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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - ACTS 3

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    3:1 {Were going up} (anebainon). Descriptive imperfect active. They were ascending the terraces to the temple courts. {The ninth} (ten enaten). Our three o'clock in the afternoon, the time of the evening sacrifice. Peter and John like Paul later kept up the Jewish worship, but not as a means of sacramental redemption. There were three hours of prayer (third, sixth, ninth).

    3:2 {Was carried} (ebastazeto). Imperfect passive, picturing the process as in verse #1. {Laid daily} (etiqoun kaq' hemeran). Imperfect again describing their custom with this man. {Beautiful} (hwraian). this gate is not so called elsewhere. It may have been the Gate of Nicanor on the east side looking towards Kidron described by Josephus (_Ant_. XV. 11, 3; _War_ V. 5, 3) as composed chiefly of Corinthian brass and very magnificent.

    3:3 {Asked} (erwta). Began to ask, inchoative imperfect. It was his chance.

    3:4 {Fastening his eyes} (atenisas). First aorist (ingressive) active participle of atenizw. For this verb see on #Lu 4:20; Ac 1:10. Peter fixed his eyes on the beggar and invited him to look (bleyon) on them.

    3:5 {Gave heed unto them} (epeicen autois). Imperfect active of epecw, to hold to. For the idiom with ton noun understood see #7:14; 1Ti 4:16. He held his eyes right on Peter and John with great eagerness "expecting to receive something" (prosdokwn ti labein). He took Peter's invitation as a promise of a large gift.

    3:6 {In the name} (en twi onomati). The healing power is in that name (Page) and Peter says so. Cf. #Lu 9:49; 10:17; Ac 4:7,10; 19:27; 16:18. {Walk} (peripatei). Present imperative, inchoative idea, begin to walk and qen go on walking. But the beggar does not budge. He knows that he cannot walk.

    3:7 {Took him by the right hand} (piasas auton tes dexias ceiros). Doric form piazw for piezw. Genitive of the part affected. Peter had to pull him up on his feet before he would try to walk.

    3:8 {Leaping up} (exallomenos). Present middle participle, leaping out repeatedly after Peter pulled him up. Only here in the N.T. {He stood} (este). Second aorist active. {Walked} (periepatei). Went on walking, imperfect active. He came into the temple repeating these new exercises (walking, leaping, praising God).

    3:10 {They took knowledge of him} (epeginwskon). Imperfect active, inchoative, began to perceive. {Were filled} (eplesqesan). Effective first aorist passive. {At that which had happened} (twi sumbebekoti). Perfect active participle of sumbainw.

    3:11 The Codex Bezae adds "as Peter and John went out." {As he held} (kratountos autou). Genitive absolute of kratew, to hold fast, with accusative rather than genitive to get hold of (#Ac 27:13). Old and common verb from kratos (strength, force). Perhaps out of gratitude and partly from fear (#Lu 8:38). {In the porch that is called Solomon's} (epi tei stoai tei kaloumenei solomwntos). The adjective Stoic (stoikos) is from this word stoa (porch). It was on the east side of the court of the Gentiles (Josephus, _Ant_. XX. 9, 7) and was so called because it was built on a remnant of the foundations of the ancient temple. Jesus had once taught here (#Joh 10:23). {Greatly wondering} (ekqamboi). Wondering out of (ek) measure, already filled with wonder (qambous, verse #10). Late adjective. Construction according to sense (plural, though laos singular) as in #5:16; 6:7; 11:1, etc.

    3:12 {Answered} (apekrinato). First aorist middle indicative. The people looked their amazement and Peter answered that. {Ye men of Israel} (andres israeleitai). Covenant name and so conciliatory, the stock of Israel (#Php 3:5). {At this man} (epi toutwi). Probably so, though it could be "at this thing." {Fasten you your eyes} (atenizete). The very verb used about Peter in verse #4. {On us} (hemin). Dative case, emphatic proleptical position before ti atenizete. {On us why do ye fasten your eyes? As though} (hws). hws with the participle gives the alleged reason, not always the true one. {Power} (dunamei). Instrumental case, _causa effectiva_. {Godliness} (eusebeiai). _Causa meritoria_. {Had made} (pepoiekosin). Perfect active participle of poiew. {To walk} (tou peripatein). Articular infinitive in the genitive case of result, purpose easily shading off into result (ecbatic infinitive) as here as is true also of hina.

    3:13 {His servant Jesus} (ton paida iesoun). this phrase occurs in #Isa 42:1; 52:13 about the Messiah except the name "Jesus" which Peter adds, the first part of the quotation is from #Ex 3:6; 5:30. The LXX translated the Hebrew _ebhedh_ by pais, the servant of Jehovah being a Messianic designation. But the phrase "servant of God" (pais qeou) is applied also to Israel (#Lu 1:54) and to David (#Lu 1:69; Ac 4:25). Paul terms himself doulos qeou (#Tit 1:1). pais is just child (boy or girl), and it was also used of a slave (#Mt 8:6,8,13). But it is not here huios (son) that Peter uses, but pais. Luke quotes Peter as using it again in this Messianic sense in #Ac 3:26; 4:27,30. {Whom ye delivered up} (hon humeis men paredwkate). Note emphatic use of humeis (ye). No de to correspond to men. First aorist active (k aorist) plural indicative of paradidwmi (usual form paredote, second aorist). {When he} (ekeinou). Emphatic pronoun, that one, in contrast with "ye" (humeis), genitive absolute with krinantos, here the nearest word (Pilate), the latter.

    3:14 {But ye} (humeis de). In contrast with Pilate (ekeinou). {Murderer} (andra fonea). A man a murderer. In contrast with "the Holy and Righteous One." {To be granted} (carisqenai). As a favor (caris). First aorist passive infinitive of carizomai; So also #25:11; 27:24.

    3:15 {But the Prince of life ye killed} (ton de arcegon tes zwes apekteinate). "The magnificent antithesis" (Bengel) Peter here draws between their asking for a murderer and killing the Prince (or Author) of life. Peter pictures Jesus as the source of all life as is done in #Joh 1:1-18; Col 1:14-20; Heb 1:2f. arcegos (arce, beginning, ag", to lead) is an adjective "furnishing the first cause or occasion" in Euripides, Plato. Thence substantive, the originator, the leader, the pioneer as of Jesus both Beginner and Finisher (#Heb 12:2). See also #Heb 2:10; Ac 5:31 where it is applied to Jesus as "Prince and Savior." But God raised him from the dead in contrast to what they had done. {Whereof we are witnesses} (hou hemeis martures esmen). Of which fact (the resurrection) or of whom as risen, hou having the same form in the genitive singular for masculine or neuter. Peter had boldly claimed that all the 120 have seen the Risen Christ. There is no denial of that claim.

    3:16 {By faith in his name} (tei pistei tou onomatos autou). Instrumental case of pistei (Aleph and B do not have epi) and objective genitive of onomatos. {His name} (to onoma autou). Repeats the word name to make the point clear. Cf. verse #6 where Peter uses "the name of Jesus Christ of Nazareth" when he healed the man. {Made strong} (esterewsen). Same verb used in verse #7 (and #16:5). Nowhere else in the N.T. Old verb from stereos, firm, solid. {Through him} (di' autou). Through Jesus, the object of faith and the source of it. {Perfect soundness} (holoklerian). Perfect in all its parts, complete, whole (from holos, whole, kleros, allotment). Late word (Plutarch) once in LXX (#Isa 1:6) and here alone in the N.T., but adjective holokleros, old and common (#Jas 1:4; 1Th 5:23).

    3:17 {And now} (kai nun). Luke is fond of these particles of transition (#7:34; 10:5; 20:25; 22:16) and also kai ta nun (#4:29; 5:38; 22:32; 27:22), and even kai nun idou (#13:11; 20:22). {I wot} (oida). Old English for "I know." {In ignorance} (kata agnoian). this use of kata occurs in the _Koin‚_. See also #Phm 1:14. One may see #Lu 23:34 for the words of the Savior on the Cross. "They had sinned, but their sin was not of so deep a dye that it could not have been still more heinous" (Hackett). If they had known what they were doing, they would not knowingly have crucified the Messiah (#1Co 2:8).

    3:18 {Foreshewed} (prokateggeilen). First aorist active indicative of prokataggellw, late compound to announce fully beforehand. Only twice in the N.T. in the critical text (#Ac 3:18; 7:52). {That his Christ should suffer} (paqein ton criston autou). Accusative of general reference with the aorist active infinitive (paqein of pascw) in indirect discourse (predictive purpose of God). Their crime, though real, was carrying out God's purpose (#2:23; Joh 3:16). See the same idea in #Ac 17:3; 26:23. this "immense paradox" (Page) was a stumbling block to these Jews as it is yet (#1Co 1:23). Peter discusses the sufferings of Christ in #1Pe 4:13; 5:1.

    3:19 {Repent therefore} (metanoesate oun). Peter repeats to this new crowd the command made in #Ac 2:38 which see. God's purpose and patience call for instant change of attitude on their part. Their guilt does not shut them out if they will turn. {And turn again} (kai epistreyate). Definitely turn to God in conduct as well as in mind. {That your sins may be blotted out} (pros to exalifqenai humwn tas hamartias). Articular infinitive (first aorist passive of exaleifw, to wipe out, rub off, erase, smear out, old verb, but in the N.T. only here and #Col 2:14) with the accusative of general reference and with pros and the accusative to express purpose. {That so} (hopws an). Final particle with an and the aorist active subjunctive elth"sin (come) and not "when" as the Authorized Version has it. Some editors put this clause in verse #20 (Westcott and Hort, for instance). {Seasons of refreshing} (kairoi anayuxews). The word anayuxis (from anayucw, to cool again or refresh, #2Ti 1:16) is a late word (LXX) and occurs here alone in the N.T. Surely repentance will bring "seasons of refreshing from the presence of the Lord."

    3:20 {And that he may send the Christ who hath been appointed for you, even Jesus} (kai aposteilei ton prokeceirismenon humin criston iesoun). First aorist active subjunctive with hopws an as in #15:17 and #Lu 2:35. There is little real difference in idea between hopws an and hina an. There is a conditional element in all purpose clauses. The reference is naturally to the second coming of Christ as verse #21 shows. Knowling admits "that there is a spiritual presence of the enthroned Jesus which believers enjoy as a foretaste of the visible and glorious Presence of the parousia." Jesus did promise to be with the disciples all the days (#Mt 28:20), and certainly repentance with accompanying seasons of refreshing help get the world ready for the coming of the King. The word prokeceirismenon (perfect passive participle of proceirizw, from proceiros, at hand, to take into one's hands, to choose) is the correct text here, not prokekerugmenon. In the N.T. only here and #Ac 22:14; 26:16. It is not "Jesus Christ" here nor "Christ Jesus," but "the Messiah, Jesus," identifying Jesus with the Messiah. See the Second Epiphany of Jesus foretold also in #1Ti 6:15 and the First Epiphany described in #1Pe 1:20.

    3:21 {Restoration} (apokatastasews). Double compound (apo, kata, histemi), here only in the N.T., though common in late writers. In papyri and inscriptions for repairs to temples and this phrase occurs in Jewish apocalyptic writings, something like the new heaven and the new earth of #Re 21:1. Paul has a mystical allusion also to the agony of nature in #Ro 8:20-22. The verb apokaqistemi is used by Jesus of the spiritual and moral restoration wrought by the Baptist as Elijah (#Mt 17:11; Mr 9:12) and by the disciples to Jesus in #Ac 1:6. Josephus uses the word of the return from captivity and Philo of the restitution of inheritances in the year of jubilee. As a technical medical term it means complete restoration to health. See a like idea in palingenesia (renewal, new birth) in #Mt 19:28; Tit 3:5. this universalism of Peter will be clearer to him after Joppa and Caesarea.

    3:22 {Like unto me} (hws eme). As me, literally; Moses (#De 18:14-18) claims that God raised him up as a prophet and that another and greater one will come, the Messiah. The Jews understood Moses to be a type of Christ (#Joh 1:21). God spoke to Moses face to face (#Ex 33:11) and he was the greatest of the prophets (#De 34:10).

    3:23 {That prophet} (tou profetou ekeinou). Emphasizes the future prophet as on "him" (autou) before "hearken." They had refused to "hearken" to Moses and now, alas, many had refused to "hearken" to Christ. {Shall be utterly destroyed} (exoleqreuqesetai). First future passive of exole- (o) qreuw, a late verb, to destroy utterly (ex), only here in the N.T., common in the LXX.

    3:24 {From Samuel} (apo samouel). Schools of prophets arose in his time, few before him (#1Sa 3:1).

    3:25 {Ye} (humeis). Emphatic position. {The covenant which God made} (tes diaqekes hes ho qeos dieqeto). Literally, "the covenant which God covenanted." diaqeke and dieqeto (second aorist middle indicative of diathˆmi) are the same root. See on #Mt 26:28. The covenant (agreement between two, dia, tiqemi) was with Abraham (#Ge 12:1-3) and repeated at various times (#Ge 18:18; 22:18; 26:4, etc.). In #Heb 9:15-18 the word is used both for covenant and will. The genitive relative hˆs attracted to case of the antecedent.

    3:26 {Unto you first} (humin prwton). The Jews were first in privilege and it was through the Jews that the Messiah was to come for "all the families of the earth." {His servant} (ton paida autou). As in verse #13, the Messiah as God's Servant. {To bless you} (eulogounta humas). Present active participle to express purpose, blessing you (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 991). In turning away (en twi apostrefein). Articular infinitive in the locative case, almost preserved in the English.

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