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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - ACTS 23

    Acts 22 - Acts 24 - VINCENT'S STUDY - HELP - FACEBOOK - GR FORUMS - GODRULES ON YOUTUBE    




    23:1 {Looking steadfastly} (atenisas). See on this word #1:10; 3:12; 6:15; 7:55; 13:9. Paul may have had weak eyes, but probably the earnest gaze was to see if he recognized any faces that were in the body that tried Stephen and to which he apparently once belonged. {I have lived before God} (pepoliteumai twi qewi). Perfect middle indicative of politeuw, old verb to manage affairs of city (polis) or state, to be a citizen, behave as a citizen. In the N.T. only here and #Php 1:27. The idea of citizenship was Greek and Roman, not Jewish. "He had lived as God's citizen, as a member of God's commonwealth" (Rackham). God (qewi) is the dative of personal interest. As God looked at it and in his relation to God. {In all good conscience unto this day} (pasei suneidesei agaqei acri tautes tes hemeras). this claim seems to lack tact, but for brevity's sake Paul sums up a whole speech in it. He may have said much more than Luke here reports along the line of his speech the day before, but Paul did not make this claim without consideration. It appears to contradict his confession as the chief of sinners (#1Ti 1:13-16). But that depends on one's interpretation of "good conscience." The word suneidesis is literally "joint-knowledge" in Greek, Latin (_conscientia_) and English "conscience" from the Latin. It is a late word from sunoida, to know together, common in O.T., Apocrypha, Philo, Plutarch, New Testament, Stoics, ecclesiastical writers. In itself the word simply means consciousness of one's own thoughts (#Heb 10:2), or of one's own self, qen consciousness of the distinction between right and wrong (#Ro 2:15) with approval or disapproval. But the conscience is not an infallible guide and acts according to the light that it has (#1Co 8:7,10; 1Pe 2:19). The conscience can be contaminated (#Heb 10:22, evil ponˆras). All this and more must be borne in mind in trying to understand Paul's description of his motives as a persecutor. Alleviation of his guilt comes thereby, but not removal of guilt as he himself felt (#1Ti 1:13-16). He means to say to the Sanhedrin that he persecuted Christians as a conscientious (though mistaken) Jew (Pharisee) just as he followed his conscience in turning from Judaism to Christianity. It is a pointed disclaimer against the charge that he is a renegade Jew, an opposer of the law, the people, the temple. Paul addresses the Sanhedrin as an equal and has no "apologies" (in our sense) to make for his career as a whole. The golden thread of consistency runs through, as a good citizen in God's commonwealth. He had the comfort of a good conscience (#1Pe 3:16). The word does not occur in the Gospels and chiefly in Paul's Epistles, but we see it at work in #Joh 8:9 (the interpolation #7:53-8:11).

    23:2 {Ananias} (hananias). Not the one in #Lu 3:2; Joh 18:13; Ac 4:7, but the son of Nebedaeus, nominated high priest by Herod, King of Chalcis, A.D. 48 and till A.D. 59. He was called to Rome A.D. 52 to answer "a charge of rapine and cruelty made against him by the Samaritans, but honorably acquitted" (Page). Though high priest, he was a man of bad character. {Them that stood by him} (tois parest"sin autwi). Dative case of second perfect participle of paristemi, to place, and intransitive. See the same form in verse #4 (parestwtes). {To smite him on the mouth} (tuptein autou to stoma). See on ¯12:45; 18:17. Cf. the treatment of Jesus (#Joh 18:22). Ananias was provoked by Paul's self-assertion while on trial before his judges. "The act was illegal and peculiarly offensive to a Jew at the hands of a Jew" (Knowling). More self-control might have served Paul better. Smiting the mouth or cheek is a peculiarly irritating offence and one not uncommon among the Jews and this fact gives point to the command of Jesus to turn the other check (#Lu 6:29 where tuptw is also used).

    23:3 {Thou whited wall} (toice kekoniamene). Perfect passive participle of konia" (from konia, dust or lime). The same word used in #Mt 23:27 for "whited sepulchres" (tafoi kekoniamenoi) which see. It is a picturesque way of calling Ananias a hypocrite, undoubtedly true, but not a particularly tactful thing for a prisoner to say to his judge, not to say Jewish high priest. Besides, Paul had hurled back at him the word tuptein (smite) in his command, putting it first in the sentence (tuptein se mellei ho qeos) in strong emphasis. Clearly Paul felt that he, not Ananias, was living as a good citizen in God's commonwealth. {And sittest thou to judge me?} (kai su kaqei krinwn me?) Literally, "And thou (being what thou art) art sitting (kaqei, second person singular middle of kaqemai, late form for kaqesai, the uncontracted form) judging me." Cf. #Lu 22:30. kai su at the beginning of a question expresses indignation. {Contrary to the law} (paranomwn). Present active participle of paranomew, old verb to act contrary to the law, here alone in the N.T., "acting contrary to the law."

    23:4 {Of God} (tou qeou). As God's representative in spite of his bad character (#De 17:8f.). Here was a charge of irreverence, to say the least. The office called for respect.

    23:5 {I wist not} (ouk eidein). Second past perfect of oida used as an imperfect. The Greek naturally means that Paul did not know that it was the high priest who gave the order to smite his mouth. If this view is taken, several things may be said by way of explanation. The high priest may not have had on his official dress as the meeting was called hurriedly by Lysias. Paul had been away so long that he may not have known Ananias on sight. And qen Paul may have had poor eyesight or the high priest may not have been sitting in the official seat. Another way of explaining it is to say that Paul was so indignant, even angry, at the command that he spoke without considering who it was that gave the order. The Greek allows this idea also. At any rate Paul at once recognizes the justice of the point made against him. He had been guilty of irreverence against the office of high priest as the passage from #Ex 22:18 (LXX) shows and confesses his fault, but the rebuke was deserved. Jesus did not threaten (#1Pe 2:23) when smitten on the cheek (#Joh 18:22), but he did protest against the act and did not turn the other cheek.

    23:6 {But when Paul perceived} (gnous de ho paulos). Perceiving (second aorist ingressive of ginwskw). Paul quickly saw that his cause was ruined before the Sanhedrin by his unwitting attack on the high priest. It was impossible to get a fair hearing. Hence, Vincent says, "Paul, with great tact, seeks to bring the two parties of the council into collision with each other." So Alford argues with the motto "divide and conquer." Farrar condemns Paul and takes #24:21 as a confession of error here, but that is reading into Paul's word about the resurrection more than he says. Page considers Luke's report meagre and unsatisfactory. Rackham thinks that the trial was already started and that Paul repeated part of his speech of the day before when "the Sadducees received his words with ostentatious scepticism and ridicule: this provoked counter-expressions of sympathy and credulity among the Pharisees." But all this is inference. We do not have to adopt the Jesuitical principle that the end justifies the means in order to see shrewdness and hard sense in what Paul said and did. Paul knew, of course, that the Sanhedrin was nearly evenly divided between Pharisees and Sadducees, for he himself had been a Pharisee. {I am a Pharisee, a son of Pharisees} (egw farisaios eimi huios farisaiwn). this was strictly true as we know from his Epistles (#Php 3:5). {Touching the hope and resurrection of the dead I am called in question} (peri elpidos kai anastasews nekrwn krinomai). this was true also and this is the point that Paul mentions in #24:21. His failure to mention again the fact that he was a Pharisee throws no discredit on Luke's report here. The chief point of difference between Pharisees and Sadducees was precisely this matter of the resurrection. And this was Paul's cardinal doctrine as a Christian minister. It was this fact that convinced him that Jesus was the Messiah and was "the very center of his faith" (Page) and of his preaching. It was not a mere trick for Paul to proclaim this fact here and so divide the Sanhedrin. As a matter of fact, the Pharisees held aloof when the Sadducees persecuted Peter and the other apostles for preaching resurrection in the case of Jesus and even Gamaliel threw cold water on the effort to punish them for it (#Ac 5:34-39). So qen Paul was really recurring to the original cleavage on this point and was able to score a point against the Sadducees as Gamaliel, his great teacher, had done before him. Besides, "Paul and Pharisaism seem to us such opposite ideas that we often forget that to Paul Christianity was the natural development of Judaism" (Page). Paul shows this in #Ga 3; Ro 9-11.

    23:7 {When he had so said} (touto autou lalountos). Genitive absolute of present participle (Westcott and Hort) rather than aorist (eipontos). While he was saying this . {A dissension} (stasis). this old word for standing or station (#Heb 9:8) from histemi, to place, we have seen already to mean insurrection (#Ac 19:40 which see). Here it is strife as in #15:2. {Was divided} (escisqe). See on ¯14:4.

    23:8 {There is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit} (me einai anastasin mete aggelon mete pneuma). Infinitive with negative me in indirect assertion. These points constitute the chief doctrinal differences between the Pharisees and the Sadducees. {Both} (amfotera). Here used though three items of belief are mentioned as in #19:16 where the seven sons of Sceva are thus described. this idiom is common enough in papyri and Byzantine Greek (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 745).

    23:9 {Strove} (diemaconto). Imperfect middle of diamacomai, old Attic verb, to fight it out (between, back and forth, fiercely). Here only in the N.T. It was a lively scrap and Luke pictures it as going on. The Pharisees definitely take Paul's side. {And what if a spirit hath spoken to him or an angel?} (ei de pneuma elalesen autwi e aggelos?). this is aposiopesis, not uncommon in the N.T., as in #Lu 13:9; Joh 6:62 (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1203). See one also in #Ex 32:32.

    23:10 {When there arose a great dissension} (polles tes ginomenes stasews). Present middle participle (genitive absolute). Literally, "dissension becoming much." {Lest Paul should be torn in pieces by them} (me diaspasqei ho paulos). First aorist passive subjunctive of diaspaw, to draw in two, to tear in pieces, old verb, in the N.T. only here and #Mr 5:4 of tearing chains in two. The subjunctive with me is the common construction after a verb of fearing (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 995). {The soldiers} (to strateuma). The army, the band of soldiers and so in verse #27. {To go down} (kataban). Second aorist active participle of katabainw, having gone down. {Take him by force} (harpasai). To seize. The soldiers were to seize and save Paul from the midst of (ek mesou) the rabbis or preachers (in their rage to get at each other). Paul was more of a puzzle to Lysias now than ever.

    23:11 {The night following} (tei epiousei nukti). Locative case, on the next (following) night. {The Lord} (ho kurios). Jesus. Paul never needed Jesus more than now. On a previous occasion the whole church prayed for Peter's release (#12:5), but Paul clearly had no such grip on the church as that, though he had been kindly welcomed (#21:18). In every crisis Jesus appears to him (cf. #Ac 18:9). It looked dark for Paul till Jesus spoke. Once before in Jerusalem Jesus spoke words of cheer (#22:18). qen he was told to leave Jerusalem. Now he is to have "cheer" or "courage" (qarsei). Jesus used this very word to others (#Mt 9:2,22; Mr 10:49). It is a brave word. {Thou hast testified} (diemarturw). First aorist middle indicative second person singular of diamarturomai, strong word (see on ¯22:18). {Must thou} (se dei). That is the needed word and on this Paul leans. His hopes (#19:21) of going to Rome will not be in vain. He can bide Christ's time now. And Jesus has approved his witness in Jerusalem.

    23:12 {Banded together} (poiesantes sustrofen). See on #19:40 (riot), but here conspiracy, secret combination, binding together like twisted cords. {Bound themselves under a curse} (aneqematisan heautous). First aorist active indicative of anaqematizw, a late word, said by Cremer and Thayer to be wholly Biblical or ecclesiastical. But Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 95) quotes several examples of the verb in an Attic cursing tablet from Megara of the first or second century A.D. this proof shows that the word, as well as anaqema (substantive) from which the verb is derived, was employed by pagans as well as by Jews. Deissmann suggests that Greek Jews like the seven sons of Sceva may have been the first to coin it. It occurs in the LXX as well as #Mr 14:71 (which see and #Luke 21:5); #Ac 23:12,14,21. They placed themselves under an anaqema or curse, devoted themselves to God (cf. #Le 27:28f.; 1Co 16:22). {Drink} (pein=piein). Second aorist active infinitive of pinw. For this shortened form see Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 343. {Till they had killed} (hews hou apokteinwsin). First aorist active subjunctive of apokteinw, common verb. No reason to translate "had killed," simply "till they should kill," the aorist merely punctiliar action, the subjunctive retained instead of the optative for vividness as usual in the _Koin‚_ (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 974-6). Same construction in verse #14. King Saul took an "anaqema" that imperilled Jonathan (#1Sa 14:24). Perhaps the forty felt that the rabbis could find some way to absolve the curse if they failed. See this verse repeated in verse #21.

    23:13 {More than forty} (pleious tesserakonta). Without "than" (e) as in verse #21; 24:11 and often in the ancient Greek. {Conspiracy} (sunwmosian). Old word from sunomnumi, to swear together. Only here in the N.T.

    23:14 {Came to the chief priests and the elders} (proselqontes tois arciereusin kai tois presbuterois). The Sanhedrin, just as Judas did (#Lu 22:4). {With a great curse} (anaqemati). this use of the same word as the verb repeated in the instrumental case is in imitation of the Hebrew absolute infinitive and common in the LXX, the very idiom and words of #De 13:15; 20:17, an example of translation Greek, though found in other languages (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 531). See on ¯Lu 21:5 for the distinction between anaqema and anaqema. Jesus had foretold: "Whoso killeth you will think that he doeth God service" (#Joh 16:2).

    23:15 {Ye} (humeis). Emphatic. {Signify} (emfanisate). First aorist active imperative of emfanizw. Make plain from emfanes, chiefly in Acts. Repeated in verse #22. The authority is with the chiliarch not with the Sanhedrin, but he had appealed to the Sanhedrin for advice. {As though ye would judge of his case more exactly} (hws mellontas diaginwskein akribesteron ta peri autou). hws with the participle gives the alleged reason as here. So also in verse #20. diagnoskw, old verb to distinguish accurately, only here in N.T. and #24:22. {Or ever come near} (pro tou eggisai auton). "Before the coming near as to him." pro and the genitive of the articular infinitive of eggizw with accusative of general reference. {We are ready to slay him} (hetoimoi esmen tou anelein auton). Genitive of purpose of the articular infinitive after the adjective hetoimoi (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1061). anelein, second aorist active of anairew.

    23:16 {Their lying in wait} (ten enedran). Old word from en (in) and hedra (seat), ambush. In N.T. only here and #25:3. Accusative object of akousas. {He came} (paragenomenos). Second aorist middle participle of paraginomai. It may mean, "having come upon them" and so discount their plot, a graphic touch. Vincent thinks that some Pharisee, since Paul was a Pharisee and so a member of the "guild," told his nephew of the plot. Perhaps, and perhaps not. {Told Paul} (apeggeilen t"i Paul"i). this nephew is not known otherwise. He may be a student here from Tarsus as Paul once was. Anyhow he knows what to do when he catches on to the conspirators. He had enough address to get into the barracks where Paul was. He ran the risk of death if discovered.

    23:17 {Called unto him} (proskalesamenos). First aorist participle indirect middle, calling to himself. Paul laid his plans as energetically as if Jesus had not promised that he would see Rome (#23:11). {Bring} (apage). "Take away."

    23:18 {Paul the prisoner} (ho desmios paulos). Bound (desmios) to a soldier, but not with two chains (#21:33), and with some freedom to see his friends as later (#28:16), in military custody (_custodia militaris_). this was better than _custodia publica_ (public custody), the common prison, but more confining. {Who hath something to say to thee} (econta ti lalesai soi). Same idiom as in verse #17,19, but lalesai here instead of apaggeilai.

    23:19 {Took him by the hand} (epilabomenos tes ceiros autou). Kindly touch in Lysias, _ut fiduciam adolescentis confirmaret_ (Bengel). Note genitive with the second aorist middle (indirect, to himself) of epilambanw as in #Lu 8:54 with kratesas which see. How old the young man (neanias) was we do not know, but it is the very word used of Paul in #7:58 when he helped in the killing of Stephen, a young man in the twenties probably. See also #20:9 of Eutychus. He is termed neaniskos in verse #22. {Asked him privately} (kat' idian epunqaneto). Imperfect middle, began to ask (inchoative).

    23:20 {The Jews} (hoi ioudaioi). As if the whole nation was in the conspiracy and so in verse #12. The conspirators may have belonged to the Zealots, but clearly they represented the state of Jewish feeling toward Paul in Jerusalem. {Have agreed} (suneqento). Second aorist middle indicative of suntiqemi, old verb to join together, to agree. Already this form in #Lu 22:5 which see. See also #Joh 9:22; Ac 24:9. {To bring down} (hopws katagageis). Very words of the conspirators in verse #15 as if the young man overheard. Second aorist active subjunctive of katagw with hopws in final clause, still used, but nothing like so common as hina though again in verse #23 (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 985). {As though thou wouldest inquire} (hws mellwn punqanesqai). Just as in verse #15 except that here mellwn refers to Lysias instead of to the conspirators as in verse #15. The singular is used by the youth out of deference to the authority of Lysias and so modifies a bit the scheming of the conspirators, not "absurd" as Page holds.

    23:21 {Do not therefore yield unto them} (su oun me peisqeis autois). First aorist passive subjunctive of peiqw, common verb, here to be persuaded by, to listen to, to obey, to yield to. With negative and rightly. Do not yield to them (dative) at all. On the aorist subjunctive with me in prohibitions against committing an act see Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 851-4. {For there lie in wait} (enedreuousin gar). Present active indicative of enedreuw, old verb from enedra (verse #16), in the N.T. only here and #Lu 11:54 which see. {Till they have slain him} (hews hou anel"sin auton). Same idiom as in verse #12 save that here we have anel"sin (second aorist active subjunctive) instead of apokteinwsin (another word for kill), "till they slay him." {Looking for the promise from thee} (prosdecomenoi ten apo sou epaggelian). this item is all that is needed to put the scheme through, the young man shrewdly adds.

    23:22 {Tell no man} (medeni eklalesai). Indirect command (_oratio obliqua_) after paraggeilas (charging) with first aorist active infinitive of eklalew (in ancient Greek, but here only in N.T.), but construction changed to direct in rest of the sentence (_oratio recta_) as in #1:4, "that thou hast signified these things to me" (hoti tauta enefanisas pros eme). Same verb here as in verse #15. this change is common in the N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1047).

    23:23 {Two} (tinas duo). "Some two" as in #Lu 7:19, indicating (Page) that they were not specially chosen. {Soldiers} (stratiwtas), {horsemen} (hippeis), {spearmen} (dexiolabous). The three varieties of troops in a Roman army like the cohort of Lysias (Page). The stratiwtai were the heavy-armed legionaries, the hippeis belonged to every legion, the dexiolaboi were light-armed supplementary troops who carried a lance in the right hand (dexios, right, lambanw, to take). Vulgate, _lancearios_. At the third hour of the night (apo trites hwras tes nuktos). About nine in the evening.

    23:24 {Provide beasts} (ktene parastesai). Change from direct to indirect discourse just the opposite of that in verse #22. {Beasts} (ktene). For riding as here or for baggage. See on ¯Lu 10:34. Asses or horses, but not war-horses. Since Paul was chained to a soldier, another animal would be required for baggage. It was also seventy miles and a change of horses might be needed. The extreme precaution of Lysias is explained in some Latin MSS. as due to fear of a night attack with the result that he might be accused to Felix of bribery. Luke also probably accompanied Paul. {To bring safe} (hina dias"s"sin). Final clause with hina and the first aorist active subjunctive of diaswzw, old verb, to save through (dia) to a finish. Eight times in the N.T. (#Mt 14:36; Lu 7:3; Ac 23:24; 27:43,44; 28:1,4; 1Pe 3:20). {Unto Felix the governor} (pros felika ton hegemona). Felix was a brother of Pallas, the notorious favorite of Claudius. Both had been slaves and were now freedmen. Felix was made procurator of Judea by Claudius A.D. 52. He held the position till Festus succeeded him after complaints by the Jews to Nero. He married Drusilla the daughter of Herod Agrippa I with the hope of winning the favor of the Jews. He was one of the most depraved men of his time. Tacitus says of him that "with all cruelty and lust he exercised the power of a king with the spirit of a slave." The term "governor" (hegemwn) means "leader" from hegeomai, to lead, and was applied to leaders of all sorts (emperors, kings, procurators). In the N.T. it is used of Pilate (#Mt 27:2), of Felix, (#Ac 23:24,26,33; 24:1), of Festus (#26:30).

    23:25 {And he wrote} (grayas). First aorist active participle of grafw, agreeing with the subject (Lysias) of eipen (said) back in verse #23 (beginning). {After this form} (ecousan ton tupon touton). Textus Receptus has periecousan. The use of tupon (type or form) like _exemplum_ in Latin (Page who quotes Cicero _Ad Att_. IX. 6. 3) may give merely the purport or substantial contents of the letter. But there is no reason for thinking that it is not a genuine copy since the letter may have been read in open court before Felix, and Luke was probably with Paul. The Roman law required that a subordinate officer like Lysias in reporting a case to his superior should send a written statement of the case and it was termed _elogium_. A copy of the letter may have been given Paul after his appeal to Caesar. It was probably written in Latin. The letter is a "dexterous mixture of truth and falsehood" (Furneaux) with the stamp of genuineness. It puts things in a favorable light for Lysias and makes no mention of his order to scourge Paul.

    23:26 {Most excellent} (kratistwi). See on ¯Lu 1:3 to Theophilus though not in #Ac 1:1. It is usual in addressing men of rank as here, like our "Your Excellency" in #24:3 and Paul uses it to Festus in #26:25. {Greeting} (cairein). Absolute infinitive with independent or absolute nominative (klaudios lusias) as is used in letters (#Ac 15:23; Jas 1:1) and in countless papyri (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1092).

    23:27 {Was seized} (sullemfqenta). First aorist passive participle of sullambanw. {Rescued him having learned that he was a Roman} (exeilamen maqwn hoti romaios estin). Wendt, Zoeckler, and Furneaux try to defend this record of two facts by Lysias in the wrong order from being an actual lie as Bengel rightly says. Lysias did rescue Paul and he did learn that he was a Roman, but in this order. He did not first learn that he was a Roman and qen rescue him as his letter states. The use of the aorist participle (maqwn from manqanw) after the principal verb exeilamen (second aorist middle of exairew, to take out to oneself, to rescue) can be either simultaneous action or antecedent. There is in Greek no such idiom as the aorist participle of subsequent action (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1112-14). Lysias simply reversed the order of the facts and omitted the order for scourging Paul to put himself in proper light with Felix his superior officer and actually poses as the protector of a fellow Roman citizen.

    23:28 {To know} (epignwnai). To know fully, epi, second aorist active infinitive. {They accused him} (enekaloun autwi). Imperfect active indicative, were accusing him (dative), repeating their charges.

    23:29 {Concerning questions of their law} (peri zetemata tou nomou autwn). The very distinction drawn by Gallio in Corinth (#Ac 18:14f.). On the word see on #15:2. {But to have nothing laid to his charge worthy of death or of bonds} (meden de axion qanatou e desmwn econta enklema). Literally, "having no accusation (or crime) worthy of death or of bonds." this phrase here only in the N.T. egklema is old word for accusation or crime from egkalew used in verse #28 and in the N.T. only here and #25:16. Lysias thus expresses the opinion that Paul ought to be set free and the lenient treatment that Paul received in Caesarea and Rome (first imprisonment) is probably due to this report of Lysias. Every Roman civil officer before whom Paul appears declares him innocent (Gallio, Lysias, Felix, Festus).

    23:30 {When it was shown to me that there would be a plot} (menuqeises moi epiboules esesqai). Two constructions combined; genitive absolute (menuqeises epiboules, first aorist passive participle of menuw) and future infinitive (esesqai as if epiboulen accusative of general reference used) in indirect assertion after menuw (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 877). {Charging his accusers also} (paraggeilas kai tois kategorois). First aorist active participle of paraggellw with which compare maqwn above (verse #27), not subsequent action. Dative case in kategorois. {Before thee} (epi sou). Common idiom for "in the presence of" when before a judge (like Latin _apud_) as in #24:20,21; 25:26; 26:2. What happened to the forty conspirators we have no way of knowing. Neither they nor the Jews from Asia are heard of more during the long five years of Paul's imprisonment in Caesarea and Rome.

    23:31 {As it was commanded them} (kata to diatetagmenon autois). "According to that which was commanded them," perfect passive articular participle of diatassw. {By night} (dia nuktos). Through the night, travelling by night forty miles from Jerusalem to Antipatris which was founded by Herod the Great and was on the road from Jerusalem to Caesarea, a hard night's ride.

    23:33 {And they} (hoitines). Which very ones, the cavalry, the horsemen of verse #31. {Delivered} (anadontes). Second aorist active participle of anadidwmi, old verb to give up, to hand over, here only in the N.T. {Presented Paul also} (parestesan kai ton paulon). First aorist active (transitive, not second aorist intransitive) indicative of paristemi, common verb to present or place beside. What would Paul's friends in Caesarea (Philip and his daughters) think of the prophecy of Agabus now so quickly come true.

    23:34 {When he had read it} (anagnous). Second aorist active participle of anaginwskw, to know again, to read. {Of what province he was} (ek poias eparceias estin). Tense of estin (is) retained in indirect question. poias is strictly "of what kind of" province, whether senatorial or imperial. Cilicia, like Judea, was under the control of the propraetor of Syria (imperial province). Paul's arrest was in Jerusalem and so under the jurisdiction of Felix unless it was a matter of insurrection when he could appeal to the propraetor of Syria.

    23:35 {I will hear thy cause} (diakousomai). "I will hear thee fully" (dia). {When--are come} (paragenwntai). Second aorist middle subjunctive of paraginomai with temporal conjunction hotan, indefinite temporal clause of future time (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 972), "whenever thine accusers come." {In Herod's palace} (en twi praitwriwi). The Latin word praetorium. The word meant the camp of the general, qen the palace of the governor as here and #Mt 27:27 which see, and qen the camp of praetorian soldiers or rather the praetorian guard as in #Php 1:13.

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