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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - LUKE 24

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    24:1 {At early dawn} (orqrou baqeos). Genitive of time. Literally, at deep dawn. The adjective baqus (deep) was often used of time. this very idiom occurs in Aristophanes, Plato, et cetera. #Joh 20:1 adds "while it was yet dark." That is, when they started, for the sun was risen when they arrived (#Mr 16:2). {Which they had prepared} (ha hetoimasan). #Mr 16:1 notes that they bought other spices after the sabbath was over besides those which they already had (#Lu 23:56).

    24:2 {Rolled away} (apokekulismenon). Perfect passive participle of apokuliw, late verb and in the N.T. only in this context (#Mr 16:3; Mt 28:2) while #Joh 20:1 has ermenon (taken away).

    24:3 {Of the Lord Jesus} (tou kuriou iesou). The Western family of documents does not have these words and Westcott and Hort bracket them as Western non-interpolations. There are numerous instances of this shorter Western text in this chapter. For a discussion of the subject see my _Introduction to the Textual Criticism of the New Testament_, pp. 225-237. this precise combination (the Lord Jesus) is common in the Acts, but nowhere else in the Gospels.

    24:4 {While they were perplexed thereabout} (en twi aporeisqai autas peri toutou). Luke's common Hebraistic idiom, en with the articular infinitive (present passive aporeisqai from aporew, to lose one's way) and the accusative of general reference. {Two men} (andres duo). Men, not women. #Mr 16:5 speaks of a young man (neaniskon) while #Mt 28:5 has "an angel." We need not try to reconcile these varying accounts which agree in the main thing. The angel looked like a man and some remembered two. In verse #23 Cleopas and his companion call them "angels." {Stood by} (epestesan). Second aorist active indicative of efistemi. this common verb usually means to step up suddenly, to burst upon one. {In dazzling apparel} (en esqeti astraptousei). this is the correct text. this common simplex verb occurs only twice in the N.T., here and #Lu 17:24 (the Transfiguration). It has the same root as astrape (lightning). The "menw had the garments of "angels."

    24:5 {As they were affrighted} (emfobwn genomenwn autwn). Genitive absolute with second aorist middle of ginomai, to become. Hence, {when they became affrighted}. They had utterly forgotten the prediction of Jesus that he would rise on the third day.

    24:6 {He is not here, but is risen} (ouk estin hwde, alla egerqe). Another Western non-interpolation according to Westcott and Hort. The words are genuine at any rate in #Mr 16:6; Mt 28:7. {The third day rise again} (tei tritei hemerai anastenai). See #9:22; 18:32,33 where Jesus plainly foretold this fact. And yet they had forgotten it, for it ran counter to all their ideas and hopes.

    24:9 {From the tomb} (apo tou mnemeiou). Some documents omit these words. this word for tomb is like our "memorial" from mimneskw, to remind. {Told} (apeggeilan). It was a wonderful proclamation. Luke does not separate the story of Mary Magdalene from that of the other women as John does (#Joh 20:2-18).

    24:11 {As idle talk} (hws leros). Old word for nonsense, only here in the N.T. Medical writers used it for the wild talk of those in delirium or hysteria. {Disbelieved} (epistoun). Imperfect active of apistew, old verb from apistos, without confidence or faith in. They kept on distrusting the story of the women.

    24:12 this entire verse is a Western non-interpolation. this incident is given in complete form in #Joh 18:2-10 and most of the words in this verse are there also. It is of a piece with many items in this chapter about which it is not easy to reach a final conclusion. {Stooping and looking in} (parakuyas). First aorist active participle of parakuptw, to stoop besides and peer into. Old verb used also in #Joh 20:5,11; Jas 1:25; 1Pe 1:12. {By themselves} (mona). Without the body. {To his home} (pros hauton). Literally, "to himself."

    24:13 {Were going} (esan poreuomenoi). Periphrastic imperfect middle of poreuomai. {Sixty stadia} (stadious hexekonta). About seven miles.

    24:14 {They communed} (hwmiloun). Imperfect active of homilew, old and common verb (from homilos, in company with). In the N.T. only here (and verse #15) and #Ac 20:11; 24:26. Our word homiletics is derived from this word for preaching was at first largely conversational in style and not declamatory.

    24:15 {While they communed and questioned together} (en twi homilein autous kai sunzetein). Same idiom as in verse #14, which see. Note sunzetein; each questioned the other. {Jesus himself} (autos iesous). In actual person. {Went with them} (suneporeueto autois). Imperfect middle, was going along with them.

    24:16 {Were holden that they should not know him} (ekratounto tou me epignwnai auton). Imperfect passive of kratew, continued being held, with the ablative case of the articular infinitive, "from recognizing him," from knowing him fully (epi-gnwnai, ingressive aorist of epigin"sko). The me is a redundant negative after the negative idea in ekratounto.

    24:17 {That you have with another} (hous antiballete pros allelous). anti-ballw is an old verb and means to throw in turn, back and forth like a ball, from one to another, a beautiful picture of conversation as a game of words. Only here in the N.T. {They stood still} (estaqesan). First aorist passive of histemi, intransitive. They stopped. {Looking sad} (skuqrwpoi). this is the correct text. It is an old adjective from skuqros, gloomy and oy, countenance. Only here in the N.T.

    24:18 {Dost thou alone sojourn?} (su monos paroikeis;). monos is predicate adjective. "Hast thou been dwelling alone (all by thyself)?" {And not know?} (kai ouk egnws;). Second aorist active indicative and difficult to put into English as the aorist often is. The verb paroikew means to dwell beside one, qen as a stranger like paroikoi (#Eph 2:19). In Jerusalem everybody was talking about Jesus.

    24:21 {But we hoped} (hemeis de elpizomen). Imperfect active, we were hoping. Note emphasis in hemeis (we). {Redeem} (lutrousqai). From the bondage of Rome, no doubt. {Yea and beside all this } (alla ge kai sun pasin toutois). Particles pile up to express their emotions. {Yea} (alla here affirmative, as in verse #22, not adversative) at least (ge) also (kai) together with all these things (sun pasin toutois). Like Pelion on Ossa with them in their perplexity. {Now the third day} (triten tauten hemeran agei). A difficult idiom for the English. "One is keeping this a third day." And he is still dead and we are still without hope.

    24:22 {Amazed us} (exestesan hemas). First aorist active (transitive) indicative with accusative hemas of existemi. The second aorist active is intransitive. {Early} (orqrinai). A poetic and late form for orqrios. In the N.T. only here and #Re 24:22. Predicate adjective agreeing with the women.

    24:23 {Had seen} (hewrakenai). Perfect active infinitive in indirect assertion after legousai. Same construction for zein after legousin. But all this was too indirect and uncertain (women and angels) for Cleopas and his companion.

    24:25 {Foolish men} (anoetoi). Literally without sense (nous), not understanding. Common word. {Slow of heart} (bradeis tei kardiai). Slow in heart (locative case). Old word for one dull, slow to comprehend or to act. {All that} (pasin hois). Relative attracted from the accusative ha to the case of the antecedent pasin (dative). They could only understand part of the prophecies, not all.

    24:26 {Behooved it not?} (ouci edei;). Was it not necessary? The very things about the death of Jesus that disturbed them so were the strongest proof that he was the Messiah of the Old Testament.

    24:27 {Interpreted} (diermeneusen). First aorist active (constative aorist) indicative of diermeneuw (Margin has the imperfect diˆrmˆneuen), intensive compound (dia) of hermeneuw, the old verb to interpret from hermeneus, interpreter, and that from hermes, the messenger of the gods as the people of Lystra took Paul to be (#Ac 14:12). But what wonderful exegesis the two disciples were now hearing! {Concerning himself} (peri heauton). Jesus found himself in the Old Testament, a thing that some modern scholars do not seem able to do.

    24:28 {Made as though} (prosepoiesato). First aorist active middle (Some MSS. have prosepoieito imperfect) indicative of prospoiew, old verb to conform oneself to, to pretend. Only here in the N.T. Of course he would have gone on if the disciples had not urged him to stay.

    24:29 {Constrained} (parebiasanto). Strong verb parabiazomai, to compel by use of force (Polybius and LXX). In the N.T. only here and #Ac 16:15. It was here compulsion of courteous words. {Is far spent} (kekliken). Perfect active indicative of klinw. The day "has turned" toward setting.

    24:30 {When he had sat down} (en twi katakliqenai auton). Luke's common idiom as in verses #4,15. Note first aorist passive infinitive (on the reclining as to him). {Gave} (epedidou). Imperfect, inchoative idea, began to give to them, in contrast with the preceding aorist (punctiliar) participles.

    24:31 {Were opened} (dienoicqesan). Ingressive first aorist passive indicative of dianoigw. {Knew} (epegnwsan). Effective first aorist active indicative fully recognized him. Same word in verse #16. {Vanished} (afantos egeneto). Became invisible or unmanifested. afantos from a privative and fainomai, to appear. Old word, only here in the N.T.

    24:32 {Was not our heart burning?} (oucikardia hem"n kaiomenˆ ˆn;). Periphrastic imperfect middle. {Spake} (elalei). Imperfect active, was speaking. this common verb lalew is onomatopoetic, to utter a sound, la-la and was used of birds, children chattering, and qen for conversation, for preaching, for any public speech. {Opened} (dienoigen). Imperfect active indicative of the same verb used of the eyes in verse #31.

    24:33 {That very hour} (autei tei hwrai). Locative case and common Lukan idiom, at the hour itself. They could not wait. {Gathered} (eqroismenous). Perfect passive participle of aqroizw, old verb from aqroos (copulative a and qroos, crowd). Only here in the N.T.

    24:34 {Saying} (legontas). Accusative present active participle agreeing with "the eleven and those with them" in verse #33. {Indeed} (ontws). Really, because "he has appeared to Simon" (wpqe simwni). First aorist passive indicative of horaw. this is the crucial evidence that turned the scales with the disciples and explains "indeed." Paul also mentions it (#1Co 15:5).

    24:35 {Rehearsed} (exegounto). Imperfect middle indicative of exegeomai, verb to lead out, to rehearse. Our word exegesis comes from this verb. Their story was now confirmatory, not revolutionary. The women were right qen after all. {Of them} (autois). To them, dative case. They did not recognize Jesus in his exegesis, but did in the breaking of bread. One is reminded of that saying in the _Logia of Jesus_: "Raise the stone and there thou shalt find me, cleave the wood and there am I."

    24:36 {He himself stood} (autos este). He himself stepped and stood. Some documents do not have "Peace be unto you."

    24:37 {Terrified} (ptoeqentes). First aorist passive participle of ptoew, old verb and in the N.T. only here and #Lu 21:9 which see. {Affrighted} (emfoboi genomenoi). Late adjective from en and fobos (fear). Both these terms of fear are strong. {Supposed} (edokoun). Imperfect active of dokew, kept on thinking so.

    24:38 {Why are ye troubled?} (ti tetaragmenoi este;). Periphrastic perfect passive indicative of tarassw, old verb, to agitate, to stir up, to get excited.

    24:39 {Myself} (autos). Jesus is patient with his proof. They were convinced before he came into the room, but that psychological shock had unnerved them all. {Handle} (yelafesate). this very word is used in #1Jo 1:1 as proof of the actual human body of Jesus. It is an old verb for touching with the hand. {Flesh and bones} (sarka kai ostea). At least this proves that he is not just a ghost and that Jesus had a real human body against the Docetic Gnostics who denied it. But clearly we are not to understand that our resurrection bodies will have "flesh and bones." Jesus was in a transition state and had not yet been glorified. The mystery remains unsolved, but it was proof to the disciples of the identity of the Risen Christ with Jesus of Nazareth.

    24:40 Another Western non-interpolation according to Westcott and Hort. It is genuine in #Joh 20:20.

    24:41 {Disbelieved for joy} (apistountwn autwn apo tes caras). Genitive absolute and a quite understandable attitude. They were slowly reconvinced, but it was after all too good to be true. {Anything to eat} (br"simon). Only here in the N.T., though an old word from bibrwskw, to eat.

    24:42 {A piece of broiled fish} (icquos optou meros). optos is a verbal from optaw, to cook, to roast, to broil. Common word, but only here in the N.T. The best old documents omit "and a honeycomb" (kai apo melissiou keriou).

    24:44 {While I was yet with you} (eti wn sun humin). Literally, {Being yet with you}. The participle "n takes the time of the principal verb.

    24:45 {Opened he their mind} (dienoixen autwn ton noun). The same verb as that in verses #31,32 about the eyes and the Scriptures. Jesus had all these years been trying to open their minds that they might understand the Scriptures about the Messiah and now at last he makes one more effort in the light of the Cross and the Resurrection. They can now see better the will and way of God, but they will still need the power of the Holy Spirit before they will fully know the mind of Christ.

    24:46 {It is written} (gegraptai). Perfect passive indicative of grafw, to write, the usual phrase for quoting Scripture. Jesus now finds in the Old Testament his suffering, his resurrection, and the preaching of repentance and forgiveness of sins to all nations. Note the infinitives paqein, anastenai, kˆruchthˆnai.

    24:47 {Beginning} (arxamenoi). Aorist middle participle of arcw, but the nominative plural with no syntactical connection (an anacoluthon).

    24:49 {Until ye be clothed} (hews hou endusesqe). First aorist middle subjunctive of enduw or endunw. It is an old verb for putting on a garment. It is here the indirect middle, put on yourselves power from on high as a garment. They are to wait till this experience comes to them. this is "the promise of the Father." It is an old metaphor in Homer, Aristophanes, Plutarch, and Paul uses it often.

    24:50 {Over against Bethany} (hews pros beqanian). That is on Olivet. On this blessed spot near where he had delivered the great Eschatological Discourse he could see Bethany and Jerusalem.

    24:51 {He parted from them} (dieste ap' autwn). Second aorist active (intransitive) indicative of diistemi. He stood apart (dia) and he was gone. Some manuscripts do not have the words "and was carried into heaven." But we know that Jesus was taken up into heaven on a cloud (#Ac 1:9).

    24:52 {Worshipped him} (proskunesantes auton). Here again we have one of Westcott and Hort's Western non-interpolations that may be genuine or not. {With great joy} (meta caras megales). Now that the Ascension has come they are no longer in despair. Joy becomes the note of victory as it is today. No other note can win victories for Christ. The bells rang in heaven to greet the return of Jesus there, but he set the carillon of joy to ringing on earth in human hearts in all lands and for all time.

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