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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - MATTHEW 18

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    18:1 {Who qen is greatest} (tis ara meizwn estin). The Ara seems to point back to the tax-collection incident when Jesus had claimed exemption for them all as "sons" of the Father. But it was not a new dispute, for jealousy had been growing in their hearts. The wonderful words of Jesus to Peter on Mount Hermon (#Mt 16:17-19) had evidently made Peter feel a fresh sense of leadership on the basis of which he had dared even to rebuke Jesus for speaking of his death (#16:22). And qen Peter was one of the three (James and John also) taken with the Master up on the Mount of Transfiguration. Peter on that occasion had spoken up promptly. And just now the tax-collectors had singled out Peter as the one who seemed to represent the group. Mark (#Mr 9:33) represents Jesus as asking them about their dispute on the way into the house, perhaps just after their question in #Mt 18:1. Jesus had noticed the wrangling. It will break out again and again (#Mt 20:20-28; Lu 22:24). Plainly the primacy of Peter was not yet admitted by the others. The use of the comparative meizwn (so ho meizwn in verse #4) rather than the superlative megistos is quite in accord with the _Koin‚_ idiom where the comparative is displacing the superlative (Robertson, _Grammar_, pp. 667ff.). But it is a sad discovery to find the disciples chiefly concerned about their own places (offices) in the political kingdom which they were expecting.

    18:2 {Called to him} (proskalesamenos). Indirect middle voice aorist participle. It may even be Peter's "little child" (paidion) as it was probably in Peter's house (#Mr 9:33). {Set him} (estesen). Transitive first aorist active indicative, not intransitive second aorist, este. {In the midst of them} (en meswi autwn). Luke adds (#Lu 9:47) "by his side" (par' heautwi). Both are true.

    18:3 {Except ye turn and become} (ean me strafete kai genesqe). Third-class condition, undetermined but with prospect of determination. Straphˆte is second aorist passive subjunctive and genesqe second aorist middle subjunctive. They were headed in the wrong direction with their selfish ambition. "His tone at this time is markedly severe, as much as when He denounces the Pharisaism in the bud He had to deal with" (Bruce). The strong double negative ou me eiselthˆte means that they will otherwise not get into the kingdom of heaven at all, let alone have big places in it.

    18:4 { this little child} (to paidion touto). this saying about humbling oneself Jesus repeated a number of times as for instance in #Mt 23:12. Probably Jesus pointed to the child by his side. The ninth-century story that the child was Ignatius is worthless. It is not that the child humbled himself, but that the child is humble from the nature of the case in relation to older persons. That is true, however "bumptious" the child himself may be. Bruce observes that to humble oneself is "the most difficult thing in the world for saint as for sinner."

    18:5 {In my name} (epi twi onomati mou). For "one such little child" (any believer in Christ) Luke (#Lu 9:48) has " this little child" as a representative or symbol. "On the basis or ground of my name,"for my sake." Very much like eis onoma in #10:41 which does not differ greatly from en onomati (#Ac 10:48).

    18:6 {These little ones} (twn mikrwn toutwn). In the same sense as "one such little one" above. The child is the type of believers. {A great millstone} (mulos onikos), literally, "a millstone turned by an ass." The upper millstone was turned by an ass (onos). There were no examples of the adjective onikos (turned by an ass) outside the N.T. until the papyri revealed several for loads requiring an ass to carry them, stones requiring an ass to move them, etc. Deissmann (_Light from the Ancient East_, p. 81) notes it also in papyri examples about the sale of an ass and tax for an ass's burden of goods. {The depth of the sea} (t"i pelagei tˆs thalassˆs). "The sea of the sea." pelagos probably from plˆsso, to beat, and so the beating, splashing waves of the sea. "Far out into the open sea, a vivid substitute for eis tˆn thalassan" (McNeile).

    18:7 {Through whom} (di' ou). Jesus recognizes the inevitableness of stumbling-blocks, traps, hindrances, the world being as it is, but he does not absolve the man who sets the trap (cf. #Lu 17:1).

    18:8 In verses #8 and #9 we have one of the dualities or doublets in Matthew (#5:29-30). Jesus repeated his pungent sayings many times. Instead of eis geennan (#5:29) we have eis to pur to aiwnion and at the end of verse #9 tou puros is added to tˆn geennan. this is the first use in Matthew of aiwnios. We have it again in #19:16,29 with zoˆ, in #25:41 with pur, in #25:46 with kolasin and zoˆn. The word means ageless, without beginning or end as of God (#Ro 16:26), without beginning as in #Ro 16:25, without end as here and often. The effort to make it mean "aeonian" fire will make it mean "aeonian" life also. If the punishment is limited, _ipso facto_ the life is shortened. In verse #9 also monophthalmon occurs. It is an Ionic compound in Herodotus that is condemned by the Atticists, but it is revived in the vernacular _Koin‚_. Literally one-eyed. Here only and #Mr 9:47 in the New Testament.

    18:10 {Despise} (katafronesete). Literally, "think down on," with the assumption of superiority. {Their angels} (hoi aggeloi autwn). The Jews believed that each nation had a guardian angel (#Da 10:13,20f.; 12:1). The seven churches in Revelation (#Re 1:20) have angels, each of them, whatever the meaning is. Does Jesus mean to teach here that each little child or child of faith had a special angel who appears in God's presence, "see the face of my Father" (blepousin to pros"pon tou patros mou) in special intimacy? Or does he simply mean that the angels do take an interest in the welfare of God's people (#Heb 1:14)? There is comfort to us in that thought. Certainly Jesus means that the Father takes special care of his "little ones" who believe in Him. There are angels in God's presence (#Lu 1:19).

    18:12 {Leave the ninety and nine} (afesei ta enenekonta ennea epi ta ore kai poreuqeis zetei to planwmenon?). this is the text of Westcott and Hort after BL, etc. this text means: "Will he not leave the ninety and nine upon the mountains and going does he not seek (change to present tense) the wandering one?" On the high pastures where the sheep graze at will one has wandered afield. See this parable later in #Lu 15:4-7. Our word "planet" is from planaomai, wandering (moving) stars they were called as opposed to fixed stars. But now we know that no stars are fixed. They are all moving and rapidly.

    18:14 {The will of your Father} (qelema emprosqen). Observe that Westcott and Hort read mou here rather than h-m"n after B Sahidic Coptic. Either makes good sense, though "your" carries on the picture of God's care for "each one of these little ones" (hen t"n mikr"n toutwn) among God's children. The use of emprosqen with qelema is a Hebraism like emprosqen sou in #11:25 with eudokia, "before the face" of God.

    18:15 {If thy brother Sin against thee} (ean hamartesei adelfos sou). Literally, commit a Sin (ingressive aorist subjunctive of hamartanw). Aleph B Sahidic do not have "against thee" (eis se). {Shew him his fault} (elegxon). Such private reproof is hard to do, but it is the way of Christ. {Thou hast gained} (ekerdesas). Aorist active indicative of kerdainw in conclusion of a third-class condition, a sort of timeless aorist, a blessed achievement already made.

    18:16 {Take with thee} (paralabe meta sou). Take alone (para) with (meta) thee.

    18:17 {Refuse to hear} (parakousei). Like #Isa 65:12. Many papyri examples for ignoring, disregarding, hearing without heeding, hearing aside (para-), hearing amiss, overhearing (#Mr 5:36). {The church} (tei ekklesiai). The local body, not the general as in #Mt 16:18 which see for discussion. The problem here is whether Jesus has in mind an actual body of believers already in existence or is speaking prophetically of the local churches that would be organized later (as in Acts). There are some who think that the Twelve Apostles constituted a local ekklesia, a sort of moving church of preachers. That could only be true in essence as they were a band of ministers and not located in any one place. Bruce holds that they were "the nucleus" of a local church at any rate.

    18:18 {Shall be bound in heaven} (estai dedemena en ouranwi). Future passive periphrastic perfect indicative as in "shall be loosed" (estai lelumena). In #16:19 this same unusual form occurs. The binding and the loosing is there addressed to Peter, but it is here repeated for the church or for the disciples as the case may be.

    18:19 {Shall agree} (sumfwneswSin). Our word "symphony" is this very root. It is no longer looked at as a concord of voices, a chorus in harmony, though that would be very appropriate in a church meeting rather than the rasping discord sometimes heard even between two brethren or sisters. {Of my Father} (para tou patros mou). From the side of, "by my Father."

    18:20 {There am I} (ekei eimi). this blessed promise implies that those gathered together are really disciples with the spirit of Christ as well as "in his name" (eis to emon onoma). One of the Oxyrhynchus _Sayings of Our Lord_ is: "Wherever there are (two) they are not without God, and wherever there is one alone I say I am with him." Also this : "Raise the stone and there thou shalt find me, cleave the wood and there am I." See #Mal 3:16.

    18:21 {Until seven times?} (hews heptakis?) Peter thought that he was generous as the Jewish rule was three times (#Am 1:6). His question goes back to verse #15. "Against me" is genuine here. "The man who asks such a question does not really know what forgiveness means" (Plummer).

    18:22 {Until seventy times seven} (hews hebdomekontakis hepta). It is not clear whether this idiom means seventy-seven or as the Revised Version has it (490 times). If heptakis were written it would clearly be 490 times. The same ambiguity is seen in #Ge 4:24, the LXX text by omitting kai. In the _Test. of the Twelve Patriarchs, Benj._ vii. 4, it is used in the sense of seventy times seven. But it really makes little difference because Jesus clearly means unlimited forgiveness in either case. "The unlimited revenge of primitive man has given place to the unlimited forgiveness of Christians" (McNeile).

    18:23 {Make a reckoning} (sunerai logon). Seen also in #25:19. Perhaps a Latinism, _rationes conferre_. First aorist active infinitive of sunair", to cast up accounts, to settle, to compare accounts with. Not in ancient Greek writers, but in two papyri of the second century A.D. in the very sense here and the substantive appears in an ostracon from Nubia of the early third century (Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, p. 117).

    18:24 {Ten thousand talents} (muriwn talantwn). A talent was 6,000 denarii or about a thousand dollars or 240 pounds. Ten thousand times this is about ten or twelve million dollars, an enormous sum for that period. We live today in the age of national debts of billions of dollars or even of pounds sterling. The imperial taxes of Judea, Idumea, and Samaria for one year were only 600 talents while Galilee and Perea paid 200 (Josephus, _Ant_. xi. 4). But oriental kings were free in the use of money and in making debts like the native kings of India today.

    18:25 {Had not wherewith to pay} (me econtos autou apodounai). There is no "wherewith" in the Greek. this idiom is seen in #Lu 7:42; 14:14; Heb 6:13. Genitive absolute though auton in the same clause as often in the N.T. {To be sold} (praqenai). First aorist passive infinitive of pipraskw. this was according to the law (#Ex 22:3; Le 25:39,47). Wife and children were treated as property in those primitive times.

    18:27 {The debt} (to danion). The loan. Common in the papyri for a loan. The interest had increased the debt enormously. " this heavy oriental usury is of the scenery of the parable" (McNeile).

    18:28 {A hundred pence} (hekaton denaria). A denarius was worth about eight and a half pence. The hundred denarii here were equal to some "fifty shillings" (Bruce), "about 4 pounds" (McNeile), "twenty pounds" (Moffatt), "twenty dollars" (Goodspeed), "100 shillings" (Weymouth) . These are various efforts to represent in modern language the small amount of this debt compared with the big one. {Took him by the throat} (epnigen). "Held him by the throat" (Allen). It is imperfect, probably inchoative, "began to choke or throttle him." The Roman law allowed this indignity. Vincent quotes Livy (iv. 53) who tells how the necks were twisted (_collum torsisset_) and how Cicero (_Pro Cluentio_, xxi.) says: "Lead him to the judgment seat with twisted neck (_collo obtorto_)." {What thou owest} (ei ti ofeileis). Literally, "if thou owest anything," however little. He did not even know how much it was, only that he owed him something. "The 'if' is simply the expression of a pitiless logic" (Meyer).

    18:30 {And he would not} (ho de ouk eqelen). Imperfect tense of persistent refusal. {Till he should pay} (hews apodwi). this futuristic aorist subjunctive is the rule with hews for a future goal. He was to stay in prison till he should pay. "He acts on the instinct of a base nature, and also doubtless in accordance with long habits of harsh tyrannical behavior towards men in his power" (Bruce). On imprisonment for debt among the Greeks and Romans see Deissmann, _Light from the Ancient East_, pp. 270,330.

    18:31 {Told} (diesafesan). Made wholly clear to their own lord. That is the usual result in the long run. There is a limit to what people will put up with.

    18:33 {Shouldst thou not?} (ouk edei se?) "Was it not necessary?" The king fits the cap on this wicked slave that he put on the poor debtor.

    18:34 {The tormentors} (tois basanistais). Not to prison simply, but to terrible punishment. The papyri give various instances of the verb basanizw, to torture, used of slaves and others. "Livy (ii. 23) pictures an old centurion complaining that he was taken by his creditor, not into servitude, but to a workhouse and torture, and showing his back scarred with fresh wounds" (Vincent). {Till he should pay all} (hews [hou] apodwi pan). Just as in verse #30, his very words. But this is not purgatorial, but punitive, for he could never pay back that vast debt.

    18:35 {From your hearts} (apo twn kardiwn h-mwn). No sham or lip pardon, and as often as needed. this is Christ's full reply to Peter's question in #18:21. this parable of the unmerciful servant is surely needed today.

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