (journeying) and eggizontwn (drew nigh). {The housetop} (to dwma). Old word and in Gospels (#Lu 3:19, etc.), but only here in Acts. From demw, to build, and so any part of the building (hall, dining room, and qen roof). The roof was nearly flat with walls around and so was a good place for meditation and prayer and naps.

    10:10 {Hungry} (prospeinos) Only instance of the word known, a hapax legomenon. Probably "very hungry" (pros=besides, in addition). {Desired} (eqelen). Imperfect active. Was longing to eat. It was about twelve o'clock noon and Peter may even have smelt the savory dishes, "while they made ready" (paraskeuazontwn). "The natural and the supernatural border closely on one another, with no definable limits" (Furneaux). {He fell into a trance} (egeneto ep' auton ekstasis). More exactly, "An ecstasy came upon him," in which trance he passed out of himself (ekstasis, from existemi) and from which one came to himself (#12:11). Cf. also #11:5; 22:17. It is thus different from a vision (horama) as in verse #3.

    10:11 {Beholdeth} (qewrei). Vivid historical present and change from past time. {Opened} (anewigmenon, perfect passive participle with double reduplication, state of completion). {Descending} (katabainon). Present active participle describing the process. {Sheet} (oqonen). Old word for linen cloth and only here in the N.T. Accusative case in apposition with skeuos (vessel). {Let down} (kaqiemenon). Present passive participle of kaqiemi. Old verb, but in the N.T. only here and #Lu 5:19; Ac 9:25. Linear action here picturing the process, "being let down." {By four corners} (tessarsin arcais). Instrumental case of arce, beginning. We say "end" or extremity for this use of the word. The picture is the sheet held up by four cords to which the sheet is fastened. #Isa 11:12 had said that Israel would be gathered from the four corners of the earth. Knowling follows Hobart in taking the four corners of the sheet to be a medical phrase for bandage (the end of a bandage).

    10:12 {Were} (hupercen). Imperfect of huparcw in sense of en, to exist, be. Fish are not mentioned, perhaps because the sheet had no water, though they were clean and unclean also (#Le 11:9; De 14:9). {All manner of} (panta). Literally, all, but clearly all varieties, not all individuals. Both clean and unclean animals are in the sheet.

    10:14 {Not so, Lord} (medamws, kurie). The negative medamws calls for the optative eie (may it not be) or the imperative estw (let it be). It is not oudamws, a blunt refusal (I shall not do it). And yet it is more than a mild protest as Page and Furneaux argue. It is a polite refusal with a reason given. Peter recognizes the invitation to slay (quson) the unclean animals as from the Lord (kurie) but declines it three times. {For I have never eaten anything} (hoti oudepote efagon pan). Second aorist active indicative, I never did anything like this and I shall not do it now. The use of pan (everything) with oudepote (never) is like the Hebrew (_lo--k"l_) though a like idiom appears in the vernacular _Koin‚_ (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 752). {Common and unclean} (koinon kai akaqarton). koinos from epic xunos (xun, sun, together with) originally meant common to several (Latin _communis_) as in #Ac 2:44; 4:32; Tit 1:4; Jude 1:3. The use seen here (also #Mr 7:2,5; Ro 14:14; Heb 10:29; Re 21:27; Ac 10:28; 11:8), like Latin _vulgaris_ is unknown in ancient Greek. Here the idea is made plain by the addition of akaqarton (unclean), ceremonially unclean, of course. We have the same double use in our word "common." See on ¯Mr 7:18f. where Mark adds the remarkable participle kaqarizwn (making all meats clean), evidently from Peter who recalls this vision. Peter had been reared from childhood to make the distinction between clean and unclean food and this new proposal even from the Lord runs against all his previous training. He did not see that some of God's plans for the Jews could be temporary. this symbol of the sheet was to show Peter ultimately that Gentiles could be saved without becoming Jews. At this moment he is in spiritual and intellectual turmoil.

    10:15 {Make not thou common} (su me koinou). Note emphatic position of su (thou). Do thou stop making common what God cleansed (ekaqarisen). The idiom of me with the present active imperative koinou means precisely this . Peter had just called "common" what God had invited him to slay and eat.

    10:16 {Thrice} (epitris). For three times. Peter remained unconvinced even by the prohibition of God. Here is a striking illustration of obstinacy on the part of one who acknowledges the voice of God to him when the command of the Lord crosses one's preferences and prejudices. There are abundant examples today of precisely this thing. In a real sense Peter was maintaining a pose of piety beyond the will of the Lord. Peter was defiling what God had cleansed. {Was received up} (anelemfqe). First aorist passive indicative of analambanw, to take up. The word used of the Ascension (#1:22).

    10:17 {Was much perplexed in himself} (en heautwi dieporei). Imperfect active of diaporew, intensive compound (dia, thoroughly, and a privative and poros, way), to be completely at a loss to know what road to take. Old verb, but in N.T. only in Luke and Acts. Page notes that Luke is singularly fond of verbs compounded with dia. See on ¯Lu 9:7 and #Ac 2:12. When out of the ecstasy he was more puzzled than ever. {Might be} (an eie). Optative with an in indirect question simply retained from the direct (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1021, 1044). See #Ac 17:18, for the direct and #Lu 1:62 for the indirect (an qeloi both times). It is the conclusion of a fourth class condition. {Having made inquiry} (dierwtesantes). First aorist active participle of dierwtaw, another compound of dia, to ask one after another, to ask through, old verb, but only here in the N.T. It took diligent inquiry to find the obscure house of Simon the tanner. {Stood before the gate} (epestesan epi ton pulwna). Second aorist active indicative of efistemi, intransitive. Note repetition of epi. The messengers stopped right at the folding gates of the passage (pulwna) which led from the street to the inner court or house.

    10:18 {Called} (fwnesantes). In a loud voice that those inside the house might hear. {Asked} (epunqanonto). Imperfect middle of punqanomai, old verb to make inquiry especially with an indirect question as here. Kept on inquiring. Westcott and Hort follow B C here and read epuqonto (second aorist middle, effective aorist). Either makes sense, though the imperfect is more picturesque. {Were lodging} (xenizetai). Present middle indicative retained in indirect question. See on verse ¯6 for the verb.

    10:19 {Thought} (dienqumoumenou). Genitive absolute of present middle participle of dienqumeomai, a double compound (dia and en- with qumos) and another hapax legomenon save in ecclesiastical writers, though enqumeomai is common enough and Textus Receptus so reads here. Peter was revolving in his mind, through and through, in and out, to find the meaning of the strange vision.

    10:20 {But} (alla). So usually, though it is open to question whether alla is adversative here and not rather, "Now qen." {Get thee down} (katabeqi). Second aorist active imperative, at once. {Go} (poreuou). Present middle imperative, go on. {Nothing doubting} (meden diakrinomenos). Another compound of dia, old and common verb for a divided mind (dia like duo, two). Note usual negative of the present middle participle, the subjective meden. The notion of wavering (#Jas 1:6) is common with this verb in the middle voice. In #Ac 11:12 the aorist active (meden diakrinanta) is used perhaps with the idea of conduct towards others rather than his own internal doubt as here (Page). {For I} (hoti egw). The Holy Spirit assumes responsibility for the messengers from Cornelius and thus connects their mission with the vision which was still troubling Peter. Peter had heard his name called by the man (verse #19).

    10:21 {Cause} (aitia). Or reason. Common in this sense. See on ¯Mt 19:3.

    10:22 {Righteous} (dikaios). In the Jewish sense as in #Lu 1:6; 2:25. {Well reported of} (marturoumenos). Present passive participle as in #6:3. Cf. the other centurion in #Lu 7:4. {Nation} (eqnous). Not laou, for the speakers are Gentiles. {Was warned} (ecrematisqe). First aorist passive of crematizw, old word for doing business, qen consulting an oracle, and here of being divinely (word God not expressed) warned as in #Mt 2:12,22; Lu 2:26; Heb 11:7. qen to be called or receive a name from one's business as in #Ac 11:26; Ro 7:3.

    10:23 {Lodged them} (exenisen). Active voice here rather than passive as in #10:6. {Accompanied him} (sunelqan autwi). Associative instrumental case after verb. The wisdom of having these half dozen Jewish Christians from Joppa with Peter in the house of Cornelius in Caesarea becomes manifest in Jerusalem (#11:12).

    10:24 {Was waiting} (en prosdokwn). Periphrastic imperfect active, in eager expectation and hope, directing the mind (dokaw) towards (pros) anything. Old and common verb. {Near} (anagkaious). Only instance in the N.T. of this sense of anagkaios from anagke, necessity, what one cannot do without, necessary (#1Co 12:22), duty (#Ac 13:46), or blood relations as here. The ancient Greek writers combined these two words (suggeneis, kinsmen, anagkaious, necessary friends) as here. It was a homogeneous group of Gentiles close to Cornelius and predisposed to hear Peter favorably.

    10:25 {That Peter entered} (tou eiselqein ton petron). this is a difficult construction, for the subject of egeneto (it happened) has to be the articular genitive infinitive tou eiselqein with the accusative of general reference ton petron. Most commentators consider it inexplicable. It is probably an extension of the ordinary articular infinitive under the influence of the Hebrew infinitive construct without regard to the case, regarding it as a fixed case form and so using it as nominative. Precisely this construction of tou and the infinitive as the subject of a verb occurs in the LXX (#2Ch 6:7, etc.). See Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1067f. for full discussion of this obvious Hebraism. Somewhat similar examples appear in #Ac 20:3; 27:1. But the Codex Bezae avoids this awkward idiom by the genitive absolute (proseggizontos tou petrou) and some additional details (one of the servants ran forward and announced that he was come). {Worshipped him} (prosekunesen). "Cornelius was not an idolator and would not have honored Peter as a god" (Furneaux). The word probably means here reverence like old English usage (Wycliff) and not actual worship, though Peter took it that way (verse #26). Jesus accepted such worship (#Mt 8:2; Lu 5:8 by Peter).

    10:27 {As he talked with him} (sunomilwn autwi). Present active participle of sunomilew, rare compound and here alone in the N.T., with associative instrumental case. The uncompounded verb is common enough though in the N.T. only in #Lu 24:14 which see and #Ac 20:11; 24:26. {Findeth} (heuriskei). Vivid historical present indicative active. {Come together} (suneleluqotas). Second perfect active participle of sunercomai. It was an expectant group of Gentiles eager for Peter's interpretation of the vision of Cornelius.

    10:28 {How that it is an unlawful thing} (hws aqemiton estin). The conjunction hws is sometimes equivalent to hoti (that). The old form of aqemitos was aqemistos from qemisto (qemizw, qemis, law custom) and a privative. In the N.T. only here and #1Pe 4:3 (Peter both times). But there is no O.T. regulation forbidding such social contact with Gentiles, though the rabbis had added it and had made it binding by custom. There is nothing more binding on the average person than social custom. On coming from the market an orthodox Jew was expected to immerse to avoid defilement (Edersheim, _Jewish Social Life_, pp. 26-28; Taylor's _Sayings of the Jewish Fathers_, pp. 15, 26, 137, second edition). See also #Ac 11:3; Ga 2:12. It is that middle wall of partition between Jew and Gentile (#Eph 2:14) which Jesus broke down. {One of another nation} (allofulwi). Dative case of an old adjective, but only here in the N.T. (allos, another, fulon, race). Both Juvenal (_Sat_. XIV. 104, 105) and Tacitus (_History_, V. 5) speak of the Jewish exclusiveness and separation from Gentiles. {And yet unto} (kamoi). Dative of the emphatic pronoun (note position of prominence) with kai (crasis) meaning here "and yet" or adversative "but" as often with kai which is by no means always merely the connective "and" (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1182f.). Now Peter takes back both the adjectives used in his protest to the Lord (verse #14) "common and unclean." It is a long journey that Peter has made. He here refers to "no one" (medena), not to "things," but that is great progress.

    10:29 {Without gainsaying} (anantirrhetws). a privative with compound adverb from anti (back, in return, against) and verbal rhetos (from errheqen, to speak). Late and rare and here only in the N.T., but the adjective in #19:36. Without answering back. That is true after the Holy Spirit expressly told Peter to go with the messengers of Cornelius (#10:19-23). Peter's objections were made to the Lord in the vision which he did not understand. But that vision prepared him for this great step which he had now taken. He had stepped over the line of Jewish custom. {With what intent} (tini logwi). More exactly, "for what reason" as in Plato, _Gorgias_ 512 C.

    10:30 {Four days ago} (apo tetartes hemeras). From the fourth day, reckoning backwards from this day. {I was keeping the ninth hour of prayer} (emen ten enaten proseucomenos). Periphrastic middle imperfect and accusative of extension of time (all the ninth hour).

    10:31 {Is heard} (eisekousqe). Sort of timeless first aorist passive indicative as is "are had in remembrance" (emnesqesan. See verse #4 "are gone up for a memorial").

    10:32 {In the house of Simon} (en oikiai simwnos). See #9:43 for para simwni with same idea.

    10:33 {And thou hast well done that thou art come} (su te kalws epoiesas paragenomenos). "And thou didst well in coming." A regular formula for expressing thanks as in #Php 4:14; 3Jo 1:6; 2Pe 1:19. The participle completes the idea of kalws poiew neatly. Cornelius commends Peter for his courage in breaking away from Jewish custom and takes no offence at the implied superiority of the Jews over the Gentiles. Cornelius and his circle of kinsmen and close friends are prepared soil for a new era in the history of Christianity. The Samaritans were now nominal Jews and the Ethiopian eunuch was a single case, but here Peter the chief apostle, not Philip the preaching deacon (evangelist), was involved. It was a crisis. Cornelius reveals an open mind for the message of God through Peter. {Commanded thee} (prostetagmena soi). Perfect passive participle with the dative case (soi). Cornelius is a military man and he employs a military term (prostassw, old word to command). He is ready for orders from the Lord.

    10:34 {Opened his mouth} (anoixas to stoma). Solemn formula for beginning his address (#8:35; 18:14; Mt 5:2; 13:35). But also good elocution for the speaker. {I perceive} (katalambanomai). Aoristic present middle of katalambanw, to take hold of, the middle noting mental action, to lay hold with the mind (#Ac 4:13; 10:34; 25:25; Eph 3:18). It had been a difficult thing for Peter to grasp, but now "of a truth" (ep' aleqeias) the light has cleared away the fogs. It was not until Peter had crossed the threshold of the house of Cornelius in the new environment and standpoint that he sees this new and great truth. {Respecter of persons} (proswpolemptes). this compound occurs only here and in Chrysostom. It is composed of proswpon face or person (pros and oy, before the eye or face) and lambanw. The abstract form pros"polˆmpsia occurs in #Jas 2:1 (also #Ro 2:11; Eph 6:9; Col 3:25) and the verb pros"polempte" in #Jas 2:9. The separate phrase (lambanein proswpon) occurs in #Lu 20:21; Ga 2:6. The phrase was already in the LXX (#De 10:17; 2Ch 19:7; Ps 82:6). Luke has simply combined the two words into one compound one. The idea is to pay regard to one's looks or circumstances rather than to his intrinsic character. The Jews had come to feel that they were the favorites of God and actually sons of the kingdom of heaven because they were descendants of Abraham. John the Baptist rebuked them for this fallacy.

    10:35 {Acceptable to him} (dektos autwi). Verbal adjective from decomai. _Acceptabilis_. That is to say, a Gentile would not have to become a Jew in order to become a Christian. Evidently Peter had not before perceived this fact. On the great Day of Pentecost when he spoke of the promise "to all those afar off" (#2:39) Peter understood that they must first become Jews and qen Christians. The new idea that now makes a revolution in Peter's outlook is precisely this that Christ can and will save Gentiles like this Cornelius group without their becoming Jews at all.

    10:36 {The word which he sent} (ton logon hon apesteilen). Many ancient MSS. (so Westcott and Hort) read merely ton logon apesteilen (he sent the word). this reading avoids the anacoluthon and inverse attraction of logon to the case of the relative hon (which). {Preaching good tidings of peace through Jesus Christ} (euaggelizomenos eirenen dia iesou cristou). Gospelizing peace through Jesus Christ. There is no other way to have real peace between individuals and God, between races and nations, than by Jesus Christ. Almost this very language occurs in #Eph 2:17 where Paul states that Jesus on the cross "preached (gospelized) peace to you who are afar off and peace to you who are near." Peter here sees what Paul will see later with great clearness. {He is Lord of all} (houtos estin pantwn kurios). A triumphant parenthesis that Peter throws in as the reason for his new truth. Jesus Christ is Lord of all, both Jews and Gentiles.

    10:37 {Ye know} (humeis oidate). Peter reminds his Gentile audience that the main facts concerning Jesus and the gospel were known to them. Note emphatic expression of humeis (you). {Beginning} (arxamenos). The Textus Receptus has arxamenon (accusative), but the nominative is given by Aleph A B C D E H and is certainly correct. But it makes a decided anacoluthon. The accusative would agree with rhema used in the sense of message or story as told by the disciples. The nominative does not agree with anything in the sentence. The same phrase occurs in #Lu 23:5. Here is this aorist middle participle almost used like an adverb. See a similar loose use of arxamenos in the same sense by Peter in #Ac 1:22. The baptism of John is given as the _terminus a quo_. The story began with a skip to Galilee after the baptism just like the Gospel of Mark. this first message of Peter to the Gentiles (#10:37-44) corresponds in broad outline with Mark's Gospel. Mark heard Peter preach many times and evidently planned his Gospel (the Roman Gospel) on this same model. There is in it nothing about the birth and childhood of Jesus nor about the intervening ministry supplied by John's Gospel for the period (a year) between the baptism and the Galilean Ministry. Peter here presents an objective statement of the life, death, and resurrection of Jesus with proof from the Scriptures that he is the Messiah. It is a skilful presentation.

    10:38 {Jesus of Nazareth} (iesoun ton apo Nazareth). Jesus the one from Nazareth, the article before the city identifying him clearly. The accusative case is here by proleyis, Jesus being expressed for emphasis before the verb "anointed" and the pronoun repeated pleonastically after it. "Jesus transfers the mind from the gospel-history to the personal subject of it" (Hackett). {God anointed him} (ecrisen, auton, ho qeos). First aorist active of the verb criw, to anoint, from which the verbal cristos is formed (#Ac 2:36). The precise event referred to by Peter could be the Incarnation (#Lu 1:35f.), the Baptism (#Lu 3:22), the Ministry at Nazareth (#Lu 4:14). Why not to the life and work of Jesus as a whole? {Went about doing good} (dielqen euergetwn). Beautiful description of Jesus. Summary (constative) aorist active of dierehomai, to go through (dia) or from place to place. The present active participle euergetwn is from the old verb euergetew (eu, well, ergon, work) and occurs only here in the N.T. The substantive euergetes (benefactor) was often applied to kings like Ptolemy euergetes and that is the sense in #Lu 22:25 the only N.T. example. But the term applies to Jesus far more than to Ptolemy or any earthly king (Cornelius a Lapide). {And healing} (kai iwmenos). And in particular healing. Luke does not exclude other diseases (cf. #Lu 13:11,16), but he lays special emphasis on demoniacal possession (cf. #Mr 1:23). {That were oppressed} (tous katadunasteuomenous). Present passive articular participle of katadunasteuw. A late verb in LXX and papyri. In the N.T. only here and #Jas 2:6 (best MSS.). One of the compounds of kata made transitive. The reality of the devil (the slanderer, diabolos) is recognized by Peter. {For God was with him} (hoti ho qeos en met' autou). Surely this reason does not reveal "a low Christology" as some charge. Peter had used the same language in #Ac 7:9 and earlier in #Lu 1:28,66 as Nicodemus does in #Joh 3:2.

    10:39 {And we are witnesses} (kai hemeis martures). Compare "ye yourselves know" (verse #37). Peter thus appeals to what the audience know and to what the disciples know. He made the same claim about personal witnesses of the Resurrection of Jesus at Pentecost (#2:32). Here Peter affirms full knowledge of the work of Jesus in Judea (for whole country including Galilee and Perea) and Jerusalem (given mainly in John's Gospel). In the Greek h"n (which) is attracted into the genitive case to agree with the antecedent pantwn (all), a common enough idiom. {Whom also they slew} (hon kai aneilan). Second aorist active indicative of anairew with a as often in Acts (#2:23; 5:30). But note kai (also) in the old MSS., not in the Textus Receptus. They "also" slew him, went that far, " this crowning atrocity" (Vincent), kai could here be "even." {Hanging him on a tree} (kremasantes epi xulou). this same expression used by Peter in #5:30 which see for discussion.

    10:40 {Gave him to be made manifest} (edwken auton emfane genesqai). Peculiar phrase, here only in the N.T. and in #Ro 10:20 (quoted from #Isa 65:1). emfane, predicate accusative after infinitive genesqai agreeing with auton object of edwken.

    10:41 {Chosen before} (prokeceirotonemenois). Perfect passive participle dative plural from proceirotonew, to choose or designate by hand (ceirotonew, ceir, hand, and teinw, to stretch, as in #Ac 14:23; 2Co 8:19), beforehand (pro), a double compound as old as Plato, but here alone in the N.T. Peter is evidently stating the thing as it happened and not trying to make a convincing story by saying that both friends and foes saw him after his resurrection. It is the "historian's candor" (Paley) in Luke here that adds to the credibility of the narrative. The sceptical Jews would not have believed and Jesus was kept from open contact with the world of Sin after his Passion. {To us who did eat and drink with him} (hemin hoitines sunefagomen kai sunepiomen autwi). The "who" (hoitines) is first person agreeing with "us" (hemin). Second aorist active indicative of the common verbs sunesqiw and sumpinw. autwi is associative instrumental case. There are difficulties to us in understanding how Jesus could eat and drink after the resurrection as told here and in #Lu 24:41-3, but at any rate Peter makes it clear that it was no hallucination or ghost, but Jesus himself whom they saw after he rose from the dead, "after the rising as to him" (meta to anastenai auton, meta with the accusative articular infinitive second aorist active and the accusative auton of general reference). Furneaux dares to think that the disciples misunderstood Jesus about eating after the resurrection. But that is to deny the testimony merely because we cannot explain the transition state of the body of Jesus.

    10:42 {He charged} (pareggeilen). First aorist active indicative as in #1:4. There Jesus is the subject and so probably here, though Page insists that ho qeos (God) is here because of verse #40. {To testify} (diamarturasqai). First aorist middle infinitive. See on ¯2:40. {Ordained} (hwrismenos). Perfect passive participle of horizw, old verb, to mark out, to limit, to make a horizon. {Judge} (krites). The same point made by Peter in #1Pe 4:5. He does not use the word "Messiah" to these Gentiles though he did say "anointed" (ecrisen) in verse #38. Peter's claim for Jesus is that he is the Judge of Jew and Gentile (living and dead).

    10:43 {Every one that believeth} (panta ton pisteuonta). this accusative active participle of general reference with the infinitive in indirect discourse is the usual idiom. Only labein (second aorist active infinitive of lambanw) is not indirect statement so much as indirect command or arrangement. The prophets bear witness to Jesus Christ to this effect. It is God's plan and no race distinctions are drawn. Peter had already said the same thing at Pentecost (#2:38), but now he sees himself that Gentiles do not have to become Jews, but have only to believe in Jesus as Messiah and Judge as foretold by the prophets. It was glorious news to Cornelius and his group. {Through his name} (dia tou onomatos autou), not as a _title_ or magic formula (#Ac 18:13), but the power of Christ himself represented by his name.

    10:44 {While Peter yet spake} (eti lalountos tou petrou). Genitive absolute of present participle, still going on. {The Holy Ghost fell} (epepesen to pneuma to hagion). Second aorist active indicative of epipiptw, old verb to fall upon, to recline, to come upon. Used of the Holy Spirit in #8:16; 10:44; 11:15. It appears that Peter was interrupted in his sermon by this remarkable event. The Jews had received the Holy Spirit (#2:4), the Samaritans (#8:17), and now Gentiles. But on this occasion it was before baptism, as was apparently true in Paul's case (#9:17f.). In #8:16; 19:5 the hands of the apostles were also placed after baptism on those who received the Holy Spirit. Here it was unexpected by Peter and by Cornelius and was indubitable proof of the conversion of these Gentiles who had accepted Peter's message and had believed on Jesus Christ as Savior.

    10:45 {They of the circumcision which believed} (hoi ek peritomes pistoi). The believing ones of the circumcision, more exactly. {Were amazed} (exestesan). Second aorist active indicative, intransitive, of existemi. They stood out of themselves. {On the Gentiles also} (kai epi ta eqne). Or, even upon the Gentiles. {Was poured out} (ekkecutai). Present perfect passive retained in indirect discourse of ekcew or ekcunw, old verb, used metaphorically of the Holy Spirit also in #2:17 (from #Joe 2:28f.), #Ac 2:33.

    10:46 {They heard} (ekouon). Imperfect active, were hearing, kept on hearing. {Speak} (lalountwn). Present active participle, speaking, for they kept it up. {With tongues} (glwssais). Instrumental case as in #2:4,11 which see. The fuller statement there makes it clear that here it was new and strange tongues also as in #19:6; 1Co 14:4-19. this sudden manifestation of the Holy Spirit's power on uncircumcised Gentiles was probably necessary to convince Peter and the six brethren of the circumcision that God had opened the door wide to Gentiles. It was proof that a Gentile Pentecost had come and Peter used it effectively in his defence in Jerusalem (#Ac 11:15).

    10:47 {Can any man forbid the water?} (meti to hudwr dunatai kwl-sai tis?). The negative meti expects the answer _No_. The evidence was indisputable that these Gentiles were converted and so were entitled to be baptized. See the similar idiom in #Lu 6:39. Note the article with "water." Here the baptism of the Holy Spirit had preceded the baptism of water (#Ac 1:5; 11:16). "The greater had been bestowed; could the lesser be withheld?" (Knowling). {That these should not be baptized} (tou me baptisqenai toutous). Ablative case of the articular first aorist passive infinitive of baptizw with the redundant negative after the verb of hindering (kwl-sai) and the accusative of general reference (toutous). The redundant negative after the verb of hindering is not necessary though often used in ancient Greek and in the _Koin‚_ (papyri). Without it see #Mt 19:14; Ac 8:36 and with it see #Lu 4:42; 24:16; Ac 14:18. Cf. Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1061, 1094, 1171. The triple negatives here are a bit confusing to the modern mind (meti in the question, kwl-sai, to hinder or to cut off, me with baptisthˆnai). Literally, Can any one cut off the water from the being baptized as to these? Meyer: "The water is in this animated language conceived as the element offering itself for the baptism." {As well as we} (hws kai hemeis). The argument was conclusive. God had spoken. Note the query of the eunuch to Philip (#Ac 8:36).

    10:48 {Commanded} (prosetaxen). First aorist active indicative. Peter himself abstained from baptizing on this occasion (cf. Paul in #1Co 1:14). Evidently it was done by the six Jewish brethren. {Them to be baptized} (autous baptisqenai). Accusative of general reference with the first aorist passive infinitive. {In the name of Jesus Christ} (en twi onomati iesou cristou). The essential name in Christian baptism as in #2:38; 19:5. But these passages give the authority for the act, not the formula that was employed (Alvah Hovey in Hackett's _Commentary_. See also chapter on the Baptismal Formula in my _The Christ of the Logia_). "Golden days" (aurei dies, Bengel) were these for the whole group.

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