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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - ACTS 12

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    12:1 {About that time} (kat' ekeinon ton kairon). Same phrase in #Ro 9:9. That is, the early part of A.D. 44 since that is the date of Herod's death. As already suggested, Barnabas and Saul came down from Antioch to Jerusalem after the persecution by Herod at the end of 44 or the beginning of 45. {Herod the king} (herwides ho basileus). Accurate title at this particular time. Herod Agrippa I, grandson of Herod the Great, was King of Palestine A.D. 42 to 44; only for these three years was a Herod king over Palestine since the death of Herod the Great and never afterwards. Archelaus never actually became king though he had the popular title at first (#Mt 2:22). {Put forth his hands} (epebalen tas ceiras). Second aorist active indicative of epiballw, old verb, to cast upon or against. The same idiom with tas ceiras (the hands, common Greek idiom with article rather than possessive pronoun) in #4:3; 5:18. {To afflict} (kakwsai). First aorist active infinitive of kakow, old word to do harm or evil to (kakos), already in #7:6,19. Outside of Acts in the N.T. only #1Pe 5:13. Infinitive of purpose. Probably the first who were afflicted were scourged or imprisoned, not put to death. It had been eight years or more since the persecution over the death of Stephen ceased with the conversion of Saul. But the disciples were not popular in Jerusalem with either Sadducees or Pharisees. The overtures to the Gentiles in Caesarea and Antioch may have stirred up the Pharisees afresh (cf. #6:14). Herod Agrippa I was an Idumean through his grandfather Herod the Great and a grandson of Mariamne the Maccabean princess. He was a favorite of Caligula the Roman Emperor and was anxious to placate his Jewish subjects while retaining the favor of the Romans. So he built theatres and held games for the Romans and Greeks and slew the Christians to please the Jews. Josephus (_Ant_. XIX. 7, 3) calls him a pleasant vain man scrupulously observing Jewish rites. Here we have for the first time political power (after Pilate) used against the disciples.

    12:2 {James the brother of John} (iakwbon ton adelfon iwanou). He had been called by Jesus a son of thunder along with his brother John. Jesus had predicted a bloody death for both of them (#Mr 10:38ff.; Mt 20:23). James is the first of the apostles to die and John probably the last. He is not James the Lord's brother (#Ga 1:19). We do not know why Luke tells so little about the death of James and so much about the death of Stephen nor do we know why Herod selected him as a victim. Eusebius (_H.E_. ii. 9) quotes Clement of Alexandria as saying that a Jew made accusations against James and was converted and beheaded at the same time with him. {Killed with the sword} (aneilen macairei). The verb is a favorite one with Luke (#Ac 2:33; 5:33,36; 7:28; 9:23-29; 10:39, etc.). Instrumental case and Ionic form of macaira. The Jews considered beheading a shameful death as in the case of the Baptist (#Mt 14:10).

    12:3 {That it pleased the Jews} (hoti areston estin tois ioudaiois). Indirect assertion with the present tense estin retained. areston is the verbal adjective from areskw followed by the dative as in #Joh 8:29. {Proceeded to seize} (proseqeto sullabein). A patent Hebraism in #Lu 20:11f. already, and nowhere else in the N.T. It occurs in the LXX (#Ge 4:2; 8:12; 18:29, etc.). Second aorist middle indicative of prostiqemi and the second aorist active infinitive of sullambanw. Literally, he added to seize, he seized Peter in addition to James. {The days of unleavened bread} (hemerai twn azumwn). By this parenthesis Luke locates the time of the year when Peter was arrested, the passover. It was a fine occasion for Agrippa to increase his favor among the crowds of Jews there by extra zeal against the Christians. It is possible that Luke obtained his information about this incident from John Mark for at his Mother's house the disciples gathered (#12:12).

    12:4 {When he had taken him} (piasas). See on ¯3:7 for same form. {He put him in prison} (eqeto eis fulaken). Second aorist middle indicative of tiqemi, common verb. this is the third imprisonment of Peter (#4:3; 5:18). {To four quaternions of soldiers} (tessarsin tetradiois stratiwtwn). Four soldiers in each quaternion (tetradion from tetras, four), two on the inside with the prisoner (chained to him) and two on the outside, in shifts of six hours each, sixteen soldiers in all, the usual Roman custom. Probably Agrippa had heard of Peter's previous escape (#5:19) and so took no chances for collusion of the jailors. {After the passover} (meta to pasca). The passover feast of eight days. "The stricter Jews regarded it as a profanation to put a person to death during a religious festival" (Hackett). So Agrippa is more scrupulous than the Sanhedrin was about Jesus. {To bring him forth} (anagagein auton). Second aorist active infinitive of anagw, to lead up, old verb, used literally here. Peter was in the inner prison or lower ward and so would be led up to the judgment seat where Herod Agrippa would sit (cf. #Joh 19:13). {To the people} (twi lawi). Ethical dative, in the presence of and for the pleasure of the Jewish people.

    12:5 {Therefore} (men oun). Because of the preceding situation. {Was kept} (etereito). Imperfect passive, continuously guarded, waiting for the feast to be over. {But prayer was made earnestly} (proseuce de en ektenws ginomene). Probably de here is not adversative (but), merely parallel (and) as Page argues. It was a crisis for the Jerusalem church. James had been slain and Peter was to be the next victim. Hence "earnestly" (late adverb from ektenes, strained, from ekteinw, to stretch. In the N.T. only here, #Lu 22:44; 1Pe 1:22) prayer was {going up} (ginomene, present middle participle, periphrastic imperfect with ˆn). It looked like a desperate case for Peter. Hence the disciples prayed the more earnestly.

    12:6 {Was about to bring him forth} (emellen prosagagein or proagagein). The MSS. vary, but not anagagein of verse #4. {The same night} (tei nukti ekeinei). Locative case, {on that (very) night}. {Was sleeping} (en koimwmenos). Periphrastic middle imperfect. {Bound with two chains} (dedemenos halusesin dusin). Perfect passive participle of dew, to bind, followed by instrumental case. One chain was fastened to each soldier (one on each side of Peter). {Kept} (eteroun). Imperfect active, were keeping. Two guards outside before the door and two inside, according to Roman rule. Did Peter recall the prophecy of Jesus that he should be put to death in his old age (#Joh 21:18)? Jesus had not said, as Furneaux does, that he would die by crucifixion.

    12:7 {Stood by him} (epeste). Ingressive second aorist active indicative of efistemi, intransitive. this very form occurs in #Lu 2:9 of the sudden appearance of the angel of the Lord to the shepherds. Page notes that this second aorist of efistemi occurs seven times in the Gospel of Luke, eight times in the Acts, and nowhere else in the N.T. Note also the same form apeste (departed from, from afistemi, stood off from) of the disappearance of the angel in verse #10. {In the cell} (en twi oikemati). Literally, a dwelling place or habitation (from oikew, to dwell, oikos, house), but here not the prison as a whole as in Thucydides, but the room in the prison (cell) where Peter was chained to the two guards. Old word, but only here in the N.T. {He smote Peter on the side} (pataxas ten pleuran tou petrou). More exactly, "smote the side of Peter." Strongly enough to wake Peter up who was sound asleep and yet not rouse the two guards. It was probably between 3 A.M. and 6 A.M., hours when changes in the guards were made. {Rise up} (anasta). Short form (_Koin‚_) of anasteqi, second aorist active imperative of anistemi, intransitive. So also #Ac 9:11 (Westcott and Hort text); #Eph 5:14. {Fell off} (exepesan). Second aorist active with a ending like first aorist of expiptw, old verb. this miracle was necessary if Peter was to escape without rousing the two guards.

    12:8 {Gird thyself} (zwsai). Direct middle first aorist (ingressive) imperative (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 806f.) from zwnnumi (zwnnuw). Old verb, but in the N.T. only here and #Joh 21:18 (twice to Peter) where the active voice and the reflexive pronoun occur in the first example. The girdle was worn round the citwn or undergarment. {Bind on} (hupodesai). Indirect middle (by yourself or for yourself) first aorist imperative of hupodew, to bind under, old verb, only three times in the N.T. (#Mr 6:9; Ac 12:8; Eph 6:15 (middle)). {Sandals} (sandalia). Persian word common from Herodotus on, a sole made of wood or leather covering the bottom of the foot and bound on with thongs. In the N.T. only here and #Mr 6:9. In the LXX used indiscriminately with hupodema. {Cast about thee} (peribalou). Second aorist middle (indirect) imperative of periballw, old and common verb to throw around, especially clothing around the body as here. The himation (outer garment) was put over the citwn. It was not a hurried flight. {Follow me} (akolouqei moi). Present (linear) active imperative, keep on following me (associative instrumental case).

    12:9 {Wist not} (ouk eidei). Past perfect of oida used as imperfect, did not know. {Followed} (ekolouqei). Imperfect active, kept on following as the angel had directed (verse #8). That it was true (hoti aleqes estin). Indirect assertion and so present tense retained. Note "true" (aleqes) in the sense of reality or actuality. {Which was done} (to ginomenon). Present middle participle, that which was happening. {Thought he saw a vision} (edokei horama blepein). Imperfect active, kept on thinking, puzzled as he was. blepein is the infinitive in indirect assertion without the pronoun (he) expressed which could be either nominative in apposition with the subject as in #Ro 1:22 or accusative of general reference as in #Ac 5:36; 8:9 (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1036-40). Peter had had a vision in Joppa (#10:10) which Luke describes as an "ecstasy," but here is objective fact, at least Luke thought so and makes that distinction. Peter will soon know whether he is still in the cell or not as we find out that a dream is only a dream when we wake up.

    12:10 {When they were past} (dielqontes). Second aorist active participle of diercomai, transitive with dia in composition. {The first and the second ward} (prwten fulaken kai deuteran). It is not clear to what this language refers. Some take it to mean single soldiers, using fulaken in the sense of a guard (one before the door, one at the iron gate). But it seems hardly likely that the two soldiers with whom Peter had been stationed are meant. Probably the "first ward" means the two soldiers of the quaternion stationed by the door and the second ward some other soldiers, not part of the sixteen, further on in the prison by the iron gate. However understood, the difficulties of escape are made plain. {Unto the iron gate that leadeth into the city} (epi ten pulen ten sideran ten ferousan eis ten polin). Note the triple use of the article (the gate the iron one the one leading into the city). For this resumptive use of the article see Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 762, 764. this iron gate may have opened from a court out into the street and effectually barred escape. {Opened to them} (enoige autois). Second aorist passive indicative of anoigw, the usual later form though enoicqe (first aorist passive) occurs also, was opened. {Of its own accord} (automate). Old compound adjective (autos, self, obsolete ma", to desire eagerly, feminine form though masculine automatos also used as feminine). In the N.T. only here and #Mr 4:28. It was a strange experience for Peter. The Codex Bezae adds here "went down the seven steps" (katebesan tous hepta baqmous), an interesting detail that adds to the picture. {One street} (rhumen mian). The angel saw Peter through one of the narrow streets and qen left him. We have no means of knowing precisely the location of the prison in the city. On "departed" (apeste) see on verse ¯7.

    12:11 {Was come to himself} (en heautwi genomenos). Second aorist middle participle of ginomai with en and the locative case, "becoming at himself." In #Lu 15:17 we have eis heauton elqwn (coming to himself, as if he had been on a trip away from himself). {Now I know of a truth} (nun oida aleqws). There was no further confusion of mind that it was an ecstasy as in #10:10. But he was in peril for the soldiers would soon learn of his escape, when the change of guards came at 6 A.M. {Delivered me} (exeilato me). Second aorist middle indicative of exairew. The Lord rescued me of himself by his angel. {Expectation} (prosdokias). Old word from prosdokaw, to look for. In the N.T. only here and #Lu 21:26. James had been put to death and the Jewish people were eagerly waiting for the execution of Peter like hungry wolves.

    12:12 {When he had considered} (sunidwn). Second aorist active participle of suneidon (for the defective verb sunoraw), to see together, to grasp as a whole, old verb, but in the N.T. only here and #14:6, save the perfect indicative sunoida (#1Co 4:4) and participle (#Ac 5:2). It is the word from which suneidesis (conscience) comes (#Ro 2:15). Peter's mind worked rapidly and he decided what to do. He took in his situation clearly. {To the house of Mary} (epi ten oikian tes marias). Another Mary (the others were Mary the mother of Jesus, Mary of Bethany, Mary Magdalene, Mary wife of Cleopas, Mary the mother of James and Joses). She may have been a widow and was possessed of some means since her house was large enough to hold the large group of disciples there. Barnabas, cousin of John Mark her son (#Col 4:10), was also a man of property or had been (#Ac 4:36f.). It is probable that the disciples had been in the habit of meeting in her house, a fact known to Peter and he was evidently fond of John Mark whom he afterwards calls "my son" (#1Pe 5:13) and whom he had met here. The upper room of #Ac 1:13 may have been in Mary's house and Mark may have been the man bearing a pitcher of water (#Lu 22:10) and the young man who fled in the Garden of Gethsemane (#Mr 14:51f.). There was a gate and portress here as in the house of the highpriest (#Joh 18:16). Peter knew where to go and even at this early hour hoped to find some of the disciples. Mary is one of the many mothers who have become famous by reason of their sons, though she was undoubtedly a woman of high character herself. {Were gathered together and were praying} (esan suneqroismenoi kai proseucomenoi). Note difference in the tenses, one periphrastic past perfect passive (sunaqroizw old verb, in the N.T. here only and #19:25 and the uncompounded qroizw in #Lu 24:33) and the periphrastic imperfect. The praying apparently had been going on all night and a large number (many, hikanoi) of the disciples were there. One recalls the time when they had gathered to pray (#4:31) after Peter had told the disciples of the threats of the Sanhedrin (#4:23). God had rescued Peter qen. Would he let him be put to death now as James had been?

    12:13 {When he knocked at the door of the gate} (krousantos autou ten quran tou pulwnos). Genitive absolute with aorist active participle of krouw, common verb to knock or knock at. So from the outside (#Lu 13:25). pulwn here is the gateway or passageway from the door (qura) that leads to the house. In verse #14 it is still the passageway without the use of qura (door, so for both door and passageway). {To answer} (hupakousai). To listen under before opening. First aorist active infinitive of hupakouw, common verb to obey, to hearken. {A maid} (paidiske). Portress as in #Joh 18:17. A diminutive of pais, a female slave (so on an ostracon of second century A.D., Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 200). {Rhoda}. A rose. Women can have such beautiful names like Dorcas (Gazelle), Euodia (Sweet Aroma), Syntyche (Good Luck). Mark or Peter could tell Luke her name.

    12:14 {When she knew} (epignousa). Second aorist (ingressive) active participle of epiginwskw, to know fully or in addition (epi), to recognize. She knew Peter and his voice from his frequent visits there. {For joy} (apo tes caras). From her joy (ablative case), life-like picture of the maid who left Peter standing outside with the door to the passageway unopened. Note the aorist tenses for quick action (ouk enoixen), eisdramousa (from eistrecw, defective verb, only here in the N.T.), apeggeilen. {Stood} (hestanai). Second perfect active infinitive of histemi, intransitive, in indirect assertion with ton petron (Peter) accusative of general reference. The slave girl acted as if she were a member of the family (Furneaux), but she left Peter in peril.

    12:15 {Thou art mad} (mainei). Present middle indicative second person singular. Old verb, only in the middle voice. Festus used the same word to Paul (#26:24). The maid was undoubtedly excited, but it was a curious rebuff from those who had been praying all night for Peter's release. In their defence it may be said that Stephen and James had been put to death and many others by Saul's persecution. {She confidently affirmed} (diiscurizeto). Imperfect middle of diiscurizomai, an old word of vigorous and confident assertion, originally to lean upon. Only here in the N.T. The girl stuck to her statement. {It is his angel} (ho aggelos estin autou). this was the second alternative of the disciples. It was a popular Jewish belief that each man had a guardian angel. Luke takes no position about it. No scripture teaches it.

    12:16 {Continued knocking} (epemenen krouwn). Imperfect active and present participle. Now all heard the knocking. {When they had opened} (anoixantes). First aorist active participle of anoigw or -numi. The whole group rushed out to the courtyard this time to make sure. {They were amazed} (exestesan). The frequent second aorist active (intransitive) indicative of existemi.

    12:17 There were probably loud exclamations of astonishment and joy. {Beckoning with the hand} (kataseisas tei ceiri). First aorist active participle of kataseiw, old verb to signal or shake down with the hand (instrumental case ceiri). In the N.T. only in #Ac 12:17; 13:16; 19:33; 21:40. The speaker indicates by a downward movement of the hand his desire for silence (to hold their peace, sigain, present active infinitive, to keep silent). Peter was anxious for every precaution and he wanted their instant attention. {Declared} (diegesato). First aorist middle of diegeomai, old verb to carry through a narrative, give a full story. See also #Ac 9:27 of Barnabas in his defence of Saul. Peter told them the wonderful story. {Unto James and the brethren} (iakwbwi kai tois adelfois). Dative case after apaggeilate (first aorist active imperative). Evidently "James and the brethren" were not at this meeting, probably meeting elsewhere. There was no place where all the thousands of disciples in Jerusalem could meet. this gathering in the house of Mary may have been of women only or a meeting of the Hellenists. It is plain that this James the Lord's brother, is now the leading presbyter or elder in Jerusalem though there were a number (#11:30; 21:18). Paul even terms him apostle (#Gal 1:19), though certainly not one of the twelve. The twelve apostles probably were engaged elsewhere in mission work save James now dead (#Ac 12:2) and Peter. The leadership of James is here recognized by Peter and is due, partly to the absence of the twelve, but mainly to his own force of character. He will preside over the Jerusalem Conference (#Ac 15:13). {To another place} (eis heteron topon). Probably Luke did not know the place and certainly it was prudent for Peter to conceal it from Herod Agrippa. Probably Peter left the city. He is back in Jerusalem at the Conference a few years later (#Ac 15:7) and after the death of Herod Agrippa. Whether Peter went to Rome during these years we do not know. He was recognized later as the apostle to the circumcision (#Gal 2:7; 1Pe 1:1) and apparently was in Rome with John Mark when he wrote the First epistle (#1Pe 5:13), unless it is the real Babylon. But, even if Peter went to Rome during this early period, there is no evidence that he founded the church there. If he had done so, in the light of #2Co 10:16 it would be strange that Paul had not mentioned it in writing to Rome, for he was anxious not to build on another man's foundation (#Ro 15:20). Paul felt sure that he himself had a work to do in Rome. Unfortunately Luke has not followed the ministry of Peter after this period as he does Paul (appearing again only in chapter #Ac 15). If Peter really left Jerusalem at this time instead of hiding in the city, he probably did some mission work as Paul says that he did (#1Co 9:5).

    12:18 {As soon as it was day} (genomenes hemeras). Genitive absolute, day having come. {No small stir} (taracos ouk oligos). Litotes (ouk oligos), occurs eight times in the Acts as in #15:2, and nowhere else in the N.T. taracos (stir) is an old word from tarassw, to agitate. In the N.T only here and #19:23. Probably all sixteen soldiers were agitated over this remarkable escape. They were responsible for the prisoner with their lives (cf. #Ac 16:27; 27:42). Furneaux suggests that Manaen, the king's foster-brother and a Christian (#13:1), was the "angel" who rescued Peter from the prison. That is not the way that Peter looked at it. {What was become of Peter} (ti ara ho petros egeneto). An indirect question with the aorist indicative retained. Ara adds a syllogism (therefore) to the problem as in #Lu 1:66. The use of the neuter ti (as in #Ac 13:25) is different from tis, though nominative like petros, literally, "what qen Peter had become,"what had happened to Peter" (in one idiom). See the same idiom in #Joh 21:21 (houtos de ti). {But this one what} (verb genesetai not used).

    12:19 {He examined} (anakrinas). First aorist active participle of anakrinw, old verb to sift up and down, to question thoroughly, in a forensic sense (#Lu 23:14; Ac 4:9; 12:19; 28:18). {That they should be put to death} (apacqenai). First aorist passive infinitive (indirect command) of apagw, old verb to lead away, especially to execution as in #Mt 27:31. Here it is used absolutely. this was the ordinary Roman routine and not a proof of special cruelty on the part of Herod Agrippa. {Tarried} (dietriben). Imperfect active. Herod Agrippa made his home in Jerusalem, but he went to Caesarea to the public games in honor of Emperor Claudius.

    12:20 {Was highly displeased} (en qumomacwn). Periphrastic imperfect active of qumomacew, late compound of qumos (passionate heat) and macomai, to fight. Only here in the N.T., to fight desperately, to have a hot quarrel. Whether it was open war with the Phoenicians or just violent hostility we do not know, save that Phoenicia belonged to Syria and Herod Agrippa had no authority there. The quarrel may have been over commercial matters. {They came with one accord} (homoqumadon paresan). The representatives of Tyre and Sidon. See on ¯1:14 for homoqumadon. Tyre was a colony of Sidon and had become one of the chief commercial cities of the world by reason of the Phoenician ships. {The king's chamberlain} (ton epi tou koitwnos tou basileos). The one over the bedchamber (koitwnos, late word from koite, bed, here only in the N.T.). {Made their friend} (peisantes). First aorist active participle of peiqw, to persuade. Having persuaded (probably with bribes as in #Mt 28:14). {They asked for peace} (eitounto eirenen). Imperfect middle of aitew, kept on asking for peace. {Because their country was fed} (dia to trefesqai autwn ten coran). Causal sentence with dia and the articular infinitive (present passive of trefw, to nourish or feed) and the accusative of general reference, "because of the being fed as to their country." Tyre and Sidon as large commercial cities on the coast received large supplies of grain and fruits from Palestine. Herod had cut off the supplies and that brought the two cities to action.

    12:21 {Upon a set day} (taktei hemerai). Locative case and the verbal adjective of tassw, to arrange, appoint, old word, here only in the N.T. Josephus (_Ant_. XVII. 6, 8; XIX. 8, 2) gives a full account of the occasion and the death of Herod Agrippa. It was the second day of the festival in honor of the Emperor Claudius, possibly his birthday rather than the _Quinquennalia_. The two accounts of Luke and Josephus supplement each other with no contradiction. Josephus does not mention the name of Blastus. {Arrayed himself in royal apparel} (endusamenos esqeta basiliken). First aorist middle (indirect) participle of endunw or enduw, common verb to put on. Literally, having put royal apparel on himself (a robe of silver tissue, Josephus says). The rays of the sun shone on this brilliant apparel and the vast crowd in the open amphitheatre became excited as Herod began to speak. {Made an oration} (edemegorei). Imperfect active of demegorew, old verb from demegoros (haranguer of the people), and that from demos (people) and agoreuw, to harangue or address the people. Only here in the N.T. He kept it up.

    12:22 {Shouted} (epefwnei). Imperfect active, kept on shouting, calling out to him. Old verb, but only four times in the N.T. and all by Luke. The heathen crowd (demos) repeated their flattering adulation to gain Herod's favor. {The voice of a god} (qeou fwne). In the pagan sense of emperor worship, not as the Supreme Being. But it was pleasing to Herod Agrippa's vanity.

    12:23 {Smote him} (epataxen auton). Effective aorist active indicative of patassw, old verb, used already in verse #7 of gentle smiting of the angel of the Lord, here of a severe stroke of affliction. Like Nebuchadnezzar (#Da 4:30) pride went before a fall. He was struck down in the very zenith of his glory. {Because} (anq' hwn). anti with the genitive of the relative pronoun, "in return for which things." He accepted the impious flattery (Hackett) instead of giving God the glory. He was a nominal Jew. {He was eaten of worms} (genomenos skwlekobrwtos). Ingressive aorist middle participle, "becoming worm-eaten." The compound verbal adjective (skwlex, worm, brwtos, eaten, from bibrwskw) is a late word (II Macc. 9:9) of the death of Antiochus Epiphanes, used also of a tree (Theophrastus), here only in the N.T. The word skwlex was used of intestinal worms and Herodotus (IV. 205) describes Pheretima, Queen of Cyrene, as having swarms of worms which ate her flesh while still alive. Josephus (_Ant_. XIX. 8, 2) says that Herod Agrippa lingered for five days and says that the rotting of his flesh produced worms, an item in harmony with the narrative in Luke. Josephus gives further details, one a superstitious sight of an owl sitting on one of the ropes of the awning of the theatre while the people flattered him, an omen of his death to him. Luke puts it simply that God smote him. {Gave up the ghost} (exeyuxen). Effective aorist active of ekyucw, to breathe out, late verb, medical term in Hippocrates, in the N.T. only in #Ac 5:5,10; 12:23. Herod was carried out of the theatre a dying man and lingered only five days.

    12:24 {Grew and multiplied} (euxanen kai eplequneto). Imperfect active and passive. Cf. #6:1. The reaction from the death of James and the imprisonment of Peter.

    12:25 {From Jerusalem} (ex ierousalem). Probably correct text, though D has apo. Westcott and Hort follow Aleph B in reading eis (to) Jerusalem, an impossible reading contradicted by #11:29f.; 13:1. The ministration (diakonian) referred to is that in #11:29f. which may have taken place, in point of time, after the death of Herod. {Taking with them} (sunparalabontes). Taking along (para) with (sun) them, John Mark from Jerusalem (#12:12) to Antioch (#13:1). The aorist participle does not express subsequent action as Rackham here argues (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 861-863).

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