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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - ACTS 18

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    18:1 {To Corinth} (eis korinqon). Mummius had captured and destroyed Corinth B.C. 146. It was restored by Julius Caesar B.C. 46 as a boom town and made a colony. It was now the capital of the province of Achaia and the chief commercial city of Greece with a cosmopolitan population. It was only fifty miles from Athens. The summit of Acrocorinthus was 1,800 feet high and the ports of Cenchreae and Lechaeum and the Isthmus across which ships were hauled gave it command of the trade routes between Asia and Rome. The temple of Aphrodite on the Acrocorinthus had a thousand consecrated prostitutes and the very name to Corinthianize meant immorality. Not the Parthenon with Athene faced Paul in Corinth, but a worse situation. Naturally many Jews were in such a mart of trade. Philippi, Thessalonica, Beroea, Athens, all had brought anxiety to Paul. What could he expect in lascivious Corinth?

    18:2 {Aquila} (akulan). Luke calls him a Jew from Pontus, apparently not yet a disciple, though there were Jews from Pontus at the great Pentecost who were converted (#2:9). Aquila who made the famous A.D. translation of the O.T. was also from Pontus. Paul "found" (heurwn, second aorist active participle of heuriskw) though we do not know how. Edersheim says that a Jewish guild always kept together whether in street or synagogue so that by this bond they probably met. {Lately come from Italy} (prosfatws eleluqota apo tes italias). Second perfect participle of ercomai. _Koin‚_ adverb, here only in the N.T., from adjective prosfatos (pro, sfaw or sfazw, to kill), lately slaughtered and so fresh or recent (#Heb 10:20). {With his wife Priscilla} (kai priskillan gunaika autou). Diminutive of priska (#Ro 16:3; 1Co 16:19). Prisca is a name in the Acilian family and the Prisci was the name of another noble clan. Aquila may have been a freedman like many Jews in Rome. Her name comes before his in verses #18,26; Ro 16:3; 2Ti 4:9. {Because Claudius had commanded} (dia to diatetacenai klaudion). Perfect active articular infinitive of diatassw, old verb to dispose, arrange, here with accusative of general reference. dia here is causal sense, "because of the having ordered as to Claudius." this was about A.D. 49, done, Suetonius says (_Claudius_ C. 25), because "the Jews were in a state of constant tumult at the instigation of one Chrestus" (probably among the Jews about Christ so pronounced). At any rate Jews were unpopular in Rome for Tiberius had deported 4,000 to Sardinia. There were 20,000 Jews in Rome. Probably mainly those implicated in the riots actually left.

    18:3 {Because he was of the same trade} (dia to homotecnon einai). Same construction with dia as above. homotecnon is an old word (homos, tecne), though here alone in N.T. Rabbi Judah says: "He that teacheth not his son a trade, doth the same as if he taught him to be a thief." So it was easy for Paul to find a home with these "tentmakers by trade" (skenoipoioi tei tecnei). Late word from skene and poiew, here only in the N.T. They made portable tents of leather or of cloth of goat's hair. So Paul lived in this home with this noble man and his wife, all the more congenial if already Christians which they soon became at any rate. They worked as partners in the common trade. Paul worked for his support elsewhere, already in Thessalonica (#1Th 2:9; 2Th 3:8) and later at Ephesus with Aquila and Priscilla (#Ac 18:18,26; 20:34; 1Co 16:19). They moved again to Rome (#Ro 16:3) and were evidently a couple of considerable wealth and generosity. It was a blessing to Paul to find himself with these people. So he "abode" (emenen, imperfect active) with them and "they wrought" (ergazonto, imperfect middle), happy and busy during week days.

    18:4 {He reasoned} (dielegeto). Imperfect middle, same form as in #17:17 about Paul's work in Athens, here only on the Sabbaths. {Persuaded} (epeiqen). Imperfect active, conative, he tried to persuade both Jews and Greeks (God-fearers who alone would come).

    18:5 {Was constrained by the word} (suneiceto twi logwi). this is undoubtedly the correct text and not t"i pneumati of the Textus Receptus, but suneiceto is in my opinion the direct middle imperfect indicative, not the imperfect passive as the translations have it (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 808). Paul held himself together or completely to the preaching instead of just on Sabbaths in the synagogue (verse #4). The coming of Silas and Timothy with the gifts from Macedonia (#1Th 3:6; 2Co 11:9; Php 4:15) set Paul free from tent-making for a while so that he began to devote himself (inchoative imperfect) with fresh consecration to preaching. See the active in #2Co 5:14. He was now also assisted by Silas and Timothy (#2Co 1:19). {Testifying to the Jews that Jesus was the Christ} (diamarturomenos tois ioudaiois einai ton criston iesoun). Paul's witness everywhere (#9:22; 17:3). this verb diamarturomenos occurs in #2:40 (which see) for Peter's earnest witness. Perhaps daily now in the synagogue he spoke to the Jews who came. einai is the infinitive in indirect discourse (assertion) with the accusative of general reference. By Ton criston Paul means "the Messiah." His witness is to show to the Jews that Jesus of Nazareth is the Messiah.

    18:6 {When they opposed themselves} (antitassomenwn autwn). Genitive absolute with present middle (direct middle again) of antitassw, old verb to range in battle array (tassw) face to face with or against (anti). In the N.T. only here and #Ro 13:2; Jas 4:6; 1Pe 5:5. Paul's fresh activity roused the rabbis as at Antioch in Pisidia and at Thessalonica in concerted opposition and railing (blasphemy). {He shook out his raiment} (ektinaxamenos ta himatia). First aorist middle of ektinassw, old verb, in the N.T. only here as in #13:51 (middle) and #Mr 6:11; Mt 10:15 where active voice occurs of shaking out dust also. Vivid and dramatic picture here like that in #Ne 5:13, "undoubtedly a very exasperating gesture" (Ramsay), but Paul was deeply stirred. {Your blood be upon your own heads} (to haima humwn epi ten kefalen humwn). As in #Eze 3:18f., 33:4,8f.; 2Sa 1:16. Not as a curse, but "a solemn disclaimer of responsibility" by Paul (Page) as in #Ac 20:26. The Jews used this very phrase in assuming responsibility for the blood of Jesus (#Mt 27:25). Cf. #Mt 23:35. {I am clean} (kaqaros egw). Pure from your blood. Repeats the claim made in previous sentence. Paul had done his duty. {From henceforth} (apo tou nun). Turning point reached in Corinth. He will devote himself to the Gentiles, though Jews will be converted there also. Elsewhere as in Ephesus (#19:1-10) and in Rome (#Ac 28:23-28) Paul will preach also to Jews.

    18:7 {Titus Justus} (titou ioustou). So Aleph E Vulgate, while B has Titiau ioustou, while most MSS. have only ioustou. Evidently a Roman citizen and not Titus, brother of Luke, of #Ga 2:1. We had Barsabbas Justus (#Ac 1:23) and Paul speaks of Jesus Justus (#Co 4:11). The Titii were a famous family of potters in Corinth. this Roman was a God-fearer whose house "joined hard to the synagogue" (en sunomorousa tei sunagwgei). Periphrastic imperfect active of sunomorew, a late (Byzantine) word, here only in the N.T., followed by the associative instrumental case, from sunomoros (sun, homoros from homos, joint, and horos, boundary) having joint boundaries, right next to. Whether Paul chose this location for his work because it was next to the synagogue, we do not know, but it caught the attendants at the synagogue worship. In Ephesus when Paul had to leave the synagogue he went to the school house of Tyrannus (#19:9f.). The lines are being drawn between the Christians and the Jews, drawn by the Jews themselves.

    18:8 {Crispus} (krispos). Though a Jew and ruler of the synagogue (cf. #13:15), he had a Latin name. Paul baptized him (#1Co 1:14) himself, perhaps because of his prominence, apparently letting Silas and Timothy baptize most of the converts (#1Co 1:14-17). Probably he followed Paul to the house of Titus Justus. It looked like ruin for the synagogue. {With all his house} (sun holwi twi oikwi autou). Another household conversion, for Crispus "believed (episteusen) in the Lord with all his house." {Hearing believed and were baptized} (akouontes episteuon kai ebaptizonto). Present active participle and imperfect indicatives active and passive, expressing repetition for the "many" others who kept coming to the Lord in Corinth. It was a continual revival after Silas and Timothy came and a great church was gathered here during the nearly two years that Paul labored in Corinth (possibly A.D. 51 and 52).

    18:9 {Be not afraid, but speak, and hold not thy peace} (me fobou, alla lalei kai me siwpeseis). Literally, "stop being afraid (me with present middle imperative of fobew), but go on speaking (present active imperative of lalew) and do not become silent (me and first aorist active of siwpaw, ingressive aorist)." Evidently there were signs of a gathering storm before this vision and message from the Lord Jesus came to Paul one night. Paul knew only too well what Jewish hatred could do as he had learned it at Damascus, Jerusalem, Antioch in Pisidia, Iconium, Lystra, Derbe, Thessalonica, Beroea. He had clearly moments of doubt whether he had not better move on or become silent for a while in Corinth. Every pastor knows what it is to have such moods and moments. In #2Th 3:2 (written at this time) we catch Paul's dejection of spirits. He was like Elijah (#1Ki 19:4) and Jeremiah (#Jer 15:15ff.).

    18:10 {Because I am with thee} (dioti egw eimi meta sou). Jesus had given this promise to all believers (#Mt 28:20) and here he renews it to Paul. this promise changes Paul's whole outlook. Jesus had spoken to Paul before, on the way to Damascus (#9:4), in Jerusalem (#22:17f.), in Troas (#16:9), in great crises of his life. He will hear him again (#23:11; 27:23). Paul knows the voice of Jesus. {No man shall set on thee to harm thee} (oudeis epiqesetai soi tou kakwsai se). Future direct middle indicative of epitiqemi, old and common verb, here in direct middle to lay or throw oneself upon, to attack. Jesus kept that promise in Corinth for Paul. tou kakwsai is genitive articular infinitive of purpose of kakow, to do harm to. Paul would now face all the rabbis without fear. {I have much people} (laos estin moi polus). Dative of personal interest. "There is to me much people," not yet saved, but who will be if Paul holds on. There is the problem for every preacher and pastor, how to win the elect to Christ.

    18:11 {A year and six months} (eniauton kai menas hex). Accusative of extent of time. How much time before this incident he had been there we do not know. He was in Corinth probably a couple of years in all. His work extended beyond the city (#2Co 11:10) and there was a church in Cenchreae (#Ro 16:1).

    18:12 {When Gallio was proconsul of Achaia} (galliwnos de anqupatou ontos tes acaias). Genitive absolute of present participle ontos. Brother of Seneca the Stoic (Nero's tutor) and uncle of Lucan the author of the farsalia. His original name was M. Annaeus Novatus till he was adopted by Gallio the rhetorician. The family was Spanish. Gallio was a man of culture and refinement and may have been chosen proconsul of Achaia for this reason. Statius calls him "_dulcis Gallio_." Seneca says of him: _Nemo enim mortalium uni tam dulcis quam hic omnibus_ (No one of mortals is so pleasant to one person as he is to all). Luke alone among writers says that he was proconsul, but Seneca speaks of his being in Achaia where he caught fever, a corroboration of Luke. But now a whitish grey limestone inscription from the hagios Elias quarries near Delphi (a letter of Claudius to Delphi) has been found which definitely names Gallio as proconsul of Achaia (auqupatos tes acaias). The province of Achaia after various shifts (first senatorial, qen imperial) back and forth with Macedonia, in A.D. 44 Claudius gave back to the Senate with proconsul as the title of the governor. It is amazing how Luke is confirmed whenever a new discovery is made. The discovery of this inscription has thrown light also on the date of Paul's work in Corinth as it says that Gallio came in the 26th acclamation of Claudius as Emperor in A.D. 51, that would definitely fix the time of Paul in Corinth as A.D. 50 and 51 (or 51 and 52). Deissmann has a full and able discussion of the whole matter in Appendix I to his _St. Paul_. {Rose up} (katepestesan). Second aorist active of kat-ef-istemi, intransitive, to take a stand against, a double compound verb found nowhere else. They took a stand (estesan) against (kata, down on, epi, upon), they made a dash or rush at Paul as if they would stand it no longer. {Before the judgment seat} (epi to bema). See on ¯12:21. The proconsul was sitting in the basilica in the forum or agora. The Jews had probably heard of his reputation for moderation and sought to make an impression as they had on the praetors of Philippi by their rush (sunepeste, #16:22). The new proconsul was a good chance also (#25:2). So for the second time Paul faces a Roman proconsul (Sergius Paulus, #13:7) though under very different circumstances.

    18:13 {Contrary to the law} (para ton nomon). They did not accuse Paul of treason as in Thessalonica, perhaps Paul had been more careful in his language here. They bring the same charge here that the owners of the slave-girl brought in Philippi (#16:21) Perhaps they fear to go too far with Gallio, for they are dealing with a Roman proconsul, not with the politarchs of Thessalonica. The Jewish religion was a _religio licita_ and they were allowed to make convert, but not among Roman citizens. To prove that Paul was acting contrary to Roman law (for Jewish law had no standing with Gallio though the phrase has a double meaning) these Jews had to show that Paul was making converts in ways that violated the Roman regulations on that subject. The accusation as made did not show it nor did they produce any evidence to do it. The verb used anapeiqei means to stir up by persuasion (old verb here only in the N.T.), a thing that he had a right to do.

    18:14 {When Paul was about to open his mouth} (mellontos tou paulou anoigein to stoma). Genitive absolute again. Before Paul could speak, Gallio cut in and ended the whole matter. According to their own statement Paul needed no defence. {Wrong} (adikema). _Injuria_. Old word, a wrong done one. In N.T. only here, #Ac 24:20; Re 18:5. Here it may mean a legal wrong to the state. {Wicked villainy} (rhaidiourgema). A crime, act of a criminal, from rhaidiourgos (rhaidios, easy, ergon, work), one who does a thing with ease, adroitly, a "slick citizen." {Reason would that I should bear with you} (kata logon an anescomen humwn). Literally, "according to reason I should have put up with you (or held myself back from you)." this condition is the second class (determined as unfulfilled) and means that the Jews had no case against Paul in a Roman court. The verb in the conclusion (anescomen) is second aorist middle indicative and means with the ablative humwn "I should have held myself back (direct middle) from you (ablative). The use of an makes the form of the condition plain.

    18:15 {Questions} (zetemata). Plural, contemptuous, "a parcel of questions" (Knowling). {About words} (peri logou). Word, singular, talk, not deed or fact (ergon, factum). {And names} (kai onomatwn). As to whether "Jesus" should also be called "Christ" or "Messiah." The Jews, Gallio knew, split hairs over words and names. {And your own law} (kai nomou tou kaq' humas) Literally, "And law that according to you." Gallio had not been caught in the trap set for him. What they had said concerned Jewish law, not Roman law at all. {Look to it yourselves} (oyesqe autoi). The volitive future middle indicative of horaw often used (cf. #Mt 27:4) where an imperative could be employed (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 874). The use of autoi (yourselves) turns it all over to them. {I am not minded} (ou boulomai). I am not willing, I do not wish. An absolute refusal to allow a religious question to be brought before a Roman civil court. this decision of Gallio does not establish Christianity in preference to Judaism. It simply means that the case was plainly that Christianity was a form of Judaism and as such was not opposed to Roman law. this decision opened the door for Paul's preaching all over the Roman Empire. Later Paul himself argues (#Ro 9-11) that in fact Christianity is the true, the spiritual Judaism.

    18:16 {He drave them} (apelasen autous). First aorist active indicative of apelaunw, old word, but here alone in the N.T. The Jews were stunned by this sudden blow from the mild proconsul and wanted to linger to argue the case further, but they had to go.

    18:17 {They all laid hold on Sosthenes} (epilabomenoi pantes swsqenen). See #16:19; 17:19 for the same form. Here is violent hostile reaction against their leader who had failed so miserably. {Beat him} (etupton). Inchoative imperfect active, began to beat him, even if they could not beat Paul. Sosthenes succeeded Crispus (verse #8) when he went over to Paul. The beating did Sosthenes good for he too finally is a Christian (#1Co 1:1), a co-worker with Paul whom he had sought to persecute. {And Gallio cared for none of these things} (kai ouden toutwn twi galliwni emelen). Literally, "no one of these things was a care to Gallio." The usually impersonal verb (melei, emelen, imperfect active) here has the nominative as in #Lu 10:40. These words have been often misunderstood as a description of Gallio's lack of interest in Christianity, a religious indifferentist. But that is quite beside the mark. Gallio looked the other way with a blind eye while Sosthenes got the beating which he richly deserved. That was a small detail for the police court, not for the proconsul's concern. Gallio shows up well in Luke's narrative as a clear headed judge who would not be led astray by Jewish subterfuges and with the courage to dismiss a mob.

    18:18 {Having tarried after this yet many days} (eti prosmeinas hemeras hikanas). First aorist (constative) active participle of prosmenw, old verb, to remain besides (pros as in #1Ti 1:3) and that idea is expressed also in eti (yet). The accusative is extent of time. On Luke's frequent use of hikanos see #8:11. It is not certain that this period of "considerable days" which followed the trial before Gallio is included in the year and six months of verse #11 or is in addition to it which is most likely. Vindicated as Paul was, there was no reason for haste in leaving, though he usually left after such a crisis was passed. {Took his leave} (apotaxamenos). First aorist middle (direct), old verb, to separate oneself, to bid farewell (Vulgate _valefacio_), as in verse #21; Mr 6:46. {Sailed thence} (exeplei). Imperfect active of ekplew, old and common verb, inchoative imperfect, started to sail. Only Priscilla and Aquila are mentioned as his companions though others may have been in the party. {Having shorn his head} (keiramenos ten kefalen). First aorist middle (causative) of keirw, old verb to shear (sheep) and the hair as also in #1Co 11:6. The participle is masculine and so cannot refer to Priscilla. Aquila comes next to the participle, but since mention of Priscilla and Aquila is parenthetical and the two other participles (prosmeinas, apotaxamenos) refer to Paul it seems clear that this one does also. {For he had a vow} (eicen gar eucen). Imperfect active showing the continuance of the vow up till this time in Cenchreae, the port of Corinth when it expired. It was not a Nazarite vow which could be absolved only in Jerusalem. It is possible that the hair was only polled or trimmed, cut shorter, not "shaved" (xuraw as in #21:24) for there is a distinction as both verbs are contrasted in #1Co 11:6 (keirasqai e xurasqai). It is not clear what sort of a vow Paul had taken nor why he took it. It may have been a thank offering for the outcome at Corinth (Hackett). Paul as a Jew kept up his observance of the ceremonial law, but refused to impose it on the Gentiles.

    18:19 {Came} (katentesan). Came down, as usual in speaking of coming to land (#16:1). {To Ephesus} (eis efeson). this great city on the Cayster, the capital of the Province of Asia, the home of the worship of Diana (Artemis) with a wonderful temple, Paul at last had reached, though forbidden to come on the way out on this tour (#16:6). Here Paul will spend three years after his return from Jerusalem. {He left them there} (kakeinous katelipen autou). That is, Priscilla and Aquila he left (second aorist active indicative) here (autou). But Luke mentions the departure by way of anticipation before he actually went away (verse #21). {But he himself} (autos de). Paul again the leading person in the narrative. On this occasion he may have gone alone into the synagogue. {He reasoned} (dielexato). Luke's favorite word for Paul's synagogue discourses (#17:2,17; 18:4 which see) as also #19:8,9.

    18:20 {When they asked him} (erwtwntwn autwn). Genitive absolute of present participle of erwtaw, old verb to ask a question, common in _Koin‚_ to make a request as here. {He consented not} (ouk epeneusen). First aorist active indicative of epineuw, old verb to express approval by a nod, only here in the N.T.

    18:21 {I shall return} (anakamyw). Future active indicative of anakamptw, old verb to bend back, turn back (#Mt 2:2). {If God will} (tou qeou qelontos). Genitive absolute of present active participle. this expression (ean with subjunctive) occurs also in #1Co 4:19; 16:7; Jas 4:15. Such phrases were common among Jews, Greeks, and Romans, and are today. It is simply a recognition that we are in God's hands. The Textus Receptus has here a sentence not in the best MSS.: "I must by all means keep this feast that cometh in Jerusalem." this addition by D and other documents may have been due to a desire to give a reason for the language in verse #22 about "going up" to Jerusalem. Whether Paul said it or not, it was in the spring when he made this journey with a company of pilgrims probably going to the feast of Pentecost in Jerusalem. We know that later Paul did try to reach Jerusalem for Pentecost (#20:16) and succeeded. As the ship was leaving, Paul had to go, but with the hope of returning soon to Ephesus as he did.

    18:22 {He went up and saluted the church} (anabas kai aspasamenos ten ekklesian). The language could refer to the church in Caesarea where Paul had just landed, except for several things. The going up (anabas, second aorist active participle of anabainw) is the common way of speaking of going to Jerusalem which was up from every direction save from Hebron. It was the capital of Palestine as people in England today speaking of going up to London. Besides "he went down to Antioch" (katebe eis Antioceian, second aorist active indicative of katabainw) which language suits better leaving Jerusalem than Caesarea. Moreover, there was no special reason for this trip to Caesarea, but to Jerusalem it was different. Here Paul saluted the church in the fourth of his five visits after his conversion (#9:26; 11:30; 15:4; 18:22; 21:17). The apostles may or may not have been in the city, but Paul had friends in Jerusalem now. Apparently he did not tarry long, but returned to Antioch to make a report of his second mission tour as he had done at the close of the first when he and Barnabas came back (#14:26-28). He had started on this tour with Silas and had picked up Timothy and Luke, but came back alone. He had a great story to tell.

    18:23 {Having spent some time} (poiesas cronon tina). Literally, having done some time. How long we do not know, probably not long. There are those who place the visit of Peter here to which Paul alludes in #Ga 2:11ff. and which we have located while Paul was here the last time (#Ac 15:35). {He departed} (exelqen). Thus simply and alone Paul began the third mission tour without a Barnabas or a Silas. {Went through} (diercomenos). Present middle participle, going through. {The region of Galatia and Phrygia} (ten Galatikˆn ch"ran kai Phrygian). See on ¯Ac 16:6 for discussion of this phrase, here in reverse order, passing through the Galatic region and qen Phrygia. Does Luke mean Lycaonia (Derbe and Lystra) and Phrygia (Iconium and Pisidian Antioch)? Or does he mean the route west through the old Galatia and the old Phrygia on west into Asia? The same conflict exists here over the South Galatian and the North Galatian theories. Phrygia is apparently distinguished from the Galatic region here. It is apparently A.D. 52 when Paul set out on this tour. {In order} (kaqexes). In succession as in #11:4, though the names of the cities are not given. {Stablishing} (sterizwn). As he did in the second tour (#15:41, episterizwn, compound of this same verb) which see.

    18:24 {Apollos} (apollws). Genitive -" Attic second declension. Probably a contraction of apollonios as D has it here. {An Alexandrian} (alexandreus). Alexander the Great founded this city B.C. 332 and placed a colony of Jews there which flourished greatly, one-third of the population at this time. There was a great university and library there. The Jewish-Alexandrian philosophy developed here of which Philo was the chief exponent who was still living. Apollos was undoubtedly a man of the schools and a man of parts. {A learned man} (aner logios). Or eloquent, as the word can mean either a man of words (like one "wordy," verbose) or a man of ideas, since logos was used either for reason or speech. Apollos was doubtless both learned (mighty in the Scriptures) and eloquent, though eloquence varies greatly in people's ideas. {Mighty in the Scriptures} (dunatos wn en tais grafais). Being powerful (dunatos verbal of dunamai and same root as dunamis, dynamite, dynamo) in the Scriptures (in the knowledge and the use of the Scriptures), as should be true of every preacher. There is no excuse for ignorance of the Scriptures on the part of preachers, the professed interpreters of the word of God. The last lecture made to the New Testament English class in Southern Baptist Theological Seminary by John A. Broadus was on this passage with a plea for his students to be mighty in the Scriptures. In Alexandria Clement of Alexandria and Origen taught in the Christian theological school.

    18:25 {Had been instructed in the way of the Lord} (en katecemenos ten hodon tou kuriou). Periphrastic past perfect passive of katecew, rare in the old Greek and not in the LXX from kata and ecew (ecw, sound) as in #Lu 1:4, to re-sound, to re-echo, to teach by repeated dinning into the ears as the Arabs do now, to teach orally by word of mouth (and ear). Here the accusative of the thing (the word) is retained in the passive like with didaskw, to teach (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 485). Being fervent in spirit (zewn twi pneumati). Boiling (from zew, to boil, old and common verb, in N.T. only here and #Ro 12:11) like boiling water or yeast. The Latin verb _ferveo_ means to boil or ferment. Locative case after it. {Taught carefully} (edidasken akribws). Imperfect active, was teaching or inchoative, began teaching, accurately. He taught accurately what he knew, a fine gift for any preacher. {Only the baptism of John} (monon to baptisma iwanou). It was a {baptism of repentance} (marked by repentance) as Paul said (#13:24; 19:4), as Peter said (#2:38) and as the Gospels tell (#Mr 1:4, etc.). That is to say, Apollos knew only what the Baptist knew when he died, but John had preached the coming of the Messiah, had baptized him, had identified him as the Son of God, had proclaimed the baptism of the Holy Spirit, but had not seen the Cross, the Resurrection of Jesus, nor the great Day of Pentecost.

    18:26 {They took him unto them} (proselabonto). Second aorist middle (indirect) indicative of proslambanw, old verb, to their home and heart as companion (cf. the rabbis and the ruffians in #17:5). Probably for dinner after service. {Expounded} (exeqento). Second aorist (effective) middle indicative of ektiqemi seen already in #11:4, to set forth. {More carefully} (akribesteron). Comparative adverb of akribws. More accurately than he already knew. Instead of abusing the young and brilliant preacher for his ignorance they (particularly Priscilla) gave him the fuller story of the life and work of Jesus and of the apostolic period to fill up the gaps in his knowledge. It is a needed and delicate task, this thing of teaching gifted young ministers. They do not learn it all in schools. More of it comes from contact with men and women rich in grace and in the knowledge of God's ways. He was not rebaptized, but only received fuller information.

    18:27 {Encouraged him} (protreyamenoi). First aorist middle participle of protrepw, old verb, to urge forward, to push on, only here in the N.T. Since Apollos wanted (boulomenou autou, genitive absolute) to go into Achaia, the brethren (including others besides Priscilla and Aquila) wrote (egrayan) a letter of introduction to the disciples in Corinth to receive him (apodexasqai auton), a nice letter of recommendation and a sincere one also. But Paul will refer to this very letter later (#2Co 3:1) and observe that he himself needed no such letter of commendation. The Codex Bezae adds here that certain Corinthians who had come to Ephesus heard Apollos and begged him to cross over with them to Corinth. this may very well be the way that Apollos was led to go. Preachers often receive calls because visitors from other places hear them. Priscilla and Aquila were well known in Corinth and their approval would carry weight. But they did not urge Apollos to stay longer in Ephesus. {Helped them much} (sunebaleto polu). Second aorist middle indicative of sunballw used in #17:18 for "dispute," old verb to throw together, in the N.T. always in the active save here in the middle (common in Greek writers) to put together, to help. {Through grace} (dia tes caritos). this makes sense if taken with "believed," as Hackett does (cf. #13:48; 16:14) or with "helped" (#1Co 3:10; 15:10; 2Co 1:12). Both are true as the references show.

    18:28 {Powerfully} (eutonws). Adverb from eutonos (eu, well, teinw, to stretch), well-strung, at full stretch. {Confuted} (diakatelegceto). Imperfect middle of the double compound verb dia-kat-elegcomai, to confute with rivalry in a contest, here alone. The old Greek has dielegcw, to convict of falsehood, but not this double compound which means to argue down to a finish. It is the imperfect tense and does not mean that Apollos convinced these rabbis, but he had the last word. {Publicly} (demosiai). See #5:18; 16:37. In open meeting where all could see the victory of Apollos. {Shewing} (epideiknus). Present active participle of epideiknumi, old verb to set forth so that all see. {By the Scriptures} (dia twn grafwn). In which Apollos was so "mighty" (verse #24) and the rabbis so weak for they knew the oral law better than the written (#Mr 7:8-12). {That Jesus was the Christ} (einai ton criston iesoun). Infinitive and the accusative in indirect assertion. Apollos proclaims the same message that Paul did everywhere (#17:3). He had not yet met Paul, but he had been instructed by Priscilla and Aquila. He is in Corinth building on the foundation laid so well by Paul (#1Co 3:4-17). Luke has here made a brief digression from the story of Paul, but it helps us understand Paul better There are those who think that Apollos wrote Hebrews, a guess that may be correct.

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