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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - LUKE 14

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    14:1 {When he went} (en twi elqein auton). Luke's favorite temporal clause = "on the going as to him." {That} (kai). Another common Lukan idiom, kai=hoti after egeneto, like Hebrew _wav_. {They} (autoi). Emphatic. {Were watching} (esan parateroumenoi). Periphrastic imperfect middle. Note force of autoi, middle voice, and para-. They were themselves watching on the side (on the sly), watching insidiously, with evil intent as in #Mr 3:2 (active).

    14:2 {Which had the dropsy} (hudrwpikos). Late and medical word from hudwr (water), one who has internal water (hudrwy). Here only in the N.T. and only example of the disease healed by Jesus and recorded.

    14:3 {Answering} (apokriqeis). First aorist passive participle without the passive meaning. Jesus answered the thoughts of those mentioned in verse #1. Here "lawyers and Pharisees" are treated as one class with one article (tous) whereas in #7:30 they are treated as two classes with separate articles. {Or not} (e ou). The dilemma forestalled any question by them. {They held their peace} (hesucasan). Ingressive aorist active of old verb hesucazw. They became silent, more so than before.

    14:4 {Took him} (epilabomenos). Second aorist middle participle of epilambanw, an old verb, only in the middle in the N.T. It is not redundant use, "took and healed," but "took hold of him and healed him." Only instance in the N.T. of its use in a case of healing. {Let him go} (apelusen). Probably, dismissed from the company to get him away from these critics.

    14:5 {An ass or an ox} (onos e bous). But Westcott and Hort huios e bous ({a son or an ox}). The manuscripts are much divided between huios (son) and onos (ass) which in the abbreviated uncials looked much alike (TC, OC) and were much alike. The sentence in the Greek reads literally thus: Whose ox or ass of you shall fall (peseitai, future middle of pipto) into a well and he (the man) will not straightway draw him up (anaspasei, future active of anaspaw) on the sabbath day? The very form of the question is a powerful argument and puts the lawyers and the Pharisees hopelessly on the defensive.

    14:6 {Could not answer again} (ouk iscusan antapokriqenai). Did not have strength to answer back or in turn (anti-) as in #Ro 9:20. They could not take up the argument and were helpless. They hated to admit that they cared more for an ox or ass or even a son than for this poor dropsical man.

    14:7 {A parable for those which were bidden} (pros tous keklemenous parabolen). Perfect passive participle of kalew, to call, to invite. this parable is for the guests who were there and who had been watching Jesus. {When he marked} (epecwn). Present active participle of epecw with ton noun understood, holding the mind upon them, old verb and common. {They chose out} (exelegonto). Imperfect middle, were picking out for themselves. {The chief seats} (tas prwtoklisias). The first reclining places at the table. Jesus condemned the Pharisees later for this very thing (#Mt 23:6; Mr 12:39; Lu 20:46). On a couch holding three the middle place was the chief one. At banquets today the name of the guests are usually placed at the plates. The place next to the host on the right was qen, as now, the post of honor.

    14:8 {Sit not down} (me katakliqeis). First aorist (ingressive) passive subjunctive of kataklinw, to recline. Old verb, but peculiar to Luke in the N.T. (#7:36; 9:14; 14:8; 24:30). {Be bidden} (ei keklemenos). Periphrastic perfect passive subjunctive of kalew after me pote.

    14:9 {And say} (kai erei). Changes to future indicative with me pote as in #12:58. {Shalt begin with shame} (arxei meta aiscunes). The moment of embarrassment. {To take the lowest place} (ton escaton topon katecein). To hold down the lowest place, all the intermediate ones being taken.

    14:10 {Sit down} (anapese). Second aorist active imperative of anapiptw, to fall up or back, to lie back or down. Late Greek word for anaklinw (cf. kataklinw in verse #8). {He that hath bidden thee} (ho keklekws se). Perfect active participle as in verse #12 (twi keklekoti) with which compare ho kalesas in verse #9 (first aorist active participle). {He may say} (erei). The future indicative with hina does occur in the _Koiné_ (papyri) and so in the N.T. (Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 984). {Go up higher} (prosanabeqi). Second aorist active imperative second singular of prosanabainw, an old double compound verb, but here only in the N.T. Probably, "Come up higher," because the call comes from the host and because of pros.

    14:11 {Shall be humbled} (tapeinwqesetai). First future passive. One of the repeated sayings of Jesus (#18:14; Mt 23:12).

    14:12 {A dinner or a supper} (ariston e deipnon). More exactly, a breakfast or a dinner with distinction between them as already shown. this is a parable for the host as one had just been given for the guests, though Luke does not term this a parable. {Call not} (me fwnei). me and the present imperative active, prohibiting the habit of inviting only friends. It is the _exclusive_ invitation of such guests that Jesus condemns. There is a striking parallel to this in Plato's _Phaedrus_ 233. {Recompense} (antapodoma). In the form of a return invitation. Like anti in "bid thee again" (antikales"sin).

    14:13 {When thou makest a feast} (hotan docen poieis). hotan and the present subjunctive in an indefinite temporal clause. doce means reception as in #Lu 5:29, late word, only in these two passages in the N.T. Note absence of article with these adjectives in the Greek (poor people, maimed folks, lame people, blind people).

    14:14 {To recompense thee} (antapodounai soi). Second aorist active infinitive of this old and common double compound verb, to give back in return. The reward will come at the resurrection if not before and thou shalt be happy.

    14:15 {Blessed} (makarios). Happy, same word in the Beatitudes of Jesus (#Mt 5:3ff.). this pious platitude whether due to ignorance or hypocrisy was called forth by Christ's words about the resurrection. It was a common figure among the rabbis, the use of a banquet for the bliss of heaven. this man may mean that this is a prerogative of the Pharisees. He assumed complacently that he will be among the number of the blest. Jesus himself uses this same figure of the spiritual banquet for heavenly bliss (#Lu 22:29). {Shall eat} (fagetai). Future middle from esqiw, defective verb, from stem of the aorist (efagon) like edomai of the old Greek.

    14:16 {Made} (epoiei). Imperfect active, was on the point of making (inchoative). {Great supper} (deipnon). Or dinner, a formal feast. Jesus takes up the conventional remark of the guest and by this parable shows that such an attitude was no guarantee of godliness (Bruce). this parable of the marriage of the King's son (#Lu 14:15-24) has many points of likeness to the parable of the wedding garment (#Mt 22:1-14) and as many differences also. The occasions are very different, that in Matthew grows out of the attempt to arrest Jesus while this one is due to the pious comment of a guest at the feast and the wording is also quite different. Hence we conclude that they are distinct parables. {And he bade many} (kai ekalesen pollous). Aorist active, a distinct and definite act following the imperfect epoiei.

    14:17 {His servant} (ton doulon autou). His bondservant. _Vocator_ or Summoner (#Es 5:8; 6:14). this second summons was the custom qen as now with wealthy Arabs. Tristram (_Eastern Customs_, p. 82) says: "To refuse the second summons would be an insult, which is equivalent among the Arab tribes to a declaration of war."

    14:18 {With one consent} (apo mias). Some feminine substantive like gnwmes or yuces has to be supplied. this precise idiom occurs nowhere else. It looked like a conspiracy for each one in his turn did the same thing. {To make excuse} (paraiteisqai). this common Greek verb is used in various ways, to ask something from one (#Mr 15:6), to deprecate or ask to avert (#Heb 12:19), to refuse or decline (#Ac 25:11), to shun or to avoid (#2Ti 2:23), to beg pardon or to make excuses for not doing or to beg (#Lu 14:18ff.). All these ideas are variations of aitew, to ask in the middle voice with para in composition. {The first} (ho prwtos). In order of time. There are three of the "many" ("all"), whose excuses are given, each more flimsy than the other. {I must needs} (ecw anagken). I have necessity. The land would still be there, a strange "necessity." {Have me excused} (ece me pareitemenon). An unusual idiom somewhat like the English perfect with the auxiliary "have" and the modern Greek idiom with ecw, but certainly not here a Greek periphrasis for pareiteso. this perfect passive participle is predicate and agrees with me. See a like idiom in #Mr 3:1; Lu 12:19 (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 902f.). The Latin had a similar idiom, _habe me excusatum_. Same language in verse #19.

    14:19 {To prove them} (dokimasai auta). He could have tested them before buying. The oxen would not run away or be stolen.

    14:20 {I cannot come} (ou dunamai elqein). Less polite than the others but a more plausible pretence if he wanted to make it so. The law excused a newly married man from war (#De 24:5), "but not from social courtesy" (Ragg). The new wife would probably have been glad to go with him to the feast if asked. But see #1Co 7:33. There is here as often a sharp difference between the excuses offered and the reasons behind them.

    14:21 {Being angry} (orgisqeis). First aorist (ingressive) passive, becoming angry. {Quickly} (tacews). The dinner is ready and no time is to be lost. The invitation goes still to those in the city. {Streets and lanes} (tas plateias kai rhumas). Broadways and runways (broad streets and narrow lanes). {Maimed} (anapeirous). So Westcott and Hort for the old word anaperous, due to itacism (ei=e in pronunciation). The word is compounded of ana and peros, lame all the way up.

    14:22 {And yet there is room} (kai eti topos estin). The Master had invited "many" (verse #16) who had all declined. The servant knew the Master wished the places to be filled.

    14:23 {The highways and hedges} (tas hodous kai fragmous). The public roads outside the city of Judaism just as the streets and lanes were inside the city. The heathen are to be invited this time. {Hedges} is fenced in places from frassw, to fence in (#Ro 3:19). {Compel} (anagkason). First aorist active imperative of anagkazw, from anagke (verse #18). By persuasion of course. There is no thought of compulsory salvation. "Not to use force, but to constrain them against the reluctance which such poor creatures would feel at accepting the invitation of a great lord" (Vincent). As examples of such "constraint" in this verb see #Mt 14:22; Ac 26:11; Ga 6:12. {That my house may be filled} (hina gemisqei mou ho oikos). First aorist passive subjunctive of gemizw, to fill full, old verb from gemw, to be full. Effective aorist. Subjunctive with hina in final clause. The Gentiles are to take the place that the Jews might have had (#Ro 11:25). Bengel says: _Nec natura nec gratia patitur vacuum_.

    14:24 {My supper} (mou tou deipnou). Here it is still the Master of the feast who is summing up his reasons for his conduct. We do not have to say that Jesus shuts the door now in the face of the Jews who may turn to him.

    14:25 {And he turned} (kai strafeis). Second aorist passive participle of strefw, common verb. It is a dramatic act on the part of Jesus, a deliberate effort to check the wild and unthinking enthusiasm of the crowds who followed just to be following. Note "many multitudes" (ocloi polloi) and the imperfect tense suneporeuonto, were going along with him.

    14:26 {Hateth not} (ou misei). An old and very strong verb misew, to hate, detest. The orientals use strong language where cooler spirits would speak of preference or indifference. But even so Jesus does not here mean that one must hate his father or mother of necessity or as such, for #Mt 15:4 proves the opposite. It is only where the element of choice comes in (cf. #Mt 6:24) as it sometimes does, when father or mother opposes Christ. qen one must not hesitate. The language here is more sharply put than in #Mt 10:37. The ou here coalesces with the verb misei in this conditional clause of the first class determined as fulfilled. It is the language of exaggerated contrast, it is true, but it must not be watered down till the point is gone. In mentioning "and wife" Jesus has really made a comment on the excuse given in verse #20 (I married a wife and so I am not able to come). {And his own life also} (eti te kai ten yucen heautou). Note te kai, both--and. "The te (B L) binds all the particulars into one bundle of _renuncianda_" (Bruce). Note this same triple group of conjunctions (eti te kai) in #Ac 21:28, "And moreover also,"even going as far as his own life." Martyrdom should be an ever-present possibility to the Christian, not to be courted, but not to be shunned. Love for Christ takes precedence "over even the elemental instinct of self-preservation" (Ragg).

    14:27 {His own cross} (ton stauron heauto-). this familiar figure we have had already (#Lu 9:23; Mr 8:34; Mt 10:38; 16:24). Each follower has a cross which he must bear as Jesus did his. bastazw is used of cross bearing in the N.T. only here (figuratively) and #Joh 19:17 literally of Jesus. Crucifixion was common enough in Palestine since the days of Antiochus Epiphanes and Alexander Jannaeus.

    14:28 {Build a tower} (purgon oikodomesai). A common metaphor, either a tower in the city wall like that by the Pool of Siloam (#Lu 13:4) or a watchtower in a vineyard (#Mt 21:33) or a tower-shaped building for refuge or ornament as here. this parable of the rash builder has the lesson of counting the cost. {Sit down} (kaqisas). Attitude of deliberation. {First} (prwton). First things first. So in verse #31. {Count} (yefizei). Common verb in late writers, but only here and #Re 13:18 in the N.T. The verb is from yefos, a stone, which was used in voting and so counting. Calculate is from the Latin _calculus_, a pebble. To vote was to cast a pebble (tiqemi yefon). Luke has Paul using "deposit a pebble" for casting his vote (#Ac 26:10). {The cost} (ten dapanen). Old and common word, but here only in the N.T. from daptw, to tear, consume, devour. Expense is something which eats up one's resources. {Whether he hath wherewith to complete it} (ei ecei eis apartismon). If he has anything for completion of it. apartismon is a rare and late word (in the papyri and only here in the N.T.). It is from apartizw, to finish off (ap- and artizw like our articulate), to make even or square. Cf. exertismenos in #2Ti 3:17.

    14:29 {Lest haply} (hina mepote). Double final particles (positive and negative with addition of pote). Used here with aorist middle subjunctive in arxwntai (begin). {When he hath laid ... and was not able} (qentos autou ... kai me iscuontos) {to finish} (ektelesai). First aorist active infinitive. Note perfective use of ek, to finish out to the end. Two genitive absolutes, first, second aorist active participle qentos; second, present active participle iscuontos. {To mock him} (autwi empaizein). An old verb, em-paizw, to play like a child (pais), at or with, to mock, scoff at, to trifle with like Latin _illudere_.

    14:30 { this man} (houtos ho anqrwpos). this fellow, contemptuous or sarcastic use of houtos.

    14:31 {To encounter} (sunbalein). Second aorist active infinitive of sunballw, old and common verb, to throw or bring together, to dispute, to clash in war as here. {Another king} (heterwi basilei), to grapple with another king in war or for war (eis polemon). Associative instrumental case. {Take counsel} (bouleusetai). Future middle indicative of old and common verb bouleuw, from boule, will, counsel. The middle means to take counsel with oneself, to deliberate, to ponder. {With ten thousand} (en deka ciliasin). Literally, in ten thousand. See this so-called instrumental use of en in #Jude 1:14. Equipped in or with ten thousand. See #Lu 1:17. Note meta eikosi ciliadwn just below (midst of twenty thousand). {To meet} (hupantesai). Common verb (like apantaw) from antaw (anta, end, face to face, from which anti) with preposition hupo (or apo), to go to meet. Here it has a military meaning.

    14:32 {Or else} (ei de mege). Same idiom in #5:36. Luke is fond of this formula. {An ambassage} (presbeian). Old and common word for the office of ambassador, composed of old men (presbeis) like Japanese Elder Statesmen who are supposed to possess wisdom. In the N.T. only here and #Lu 19:14. {Asketh conditions of peace} (erwtai pros eirenen). The use of erwtaw in this sense of beg or petition is common in the papyri and _Koiné_ generally. The original use of asking a question survives also. The text is uncertain concerning pros eirenen which means with erwtaw, to ask negotiations for peace. In B we have eis instead of pros like verse #28. Most MSS. have ta before pros or eis, but not in Aleph and B. It is possible that the ta was omitted because of preceding tai (homoeoteleuton), but the sense is the same. See #Ro 14:19 ta tes eirenes, the things of peace, which concern or look towards peace, the preliminaries of peace.

    14:33 {Renounceth not} (ouk apotassetai). Old Greek word to set apart as in a military camp, qen in the middle voice to separate oneself from, say good-bye to (#Lu 9:61), to renounce, forsake, as here. {All that he hath} (pasin tois heautou huparcousin). Dative case, says good-bye to all his property, "all his own belongings" (neuter plural participle used as substantive) as named in verse #26. this verse gives the principle in the two parables of the rash builder and of the rash king. The minor details do not matter. The spirit of self-sacrifice is the point.

    14:35 {Dunghill} (koprian). Later word in the _Koiné_ vernacular. Here only in the N.T., though in the LXX. {Men cast it out} (exw ballousin auto). Impersonal plural. this saying about salt is another of Christ's repeated sayings (#Mt 5:13; Mr 9:50). Another repeated saying is the one here about having ears to hear (#Lu 8:8; 14:35, Mt 11:15; 13:43).

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