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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - ACTS 25

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    25:1 {Having come into the province} (epibas tei eparceiai). Second aorist active participle of epibainw, to set foot upon. Literally, "Having set foot upon his province." eparceia is a late word for province, in N.T. only here and #23:34. Judea was not strictly a province, but a department (Page) of the province of Syria which was under a _propraetor_ (legatus caesaris) while Judea was under a _procurator_ (epitropos). {After three days} (meta treis hemeras). So in #Ac 28:17 in Rome. That is on the third day, with a day of rest in between. Precisely the language used of the resurrection of Jesus "after three days" = "on the third day." So by common usage qen and now.

    25:2 {The principal men} (hoi prwtoi). The first men, the leading men of the city, besides the chief priests. In verse #15 we have "the chief priests and the elders." These chief men among the Jews would desire to pay their respects to the new Procurator on his first visit to Jerusalem. There was another high priest now, Ishmael in place of Ananias. {Informed him against Paul} (enefanisan autwi kata tou paulou). " this renewal of the charge after two years, on the very first opportunity, is a measure, not only of their unsleeping hatred, but of the importance which they attached to Paul's influence" (Furneaux). {Besought} (parekaloun). Imperfect active, kept on beseeching as a special favor to the Jews.

    25:3 {Asking favor against him} (aitoumenoi carin kat' autou). A favor to themselves (middle voice), not to Paul, but "against" (kat', down, against) him. {That he would send for} (hopws metapemyetai). First aorist middle subjunctive of metapempw (see #24:24,26) with final particle hopws like hina. Aorist tense for single case. {Laying wait} (enedran poiountes). See on ¯23:16 for the word enedra. Old idiom (Thucydides) for laying a plot or ambush as here. Only these two uses of enedra in N.T. Two years before the Sanhedrin had agreed to the plot of the forty conspirators. Now they propose one on their own initiative. {On the way} (kata ten hodon). Down along, up and down along the way. Plenty of opportunity would occur between Caesarea and Jerusalem for ambush and surprise attacks.

    25:4 {However} (men oun). No antithesis expressed, though Page considers de in verse #6 to be one. They probably argued that it was easier for one man (Paul) to come to Jerusalem than for many to go down there. But Festus was clearly suspicious (verse #6) and was wholly within his rights to insist that they make their charges in Caesarea where he held court. {Was kept in charge} (tereisqai). Present passive infinitive of terew in indirect assertion. hoti with finite verb is more common after apokrinomai, but the infinitive with the accusative of general reference is proper as here (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1036). {Shortly} (en tacei). In quickness, in speed. Old and common usage, seen already in #Lu 18:8; Ac 12:7; 22:18. Festus is clearly within his rights again since his stay in Caesarea had been so brief. He did go down in "eight or ten days" (verse #6). Luke did not consider the matter important enough to be precise.

    25:5 {Them therefore which are of power among you} (hoi oun en humin dunatoi). "The mighty ones among you,"the men of power" (dunatoi) and authority, "the first men," the Sanhedrin, in other words. Note change here by Luke from indirect discourse in verse #4, to direct in verse #5 (fesin, says he). {Go down with me} (sunkatabantes). Double compound (sun, kata) second aorist active participle of sunkatabainw. It was a fair proposal. {If there is anything amiss in the man} (ei ti estin en twi andri atopon). Condition of the first class, assuming that there is (to be courteous to them), but not committing himself on the merits of the case. atopon is an old word, specially common in Plato, meaning "out of place." In N.T. only here and #Lu 23:41 which see; #Ac 28:6; 2Th 3:2. Note present tense active voice of kategoreitwsan (imperative) of kategorew, repeat their accusations.

    25:6 {On the morrow} (tei epaurion). Locative case of the article with hemerai understood (epaurion, adverb, tomorrow). Festus lost no time for the chief men had come down with him. {Sat on the judgment seat} (kaqisas epi tou bematos). A legal formality to give weight to the decision. Ingressive aorist active participle. For this use of bema for judgment seat see on ¯Mt. 27:19; Joh 19:13; Acts 12:21; 18:12; 25:10,17. Same phrase repeated in #25:17. {To be brought} (acqenai). First aorist passive infinitive of ag" after ekeleusen (commanded). Same words repeated in #25:17 by Festus.

    25:7 {When he was come} (paragenomenou autou). Genitive absolute of common verb paraginomai (cf. #24:24). {Which had come down} (hoi katabebekotes). Perfect active participle of katabainw. They had come down on purpose at the invitation of Festus (verse #5), and were now ready. {Stood round about him} (periestesan auton). Second aorist (ingressive) active (intransitive) of periistemi, old verb, "Took their stand around him,"_periculum intentantes_" (Bengel). Cf. #Lu 23:10 about Christ. They have no lawyer this time, but they mass their forces so as to impress Festus. {Bringing against him} (kataferontes). Bearing down on. See on ¯20:9; 26:10, only N.T. examples of this ancient verb. {Many and grievous charges} (polla kai barea aitiwmata). this word aitiwma for old form aitiama is found in one papyrus (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_) in sense of "blame." But the charges were no "heavier" than those made by Tertullus (#24:5-8). Paul's reply proves this and they were also probably on court record (Furneaux). See this adjective barus (heavy) used with lukoi (wolves) in #20:29. {Which they could not prove} (ha ouk iscuon apodeixai). Imperfect active of iscuw, to have strength or power as in #19:16,20. Repetition and reiteration and vehemence took the place of proof (apodeixai, first aorist active infinitive of apodeiknumi, to show forth, old verb, in N.T. only here, #Ac 2:22 which see and #1Co 4:9).

    25:8 {While Paul said in his defence} (tou paulou apologoumenou). Genitive absolute again, present middle participle of apologeomai, old verb to make defence as in #19:33; 24:10; 26:1,2. The recitative hoti of the Greek before a direct quotation is not reproduced in English. {Have I sinned at all} (ti hemarton). Constative aorist active indicative of hamartanw, to miss, to Sin. The ti is cognate accusative (or adverbial accusative). Either makes sense. Paul sums up the charges under the three items of law of the Jews, the temple, the Roman state (Caesar). this last was the one that would interest Festus and, if proved, would render Paul guilty of treason (majestas). Nero was Emperor A.D. 54-68, the last of the emperors with any hereditary claim to the name "Caesar." Soon it became merely a title like Kaiser and Czar (modern derivatives). In Acts only "Caesar" and "Augustus" are employed for the Emperor, not "King" (basileus) as from the time of Domitian. Paul's denial is complete and no proof had been presented. Luke was apparently present at the trial.

    25:9 {Desiring to gain favor with the Jews} (qelwn tois ioudaiois carin kataqesqai). Precisely the expression used of Felix by Luke in #24:27 which see. Festus, like Felix, falls a victim to fear of the Jews. {Before me} (ep' emou). Same use of epi with the genitive as in #23:30; 24:19,21. Festus, seeing that it was unjust to condemn Paul and yet disadvantageous to absolve him (Blass), now makes the very proposal to Paul that the rulers had made to him in Jerusalem (verse #3). He added the words "ep' emou" (before me) as if to insure Paul of justice. If Festus was unwilling to give Paul justice in Caesarea where his regular court held forth, what assurance was there that Festus would give it to him at Jerusalem in the atmosphere of intense hostility to Paul? Only two years ago the mob, the Sanhedrin, the forty conspirators had tried to take his life in Jerusalem. Festus had no more courage to do right than Felix, however plausible his language might sound. Festus also, while wanting Paul to think that he would in Jerusalem "be judged of these things before me," in reality probably intended to turn Paul over to the Sanhedrin in order to please the Jews, probably with Festus present also to see that Paul received justice (me presente). Festus possibly was surprised to find that the charges were chiefly against Jewish law, though one was against Caesar. It was not a mere change of venue that Paul sensed, but the utter unwillingness of Festus to do his duty by him and his willingness to connive at Jewish vengeance on Paul. Paul had faced the mob and the Sanhedrin in Jerusalem, two years of trickery at the hands of Felix in Caesarea, and now he is confronted by the bland chicanery of Festus. It is too much, the last straw.

    25:10 {I am standing before Caesar's judgment-seat} (hestws epi tou bematos kaisaros eimi). Periphrastic present perfect indicative (hestws eimi), second perfect participle hestws of histemi (intransitive). Paul means to say that he is a Roman citizen before a Roman tribunal. Festus was the representative of Caesar and had no right to hand him over to a Jewish tribunal. Festus recognized this by saying to Paul "wilt thou" (qeleis). {Where I ought to be judged} (hou me dei krinesqai). Rather, "Where I must be judged," for dei expresses necessity (it is necessary). Paul exposes the conduct of Festus with merciless precision. {As thou also very well knowest} (hws kai su kallion epiginwskeis). "As thou also dost understand (hast additional knowledge, epigin"skeis) better" (than thou art willing to admit). That this is Paul's meaning by the use of the comparative kallion (positive kalws) is made plain by the confession of Festus to Agrippa in verse #18. Paul says that Festus knows that he has done no wrong to the Jews at all (ouden edikeka) and yet he is trying to turn him over to the wrath of the Jews in Jerusalem.

    25:11 {If I am a wrong-doer} (ei men oun adikw). Condition of the first class with ei and the present active indicative of adikew (a privative and dike): "If I am in the habit of doing injustice," assuming it to be true for the sake of argument. {And have committed anything worthy of death} (kai axion qanatou pepraca). Same condition with the difference in tense (pepraca, perfect active indicative) of a single case instead of a general habit. Assuming either or both Paul draws his conclusion. {I refuse not to die} (ou paraitoumai to apoqanein). Old verb to ask alongside, to beg from, to deprecate, to refuse, to decline. See on ¯Lu 14:18f. Josephus (_Life_, 29) has thanein ou paraitoumai. Here the articular second aorist active infinitive is in the accusative case the object of paraitoumai: "I do not beg off dying from myself." {But if none of these things is} (ei de ouden estin). de here is contrasted with men just before. No word for "true" in the Greek. estin ("is") in the Greek here means "exists." Same condition (first class, assumed as true). {Whereof these accuse me} (hwn houtoi kategorousin mou). Genitive of relative hon by attraction from ha (accusative with kategorousin) to case of the unexpressed antecedent toutwn ("of these things"). Mou is genitive of person after kategorousin. {No man can give me up to them} (oudeis me dunatai autois carisasqai). "Can" legally. Paul is a Roman citizen and not even Festus can make a free gift (carisasqai) of Paul to the Sanhedrin. {I appeal unto Caesar} (kaisara epikaloumai). Technical phrase like Latin _Caesarem appello_. Originally the Roman law allowed an appeal from the civil officer to the people (_provocatio ad populum_), but the emperor represented the people and so the appeal to Caesar was the right of every Roman citizen. Paul had crossed the Rubicon on this point and so took his case out of the hands of dilatory provincial justice (really injustice). Roman citizens could make this appeal in capital offences. There would be expense connected with it, but better that with some hope than delay and certain death in Jerusalem. Festus was no better than Felix in his vacillation and desire to curry favor with the Jews at Paul's expense. No doubt Paul's long desire to see Rome (#19:21; Ro 15:22-28) and the promise of Jesus that he would see Rome (#Ac 23:11) played some part in Paul's decision. But he made it reluctantly for he says in Rome (#Ac 28:19): "I was constrained to appeal." But acquittal at the hands of Festus with the hope of going to Rome as a free man had vanished.

    25:12 {When he had conferred with the council} (sunlalesas meta tou sumbouliou). The word sumboulion in the N.T. usually means "counsel" as in #Mt 12:14, but here alone as an assembly of counsellors or council. But the papyri (Milligan and Moulton's _Vocabulary_) furnish a number of instances of this sense of the word as "council." Here it apparently means the chief officers and personal retinue of the procurator, his assessors (assessores consiliarii). These local advisers were a necessity. Some discretion was allowed the governor about granting the appeal. If the prisoner were a well-known robber or pirate, it could be refused. {Thou hast appealed unto Caesar} (kaisara epikeklesai). The same technical word, but the perfect tense of the indicative. {Unto Caesar thou shalt go} (epi kaisara poreusei). Perhaps the volitive future (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 874). Bengel thinks that Festus sought to frighten Paul with these words. Knowling suggests that "they may have been uttered, if not with a sneer, yet with the implication 'thou little knowest what an appeal to Caesar means.'" But embarrassment will come to Festus. He has refused to acquit this prisoner. Hence he must formulate charges against him to go before Caesar.

    25:13 {When certain days were passed} (hemerwn diagenomenon). Genitive absolute of diaginomai, to come between, "days intervening." {Agrippa the King} (agrippas ho basileus). Agrippa II son of Agrippa I of #Ac 12:20-23. On the death of Herod King of Chalcis A.D. 48, Claudius A.D. 50 gave this Herod Agrippa II the throne of Chalcis so that Luke is correct in calling him king, though he is not king of Judea. But he was also given by Claudius the government of the temple and the right of appointing the high priest. Later he was given also the tetrarchies of Philip and Lysanias. He was the last Jewish king in Palestine, though not king of Judea. He angered the Jews by building his palace so as to overlook the temple and by frequent changes in the high priesthood. He made his capital at Caesarea Philippi which he called Neronias in honor of Nero. Titus visited it after the fall of Jerusalem. {Bernice} (bernike). He was her brother and yet she lived with him in shameful intimacy in spite of her marriage to her uncle Herod King of Chalcis and to Polemon King of Cilicia whom she left. Schuerer calls her both a Jewish bigot and a wanton. She afterwards became the mistress of Titus. {Arrived at Caesarea} (katentesan eis kaisarian). Came down (first aorist active of katantaw) to Caesarea from Jerusalem. {And saluted Festus} (aspasamenoi ton feston). The Textus Receptus has aspasomenoi the future participle, but the correct text is the aorist middle participle aspasamenoi which cannot possibly mean subsequent action as given in the Canterbury Revision "and saluted." It can only mean contemporaneous (simultaneous) action "saluting" or antecedent action like the margin "having saluted." But antecedent action is not possible here, so that simultaneous action is the only alternative. It is to be noted that the salutation synchronized with the arrival in Caesarea (note kata, down, the effective aorist tense), not with the departure from Jerusalem, nor with the whole journey. Rightly understood the aorist participle here gives no trouble at all (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 861-3).

    25:14 {Tarried} (dietribon). Imperfect active of diatribw, common verb for spending time (#Ac 12:19, etc.). {Many days} (pleious hemeras). More days (than a few). Accusative case for extent of time. {Laid Paul's case} (aneqeto ta kata ton paulon). Second aorist middle indicative of anatiqemi, old verb to set before, to place up, as if for consultation in conference. Only twice in N.T. here and #Ga 2:2. The motive of Festus is not given, though it was natural enough in view of the quandary of Festus about Paul (the things about Paul) and Agrippa's interest in and responsibility for Jewish worship in the temple in Jerusalem. It is quite possible that Festus had a bit of ennui over the visit of these Jewish dignitaries as "more days" went by. Hence the tone of Festus about Paul in this proposal for the entertainment of Agrippa and Bernice is certainly one of superficial and supremely supercilious indifference. {Left a prisoner} (katalelimmenos desmios). Perfect passive participle of kataleipw, to leave behind. Paul is one of Felix's left overs (left behind), a sort of "junk" left on his hands. this cowardly Roman procurator thus pictures the greatest of living men and the greatest preacher of all time to this profligate pair (brother and sister) of sinners. Undoubtedly today in certain circles Christ and his preachers are held up to like contempt.

    25:15 {Informed} (enefanisan). Same word as in #23:15,22; 25:2 which see. {Asking for sentence against him} (aitoumenoi kat' autou katadiken). Only N.T. example of this old word (penalty, fine, condemnation) from kata and dike (justice against).

    25:16 {It is not the custom of the Romans} (hoti ouk estin eqos rwmaiois). If a direct quotation, hoti is recitative as in Authorized Version. Canterbury Revision takes it as indirect discourse after apekriqen (I answered), itself in a relative clause (pros hous) with the present tense (estin, is) preserved as is usual. There is a touch of disdain (Furneaux) in the tone of Festus. He may refer to a demand of the Jews before they asked that Paul be brought to Jerusalem (#25:3). At any rate there is a tone of scorn towards the Jews. {Before that the accused have} (prin e ho kategoroumenos ecoi). this use of the optative in this temporal clause with prin e instead of the subjunctive an ecei is in conformity with literary Greek and occurs only in Luke's writings in the N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 970). this sequence of modes is a mark of the literary style occasionally seen in Luke. It is interesting here to note the succession of dependent clauses in verses #14-16. {The accusers face to face} (kata proswpon tous kategorous). Same word kategoros as in #23:30,35; 25:18. this all sounds fair enough. {And have had opportunity to make his defence concerning the matter laid against him} (topon te apologias laboi peri tou egklematos). Literally, "And should receive (laboi optative for same reason as ecoi above, second aorist active of lambanw) opportunity for defence (objective genitive) concerning the charge" (egklematos in N.T. only here and #23:19 which see).

    25:17 {When they were come together here} (sunelqontwn enqade). Genitive absolute of second aorist active participle of sunercomai, but without autwn (they), merely understood. {Delay} (anabolen). Old word from anaballw, only here in N.T.

    25:18 {Brought} (eferon). Imperfect active of ferw, referring to their repeated charges. {Of such evil things as I supposed} (hwn egw hupenooun ponerwn). Incorporation of the antecedent ponerwn into the relative clause and change of the case of the relative from the accusative ha object of hupenooun to the genitive like ponerwn (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 719). Note the imperfect active hupenooun of huponoew to emphasize Festus's state of mind about Paul before the trial. this old verb only three times in the N.T. (here, #Ac 13:25 which see; #27:27).

    25:19 {But had} (de eicon). Descriptive imperfect active of ecw and de of contrast (but). {Concerning their own religion} (peri tes idias deisidaimonias). See on ¯17:22 for discussion of this word. Festus would hardly mean "superstition," whatever he really thought, because Agrippa was a Jew. {And of one Jesus} (kai peri tinos iesou). this is the climax of supercilious scorn toward both Paul and "one Jesus." {Who was dead} (teqnekotos). Perfect active participle of qneskw agreeing with iesou (genitive). As being dead. {Whom Paul affirmed to be alive} (hon efasken ho paulos zein). Imperfect active of faskw, old form of femi to say, in the N.T. only here and #Ac 24:9; Ro 1:22. Infinitive zein in indirect discourse with hon (whom) the accusative of general reference. With all his top-loftical airs Festus has here correctly stated the central point of Paul's preaching about Jesus as no longer dead, but living.

    25:20 {Being perplexed} (aporoumenos). Present middle participle of the common verb aporew (a privative and poros way), to be in doubt which way to turn, already in #Mr 6:20 which see and #Lu 24:4. The Textus Receptus has eis after here, but critical text has only the accusative which this verb allows (#Mr 6:20) as in Thucydides and Plato. {How to inquire concerning these things} (ten peri toutwn zetesin). Literally, "as to the inquiry concerning these things." this is not the reason given by Luke in verse #9 (wanting to curry favor with the Jews), but doubtless this motive also actuated Festus as both could be true. {Whether he would go to Jerusalem} (ei bouloito poreuesqai eis ierosoluma). Optative in indirect question after elegon (asked or said) imperfect active, though the present indicative could have been retained with change of person: "Dost thou wish, etc.," (ei boulei, etc.). See Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 1031, 1044. this is the question put to Paul in verse #9 though qeleis is there used.

    25:21 {When Paul had appealed} (tou paulou epikalesamenou). Genitive absolute with first aorist middle participle of epikaleomai, the technical word for appeal (verses #11,12). The first aorist passive infinitive tereqenai (to be kept) is the object of the participle. {For the decision of the emperor} (eis ten tou sebastou diagnwsin). diagnwsin (cf. diagnwsomai #24:22, I will determine) is the regular word for a legal examination (cognitio), thorough sifting (dia), here only in N.T. Instead of "the Emperor" it should be "the Augustus," as sebastos is simply the Greek translation of _Augustus_, the adjective (Revered, Reverent) assumed by Octavius B.C. 27 as the agnomen that summed up all his various offices instead of _Rex_ so offensive to the Romans having led to the death of Julius Caesar. The successors of Octavius assumed _Augustus_ as a title. The Greek term sebastos has the notion of worship (cf. sebasma in Acts #17:25). In the N.T. only here, verse #25; 27:1 (of the legion). It was more imposing than "Caesar" which was originally a family name (always official in the N.T.) and it fell in with the tendency toward emperor-worship which later played such a large part in Roman life and which Christians opposed so bitterly. China is having a revival of this idea in the insistence on bowing three times to the picture of Sun-Yat-Sen. {Till I should send him to Caesar} (hews an anapemyw auton pros kaisara). Here anapemyw can be either future indicative or first aorist subjunctive (identical in first person singular), aorist subjunctive the usual construction with hews for future time (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 876). Literally, "send up" (ana) to a superior (the emperor). Common in this sense in the papyri and _Koin‚_ writers. Here "Caesar" is used as the title of Nero instead of "Augustus" as kurios (Lord) occurs in verse #26.

    25:22 {I also could wish} (eboulomen kai autos). The imperfect for courtesy, rather than the blunt boulomai, I wish, I want. Literally, "I myself also was wishing" (while you were talking), a compliment to the interesting story told by Festus. The use of an with the imperfect would really mean that he does not wish (a conclusion of the second class condition, determined as unfulfilled). an with the optative would show only a languid desire. The imperfect is keen enough and yet polite enough to leave the decision with Festus if inconvenient for any reason (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 885-7). Agrippa may have heard much about Christianity.

    25:23 {When Agrippa was come and Bernice} (elthontos tou Agrippa kai tˆs bernikes). Genitive absolute, the participle agreeing in number and gender (masculine singular, elthontos) with Agrippa, bernikes being added as an afterthought. {With great pomp} (meta polles fantasias). fantasia is a _Koin‚_ word (Polybius, Diodorus, etc.) from the old verb fantazw (#Heb 12:21) and it from fainw, common verb to show, to make an appearance. this is the only N.T. example of fantasia, though the kindred common word fantasma (appearance) occurs twice in the sense of apparition or spectre (#Mt 14:26; Mr 6:49). Herodotus (VII. 10) used the verb fantazw for a showy parade. Festus decided to gratify the wish of Agrippa by making the "hearing" of Paul the prisoner (verse #22) an occasion for paying a compliment to Agrippa (Rackham) by a public gathering of the notables in Caesarea. Festus just assumed that Paul would fall in with this plan for a grand entertainment though he did not have to do it. {Into the place of hearing} (eis to akroaterion). From akroaomai (to be a hearer) and, like the Latin _auditorium_, in Roman law means the place set aside for hearing, and deciding cases. Here only in the N.T. Late word, several times in Plutarch and other _Koin‚_ writers. The hearing was "semi-official" (Page) as is seen in verse #26. {With the chief captains} (sun te ciliarcois). ciliarcs, each a leader of a thousand. There were five cohorts of soldiers stationed in Caesarea. {And the principal men of the city} (kai andrasin tois kat' exocen). The use of kat' exocen, like our French phrase _par excellence_, occurs here only in the N.T., and not in the ancient Greek, but it is found in inscriptions of the first century A.D. (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_). exoce in medical writers is any protuberance or swelling. Cf. our phrase "outstanding men." {At the command of Festus} (keleusantos tou festou). Genitive absolute again, "Festus having commanded."

    25:24 {Which are here present with us} (hoi sunparontes hemin). Present articular participle of sunpareimi (only here in N.T.) with associative instrumental case hemin. {Made suit to me} (enetucon moi). Second aorist active indicative of entugcanw, old verb to fall in with a person, to go to meet for consultation or supplication as here. Common in old Greek and _Koin‚_. Cf. #Ro 8:27,34. See enteuxis (petition) #1Ti 2:1. Papyri give many examples of the technical sense of enteuxis as petition (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 121). Some MSS. have plural here enetucon rather than the singular enetucen. {Crying} (bowntes). Yelling and demanding with loud voices. {That he ought not to live any longer} (me dein auton zein meketi). Indirect command (demand) with the infinitive dein for dei (it is necessary). The double negative (me--meketi) with zein intensifies the demand.

    25:25 {But I found} (egw de katelabomen). Second aorist middle of katalambanw, to lay hold of, to grasp, to comprehend as in #4:13; 10:34. {That he had committed nothing worthy of death} (meden axion auton qanatou pepracenai). Perfect active infinitive of prassw in indirect assertion with negative me and accusative auton of general reference, the usual idiom. Verse #25 repeats the statement in verse #21, perhaps for the benefit of the assembled dignitaries.

    25:26 {No certain thing} (asfales ti--ou). Nothing definite or reliable (a privative, sfallw, to trip). All the charges of the Sanhedrin slipped away or were tripped up by Paul. Festus confesses that he had nothing left and thereby convicts himself of gross insincerity in his proposal to Paul in verse #9 about going up to Jerusalem. By his own statement he should have set Paul free. The various details here bear the marks of the eyewitness. Luke was surely present and witnessed this grand spectacle with Paul as chief performer. {Unto my lord} (twi kuriwi). Augustus (Octavius) and Tiberius refused the title of kurios (lord) as too much like _rex_ (king) and like master and slave, but the servility of the subjects gave it to the other emperors who accepted it (Nero among them). Antoninus Pius put it on his coins. Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 105) gives an ostracon dated Aug. 4, A.D. 63 with the words "in the year nine of Nero the lord" (enatou nerwnos tou kuriou). Deissmann (_op. cit._, pp. 349ff.) runs a most interesting parallel "between the cult of Christ and the cult of Caesar in the application of the term kurios, lord" in ostraca, papyri, inscriptions. Beyond a doubt Paul has all this fully in mind when he says in #1Co 12:3 that "no one is able to say kurios iesous except in the Holy Spirit" (cf. also #Php 2:11). The Christians claimed this word for Christ and it became the test in the Roman persecutions as when Polycarp steadily refused to say " Lord Caesar" and insisted on saying "Lord Jesus" when it meant his certain death. {Before you} (ef' humwn). The whole company. In no sense a new trial, but an examination in the presence of these prominent men to secure data and to furnish entertainment and pleasure to Agrippa (verse #22). {Especially before thee} (malista epi sou). Out of courtesy. It was the main reason as verse #22 shows. Agrippa was a Jew and Festus was glad of the chance to see what he thought of Paul's case. {After examination had} (tes anakrisews genomenes). Genitive absolute, "the examination having taken place." anakrisis from anakrinw (cf. #12:19; 24:8; 28:18) is a legal term for preliminary examination. Only here in the N.T. Inscriptions and papyri give it as examination of slaves or other property. {That I may have somewhat to write} (hopws scw ti grayw). Ingressive aorist subjunctive scw (may get) with hopws (final particle like hina). ti grayw in indirect question after scw is either future indicative or aorist subjunctive (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1045). Festus makes it plain that this is not a "trial," but an examination for his convenience to help him out of a predicament.

    25:27 {Unreasonable} (alogon). Old word from a privative and logos (reason, speech). "Without reason" as of animals (#Jude 1:10; 2Pe 2:12), "contrary to reason" here. These the only N.T. instances and in harmony with ancient usage. {In sending} (pemponta). Note accusative case with the infinitive semanai though moi (dative) just before. Cf. same variation in #15:22f.; 22:17. {Signify} (semanai). First aorist active infinitive (not semenai, the old form) of semainw, to give a sign (semeion). {The charges} (tas aitias). this naive confession of Festus reveals how unjust has been his whole treatment of Paul. He had to send along with the appeal of Paul _litterae dimissoriae_ (apostoli) which would give a statement of the case (Page).

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