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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - EPHESIANS 6

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    6:1 {Right} (dikaion). In #Col 3:20 it is euareston (well-pleasing).

    6:2 {Which} (hetis). "Which very" = "for such is." {The first commandment with promise} (entole prwte en epaggeliai). en here means "accompanied by" (Alford). But why "with a promise"? The second has a general promise, but the fifth alone (#Ex 20:12) has a specific promise. Perhaps that is the idea. Some take it to be first because in the order of time it was taught first to children, but the addition of en epaggeliai here to prwte points to the other view.

    6:3 {That it may be well with thee} (hina eu soi genetai). From #Ex 20:12, "that it may happen to thee well." {And thou mayest live long on the earth} (kai esei makrocronios epi tes ges). Here esei (second person singular future middle) takes the place of genei in the LXX (second person singular second aorist middle subjunctive). makrocronios is a late and rare compound adjective, here only in N.T. (from LXX, #Ex 20:12).

    6:4 {Provoke not to anger} (me parorgizete). Rare compound, both N.T. examples (here and #Ro 10:19) are quotations from the LXX. The active, as here, has a causative sense. Parallel in sense with me ereqizete in #Col 3:21. Paul here touches the common sin of fathers. {In the chastening and admonition of the Lord} (en paideiai kai nouqesiai tou kuriou). en is the sphere in which it all takes place. There are only three examples in the N.T. of paideia, old Greek for training a pais (boy or girl) and so for the general education and culture of the child. Both papyri and inscriptions give examples of this original and wider sense (Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_). It is possible, as Thayer gives it, that this is the meaning here in #Eph 6:4. In #2Ti 3:16 adults are included also in the use. In #Heb 12:5,7,11 the narrower sense of "chastening" appears which some argue for here. At any rate nouqesia (from nous, tiqemi), common from Aristophanes on, does have the idea of correction. In N.T. only here and #1Co 10:11; Tit 3:10.

    6:5 {With fear and trembling} (meta fobou kai tromou). this addition to #Col 3:22.

    6:6 {But as servants of Christ} (all' hws douloi cristou). Better "slaves of Christ" as Paul rejoiced to call himself (#Php 1:1). {Doing the will of God} (poiountes to qelema tou qeou). Even while slaves of men.

    6:7 {With good will} (met' eunoias). Not in Col. Old word from eunoos, only here in N.T. as eunoew is in N.T. only in #Mt 5:25.

    6:8 {Whatever good thing each one doeth} (hekastos ean ti poiesei agaqon). Literally, "each one if he do anything good." Condition of third class, undetermined, but with prospect. Note use here of agaqon rather than adikon (one doing wrong) in #Col 3:25. So it is a reward (komisetai) for good, not a penalty for wrong, though both are true, "whether he be bond or free" (eite doulos eite eleuqeros).

    6:9 {And forbear threatening} (anientes ten apeilen). Present active participle of aniemi, old verb, to loosen up, to relax. "Letting up on threatening." apeile is old word for threat, in N.T. only here and #Ac 4:29; 9:1. {Both their Master and yours} (kai autwn kai humwn ho kurios). He says to "the lords" (hoi kurioi) of the slaves. Paul is not afraid of capital nor of labor. {With him} (par' autwi). "By the side of him (God)."

    6:10 {Finally} (tou loipou). Genitive case, "in respect of the rest," like #Ga 6:17. D G K L P have the accusative to loipon (as for the rest) like #2Th 3:1; Php 3:1; 4:8. {Be strong in the Lord} (endunamousqe en kuriwi). A late word in LXX and N.T. (#Ac 9:22; Ro 4:20; Php 4:13), present passive imperative of endunamow, from en and dunamis, to empower. See #1:10 for "in the strength of his might." Not a hendiadys.

    6:11 {Put on} (endusasqe). Like #3:12. See also #4:24. {The whole armor} (ten panoplian). Old word from panoplos (wholly armed, from pan, hoplon). In N.T. only #Lu 11:22; Eph 6:11,13. Complete armor in this period included "shield, sword, lance, helmet, greaves, and breastplate" (Thayer). Our "panoply." Polybius gives this list of Thayer. Paul omits the lance (spear). Our museums preserve specimens of this armor as well as the medieval coat-of-mail. Paul adds girdle and shoes to the list of Polybius, not armor but necessary for the soldier. Certainly Paul could claim knowledge of the Roman soldier's armor, being chained to one for some three years. {That ye may be able to stand} (pros to dunasqai humas stenai). Purpose clause with pros to and the infinitive (dunasqai) with the accusative of general reference (humas) and the second aorist active infinitive stenai (from histemi) dependent on dunasqai. Against (pros). Facing. Another instance of pros meaning "against" (#Col 2:23). {The wiles of the devil} (tas meqodias tou diabolou). See already #4:14 for this word. He is a crafty foe and knows the weak spots in the Christian's armor.

    6:12 {Our wrestling is not} (ouk estin hemin he pale). "To us the wrestling is not." pale is an old word from pallw, to throw, to swing (from Homer to the papyri, though here only in N.T.), a contest between two till one hurls the other down and holds him down (katecw). Note pros again (five times) in sense of "against," face to face conflict to the finish. {The world-rulers of this darkness} (tous kosmokratoras tou skotous toutou). this phrase occurs here alone. In #Joh 14:30 Satan is called "the ruler of this world" (ho arcwn tou kosmou toutou). In #2Co 4:4 he is termed "the god of this age" (ho qeos tou aiwnos toutou). The word kosmokratwr is found in the Orphic Hymns of Satan, in Gnostic writings of the devil, in rabbinical writings (transliterated) of the angel of death, in inscriptions of the Emperor Caracalla. These "world-rulers" are limited to " this darkness" here on earth. {The spiritual hosts of wickedness} (ta pneumatika tes ponerias). No word for "hosts" in the Greek. Probably simply, "the spiritual things (or elements) of wickedness." poneria (from poneros) is depravity (#Mt 22:18; 1Co 5:8). {In the heavenly places} (en tois epouraniois). Clearly so here. Our "wrestling" is with foes of evil natural and supernatural. We sorely need "the panoply of God" (furnished by God).

    6:13 {Take up} (analabete). Second aorist active imperative of analambanw, old word and used (analabwn) of "picking up" Mark in #2Ti 4:11. {That ye may be able to withstand} (hina duneqete antistenai). Final clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of dunamai with antistenai (second aorist active infinitive of anqistemi, to stand face to face, against). {And having done all to stand} (kai hapanta katergasa menoi stenai). After the fight (wrestle) is over to stand (stenai) as victor in the contest. Effective aorist here.

    6:14 {Stand therefore} (stete oun). Second aorist active imperative of histemi (intransitive like the others). Ingressive aorist here, "Take your stand therefore" (in view of the arguments made). {Having girded your loins with truth} (perizwsamenoi ten osfun humwn en aleqeiai). First aorist middle participle (antecedent action) of perizwnnuw, old verb, to gird around, direct middle (gird yourselves) in #Lu 12:37; but indirect here with accusative of the thing, "having girded your own loins." So endusamenoi (having put on) is indirect middle participle. {The breast-plate of righteousness} (ton qwraka tes dikaiosunes). Old word for breast and qen for breastplate. Same metaphor of righteousness as breastplate in #1Th 5:8.

    6:15 {Having shod} (hupodesamenoi). "Having bound under" (sandals). First aorist middle participle of hupodew, old word, to bind under (#Mr 6:9; Ac 12:8, only other N.T. example). {With the preparation} (en hetoimasiai). Late word from hetoimazw, to make ready, only here in N.T. Readiness of mind that comes from the gospel whose message is peace.

    6:16 {Taking up} (analabontes). See verse #13. {The shield of faith} (ton qureon tes pistews). Late word in this sense a large stone against the door in Homer, from qura, door, large and oblong (Latin _scutum_), aspis being smaller and circular, only here in N.T. {To quench} (sbesai). First aorist active infinitive of sbennumi, old word, to extinguish (#Mt 12:20). {All the fiery darts} (panta ta bele ta pepurwmena). belos is an old word for missile, dart (from ballw, to throw), only here in N.T. pepurwmena is perfect passive participle of purow, old verb, to set on fire, from pur (fire). These darts were sometimes ablaze in order to set fire to the enemies' clothing or camp or homes just as the American Indians used to shoot poisoned arrows.

    6:17 {The helmet of salvation} (ten perikefalaian tou swteriou). Late word (peri, kefale, head, around the head), in Polybius, LXX, #1Th 5:8; Eph 6:17 alone in N.T. {Which is the word of God} (ho estin to rema tou qeou). Explanatory relative (ho) referring to the sword (macairan). The sword given by the Spirit to be wielded as offensive weapon (the others defensive) by the Christian is the word of God. See #Heb 4:12 where the word of God is called "sharper than any two-edged sword."

    6:18 {At all seasons} (en panti kairwi). "On every occasion." Prayer is needed in this fight. The panoply of God is necessary, but so is prayer.

    "Satan trembles when he sees The weakest saint upon his knees."

    6:19 {That utterance may be given unto me} (hina moi doqei logos). Final clause with hina and first aorist passive subjunctive of didwmi, to give. See a like request in #Col 4:3. Paul wishes their prayer for courage for himself.

    6:20 {For which I am an ambassador in chains} (huper hou presbeuw en halusei). "For which mystery" of the gospel (verse #19). presbeuw is an old word for ambassador (from presbus, an old man) in N.T. only here and #2Co 5:20. Paul is now an old man (presbutes, #Phm 1:9) and feels the dignity of his position as Christ's ambassador though "in a chain" (en halusei, old word halusis, from a privative and luw, to loosen). Paul will wear a chain at the close of his life in Rome (#2Ti 1:16). {In it} (en autwi). In the mystery of the gospel. this is probably a second purpose (hina), the first for utterance (hina doqei), this for boldness (hina parresiaswmai, first aorist middle subjunctive, old word to speak out boldly). See #1Th 2:2. See #Col 4:4 for "as I ought."

    6:21 {That ye also may know} (hina eidete kai humeis). Final clause with hina and second perfect subjunctive active of oida. For Tychicus, see #Col 4:7f.

    6:22 {That ye may know} (hina gnwte). Second aorist active subjunctive of ginwskw. Just as in #Col 4:8 he had not written hina eidete in verse #21. {Our state} (ta peri hemwn). "The things concerning us," practically the same as ta kat' eme of verse #21. See both phrases in #Col 4:7,8.

    6:23 {Love and faith} (agape meta pistews). Love of the brotherhood accompanied by faith in Christ and as an expression of it.

    6:24 {In uncorruptness} (en afqarsiai). A never diminishing love. See #1Co 15:42 for afqarsia.

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