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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - MATTHEW 22

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    22:1 {Again in parables} (palin en parabolais). Matthew has already given two on this occasion (The Two Sons, The Wicked Husbandmen). He alone gives this Parable of the Marriage Feast of the King's Son. It is somewhat similar to that of The Supper in #Lu 14:16-23 given on another occasion. Hence some scholars consider this merely Matthew's version of the Lucan parable in the wrong place because of Matthew's habit of grouping the sayings of Jesus. But that is a gratuitous indictment of Matthew's report which definitely locates the parable here by palin. Some regard it as not spoken by Jesus at all, but an effort on the part of the writer to cover the Sin and fate of the Jews, the calling of the Gentiles, and God's demand for righteousness. But here again it is like Jesus and suits the present occasion.

    22:2 {A marriage feast} (gamous). The plural, as here (#2,3,4,9), is very common in the papyri for the wedding festivities (the several acts of feasting) which lasted for days, seven in #Jud 14:17. The very phrase here, gamous poiein, occurs in the Doric of Thera about B.C. 200. The singular gamos is common in the papyri for the wedding contract, but Field (_Notes_, p. 16) sees no difference between the singular here in #22:8 and the plural (see also #Ge 29:22; Es 9:22; Macc. 10:58).

    22:3 {To call them that were bidden} (kalesai tous keklˆmenous). "Perhaps an unconscious play on the words, lost in both A.V. and Rev., {to call the called}" (Vincent). It was a Jewish custom to invite a second time the already invited (#Es 5:8; 6:14). The prophets of old had given God's invitation to the Jewish people. Now the Baptist and Jesus had given the second invitation that the feast was ready. {And they would not come} (kai ouk eqelon elqein). this negative imperfect characterizes the stubborn refusal of the Jewish leaders to accept Jesus as God's Son (#Joh 1:11). this is "The Hebrew Tragedy" (Conder).

    22:4 {My dinner} (to ariston mou). It is breakfast, not dinner. In #Lu 14:12 both ariston (breakfast) and deipnon (dinner) are used. this noon or midday meal, like the French breakfast at noon, was sometimes called deipnon mesˆmbrinon (midday dinner or luncheon). The regular dinner (deipnon) came in the evening. The confusion arose from applying ariston to the early morning meal and qen to the noon meal (some not eating an earlier meal). In #Joh 21:12,15 aristaw is used of the early morning meal, "Break your fast" (aristesate). When ariston was applied to luncheon, like the Latin _prandium_, akratisma was the term for the early breakfast. {My fatlings} (ta sitista). Verbal from sitizw, to feed with wheat or other grain, to fatten. Fed-up or fatted animals.

    22:5 {Made light of it} (amelesantes). Literally, neglecting, not caring for. They may even have ridiculed the invitation, but the verb does not say so. However, to neglect an invitation to a wedding feast is a gross discourtesy. {One to his own farm} (hos men eis ton idion agron) or field, {another to his merchandise} (hos de epi ten emporian autou) only example in the N.T., from emporos, merchant, one who travels for traffic (emporeuomai), a drummer.

    22:7 {Armies} (strateumata). Bands of soldiers, not grand armies.

    22:9 {The partings of the highways} (tas diexodous twn hodwn). Vulgate, _exitus viarum_. Diodoi are cross-streets, while diexodoi (double compound) seem to be main streets leading out of the city where also side-streets may branch off, "by-ways."

    22:10 {The wedding} (ho gamos). But Westcott and Hort rightly read here ho numph"n, marriage dining hall. The same word in #9:15 means the bridechamber.

    22:12 {Not having a wedding-garment} (me ecwn enduma gamou). me is in the _Koin‚_ the usual negative with participles unless special emphasis on the negative is desired as in ouk endedumenon. There is a subtle distinction between me and ou like our subjective and objective notions. Some hold that the wedding-garment here is a portion of a lost parable separate from that of the Wedding Feast, but there is no evidence for that idea. Wunsche does report a parable by a rabbi of a king who set no time for his feast and the guests arrived, some properly dressed waiting at the door; others in their working clothes did not wait, but went off to work and, when the summons suddenly came, they had no time to dress properly and were made to stand and watch while the others partook of the feast.

    22:13 {Was speechless} (epsim"thˆ). Was muzzled, dumb from confusion and embarrassment. It is used of the ox (#1Ti 5:18). {The outer darkness} (to skotos to ex"teron). See #Mt 8:12. All the blacker from the standpoint of the brilliantly lighted banquet hall. {There shall be} (ekei estai). Out there in the outer darkness.

    22:14 {For many are called, but few chosen} (polloi gar eisin kletoi oligoi de eklektoi). this crisp saying of Christ occurs in various connections. He evidently repeated many of his sayings many times as every teacher does. There is a distinction between the called (kletoi) and the chosen (eklektoi) called out from the called.

    22:15 {Went} (poreuthentes). So-called deponent passive and redundant use of the verb as in #9:13: "Go and learn." {Took counsel} (sumboulion elabon). Like the Latin _consilium capere_ as in #12:14. {Ensnare in his talk} (pagideuswsin en logwi). From pagis, a snare or trap. Here only in the N.T. In the LXX (#1Ki 28:9; Ec 9:12; Test. of Twelve Patriarchs, _Joseph_ 7:1). Vivid picture of the effort to trip Jesus in his speech like a bird or wild beast.

    22:16 {Their disciples} (tous maqetas autwn). Students, pupils, of the Pharisees as in #Mr 2:18. There were two Pharisaic theological seminaries in Jerusalem (Hillel, Shammai). {The Herodians} (twn herwidianwn). Not members of Herod's family or Herod's soldiers, but partisans or followers of Herod. The form in -ianos is a Latin termination like that in cristianos (#Ac 11:26). Mentioned also in #Mr 3:6 combining with the Pharisees against Jesus. {The person of men} (pros"pon anqrwpwn). Literally, face of men. Paying regard to appearance is the Sin of partiality condemned by James (#Jas 2:1,9) when pros"polˆmpsia, pros"polˆmptein are used, in imitation of the Hebrew idiom. this suave flattery to Jesus implied "that Jesus was a reckless simpleton" (Bruce).

    22:19 {Tribute money} (to nomisma tou kensou). Kˆnsos, Latin _census_, was a capitation tax or head-money, _tributum capitis_, for which silver denaria were struck, with the figure of Caesar and a superscription, e.g. "Tiberiou kaisaros" (McNeile). Nomisma is the Latin _numisma_ and occurs here only in the N.T., is common in the old Greek, from nomizw sanctioned by law or custom.

    22:20 { this image and superscription} (he eikwn haute kai he epigrafe). Probably a Roman coin because of the image (picture) on it. The earlier Herods avoided this practice because of Jewish prejudice, but the Tetrarch Philip introduced it on Jewish coins and he was followed by Herod Agrippa I. this coin was pretty certainly stamped in Rome with the image and name of Tiberius Caesar on it.

    22:21 {Render} (apodote). "Give back" to Caesar what is already Caesar's.

    22:24 {Shall marry} (epigambreusei). The Sadducees were "aiming at amusement rather than deadly mischief" (Bruce). It was probably an old conundrum that they had used to the discomfiture of the Pharisees. this passage is quoted from #De 25:5,6. The word appears here only in the N.T. and elsewhere only in the LXX. It is used of any connected by marriage as in #Ge 34:9; 1Sa 18:22. But in #Ge 38:8 and #De 25:5 it is used specifically of one marrying his brother's widow.

    22:33 {They were astonished} (exeplessonto). Descriptive imperfect passive showing the continued amazement of the crowds. They were struck out (literally).

    22:34 {He had put the Sadducees to silence} (ephim"sen tous Saddoukaious). Muzzled the Sadducees. The Pharisees could not restrain their glee though they were joining with the Sadducees in trying to entrap Jesus. {Gathered themselves together} (sunecqesan epi to auto). First aorist passive, were gathered together. epi to auto explains more fully sun-. See also #Ac 2:47. "Mustered their forces" (Moffatt).

    22:36 {The great commandment in the law} (entole megale en twi nomwi). The positive adjective is sometimes as high in rank as the superlative. See megas in #Mt 5:19 in contrast with elacistos. The superlative megistos occurs in the N.T. only in #2Pe 1:4. Possibly this scribe wishes to know which commandment stood first (#Mr 12:28) with Jesus. "The scribes declared that there were 248 affirmative precepts, as many as the members of the human body; and 365 negative precepts, as many as the days in the year, the total being 613, the number of letters in the Decalogue" (Vincent). But Jesus cuts through such pettifogging hair-splitting to the heart of the problem.

    22:42 {The Christ} (tou cristou). The Messiah, of course, not Christ as a proper name of Jesus. Jesus here assumes that #Ps 110 refers to the Messiah. By his pungent question about the Messiah as David's son and Lord he really touches the problem of his Person (his Deity and his Humanity). Probably the Pharisees had never faced that problem before. They were unable to answer.

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