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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - MATTHEW 6

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    6:1 {Take heed} (prosecete). The Greek idiom includes "mind" (noun) which is often expressed in ancient Greek and once in the Septuagint (#Job 7:17). In the New Testament the substantive nous is understood. It means to "hold the mind on a matter," take pains, take heed. "Righteousness" (dikaiosunˆn) is the correct text in this verse. Three specimens of the Pharisaic "righteousness" are given (alms, prayer, fasting). {To be seen} (theathˆnai). First aorist passive infinitive of purpose. Our word _theatrical_ is this very word, spectacular performance. {With your Father} (para t"i patri humwn). Literally "beside your Father," standing by his side, as he looks at it.

    6:2 {Sound not a trumpet} (me salpiseis). Is this literal or metaphorical? No actual instance of such conduct has been found in the Jewish writings. McNeile suggests that it may refer to the blowing of trumpets in the streets on the occasion of public fasts. Vincent suggests the thirteen trumpet-shaped chests of the temple treasury to receive contributions (#Lu 21:2). But at Winona Lake one summer a missionary from India named Levering stated to me that he had seen Hindu priests do precisely this very thing to get a crowd to see their beneficences. So it looks as if the rabbis could do it also. Certainly it was in keeping with their love of praise. And Jesus expressly says that "the hypocrites" (hoi hupokritai) do this very thing. this is an old word for actor, interpreter, one who personates another, from hupokrinomai to answer in reply like the Attic apokrinomai. qen to pretend, to feign, to dissemble, to act the hypocrite, to wear a mask. this is the hardest word that Jesus has for any class of people and he employs it for these pious pretenders who pose as perfect. {They have received their reward} (apechousin ton misqon autwn). this verb is common in the papyri for receiving a receipt, "they have their receipt in full," all the reward that they will get, this public notoriety. "They can sign the receipt of their reward" (Deissmann, _Bible Studies_, p. 229). So _Light from the Ancient East_, pp. 110f. Apochˆ means "receipt." So also in #6:5.

    6:4 {In secret} (twi kruptwi). The Textus Receptus added the words en twi phaner"i (openly) here and in #6:6, but they are not genuine. Jesus does not promise a _public_ reward for private piety.

    6:5 {In the synagogues and in the corners of the streets} (en tais sunagwgais kai en tais gwniais twn plateiwn). These were the usual places of prayer (synagogues) and the street corners where crowds stopped for business or talk. If the hour of prayer overtook a Pharisee here, he would strike his attitude of prayer like a modern Moslem that men might see that he was pious.

    6:6 {Into thy closet} (eis to tameion). The word is a late syncopated form of tamieion from tamias (steward) and the root tam- from temnw, to cut. So it is a store-house, a separate apartment, one's private chamber, closet, or "den" where he can withdraw from the world and shut the world out and commune with God.

    6:7 {Use not vain repetitions} (me battalogesete). Used of stammerers who repeat the words, qen mere babbling or chattering, empty repetition. The etymology is uncertain, but it is probably onomatopoetic like "babble." The worshippers of Baal on Mount Carmel (#1Ki 8:26) and of Diana in the amphitheatre at Ephesus who yelled for two hours (#Ac 19:34) are examples. The Mohammedans may also be cited who seem to think that they "will be heard for their much speaking" (en tˆi polulogiai). Vincent adds "and the Romanists with their _paternosters_ and _avast_." The Syriac Sinaitic has it: "Do not be saying idle things." Certainly Jesus does not mean to condemn all repetition in prayer since he himself prayed three times in Gethsemane "saying the same words again" (#Mt 26:44). "As the Gentiles do," says Jesus. "The Pagans thought that by endless repetitions and many words they would inform their gods as to their needs and weary them ('_fatigare deos_') into granting their requests" (Bruce).

    6:9 {After this manner therefore pray ye} (houtws oun proseucesqe humeis). "You" expressed in contrast with "the Gentiles." It should be called "The Model Prayer" rather than "The Lord's Prayer."Thus" pray as he gives them a model. He himself did not use it as a liturgy (cf. #Joh 17). There is no evidence that Jesus meant it for liturgical use by others. In #Lu 11:2-4 practically the same prayer though briefer is given at a later time by Jesus to the apostles in response to a request that he teach them how to pray. McNeile argues that the form in Luke is the original to which Matthew has made additions: "The tendency of liturgical formulas is towards enrichment rather than abbreviation." But there is no evidence whatever that Jesus designed it as a set formula. There is no real harm in a liturgical formula if one likes it, but no one sticks to just one formula in prayer. There is good and not harm in children learning and saying this noble prayer. Some people are disturbed over the words "Our Father" and say that no one has a right to call God Father who has not been "born again." But that is to say that an unconverted sinner cannot pray until he is converted, an absurd contradiction. God is the Father of all men in one sense; the recognition of Him as the Father in the full sense is the first step in coming back to him in regeneration and conversion.

    {Hallowed be thy name} (hagiasqetw to onoma sou). In the Greek the verb comes first as in the petitions in verse #10. They are all aorist imperatives, punctiliar action expressing urgency.

    6:11 {Our daily bread} (ton arton hemwn ton epiousion). this adjective "daily" (epiousion) coming after "Give us this day" (dos hˆmŒn sˆmeron) has given expositors a great deal of trouble. The effort has been made to derive it from epi and "n (ousa). It clearly comes from epi and i"n (epi and eimi) like tei epiousei ("on the coming day,"the next day," #Ac 16:12). But the adjective epiousios is rare and Origen said it was made by the Evangelists Matthew and Luke to reproduce the idea of an Aramaic original. Moulton and Milligan, _Vocabulary_ say: "The papyri have as yet shed no clear light upon this difficult word (#Mt 6:11; Lu 11:3), which was in all probability a new coinage by the author of the Greek Q to render his Aramaic Original" ( this in 1919). Deissmann claims that only about fifty purely New Testament or "Christian" words can be admitted out of the more than 5,000 used. "But when a word is not recognizable at sight as a Jewish or Christian new formation, we must consider it as an ordinary Greek word until the contrary is proved. Epiousios has all the appearance of a word that originated in trade and traffic of the everyday life of the people (cf. my hints in _Neutestamentliche Studien Georg Heinrici dargebracht_, Leipzig, 1914, pp. 118f.). The opinion here expressed has been confirmed by A. Debrunner's discovery (_Theol. Lit. Ztg_. 1925, Col. 119) of epiousios in an ancient housekeeping book" (_Light from the Ancient East_, New ed. 1927, p. 78 and note 1). So qen it is not a word coined by the Evangelist or by Q to express an Aramaic original. The word occurs also in three late MSS. after 2Macc. 1:8, tous epiousious after tous artous. The meaning, in view of the kindred participle (epiousˆi) in #Ac 16:12, seems to be "for the coming day," a daily prayer for the needs of the next day as every housekeeper understands like the housekeeping book discovered by Debrunner.

    6:12 {Our debts} (ta ofeilemata hemwn). Luke (#Lu 11:4) has "sins" (hamartias). In the ancient Greek opheilˆma is common for actual legal debts as in #Ro 4:4, but here it is used of moral and spiritual debts to God. "Trespasses" is a mistranslation made common by the Church of England Prayer Book. It is correct in verse #14 in Christ's argument about prayer, but it is not in the Model Prayer itself. See #Mt 18:28,30 for Sin pictured again by Christ "as debt and the sinner as a debtor" (Vincent). We are thus described as having wronged God. The word opheilˆ for moral obligation was once supposed to be peculiar to the New Testament. But it is common in that sense in the papyri (Deismann, _Bible Studies_, p. 221; _Light from the Ancient East,_ New ed., p. 331). We ask forgiveness "in proportion as" (hws) we _also_ have forgiven those in debt to us, a most solemn reflection. Aphˆkamen is one of the three k aorists (eqeka, ed"ka, heka). It means to send away, to dismiss, to wipe off.

    6:13 {And bring us not into temptation} (kai me eisenegkeis eis peirasmon). "Bring" or "lead" bothers many people. It seems to present God as an active agent in subjecting us to temptation, a thing specifically denied in #Jas 1:13. The word here translated "temptation" (peirasmon) means originally "trial" or "test" as in #Jas 1:2 and Vincent so takes it here. _Braid Scots_ has it: "And lat us no be siftit." But God does test or sift us, though he does not tempt us to evil. No one understood temptation so well as Jesus for the devil tempted him by every avenue of approach to all kinds of Sin, but without success. In the Garden of Gethsemane Jesus will say to Peter, James, and John: "Pray that ye enter not into temptation" (#Lu 22:40). That is the idea here. Here we have a "Permissive imperative" as grammarians term it. The idea is qen: "Do not allow us to be led into temptation." There is a way out (#1Co 10:13), but it is a terrible risk.

    {From the evil one} (apo tou ponerou). The ablative case in the Greek obscures the gender. We have no way of knowing whether it is ho poneros (the evil one) or to poneron (the evil thing). And if it is masculine and so ho poneros, it can either refer to the devil as the Evil One _par excellence_ or the evil man whoever he may be who seeks to do us ill. The word poneros has a curious history coming from ponos (toil) and ponew (to work). It reflects the idea either that work is bad or that this particular work is bad and so the bad idea drives out the good in work or toil, an example of human depravity surely.

    The Doxology is placed in the margin of the Revised Version. It is wanting in the oldest and best Greek manuscripts. The earliest forms vary very much, some shorter, some longer than the one in the Authorized Version. The use of a doxology arose when this prayer began to be used as a liturgy to be recited or to be chanted in public worship. It was not an original part of the Model Prayer as given by Jesus.

    6:14 {Trespasses} (paraptwmata). this is no part of the Model Prayer. The word "trespass" is literally "falling to one side," a lapse or deviation from truth or uprightness. The ancients sometimes used it of intentional falling or attack upon one's enemy, but "slip" or "fault" (#Ga 6:1) is the common New Testament idea. parabasis (#Ro 5:14) is a positive violation, a transgression, conscious stepping aside or across.

    6:16 {Of a sad countenance} (skuqrwpoi). Only here and #Lu 24:17 in the N.T. It is a compound of skuqros (sullen) and oy (countenance). These actors or hypocrites "put on a gloomy look" (Goodspeed) and, if necessary, even "disfigure their faces" (aphanizousin ta pros"pa autwn), that they may look like they are fasting. It is this pretence of piety that Jesus so sharply ridicules. There is a play on the Greek words aphanizousi (disfigure) and fan"Sin (figure). They conceal their real looks that they may seem to be fasting, conscious and pretentious hypocrisy.

    6:18 {In secret} (en twi krufaiwi). Here as in #6:4,6 the Textus Receptus adds en twi phaner"i (openly), but it is not genuine. The word kruphaios is here alone in the New Testament, but occurs four times in the Septuagint.

    6:19 {Lay not up for yourselves treasures} (me qesaurizete humin qesaurous). Do not have this habit (me and the present imperative). See on ¯Mt 2:11 for the word "treasure." Here there is a play on the word, "treasure not for yourselves treasures." Same play in verse #20 with the cognate accusative. In both verses humin is dative of personal interest and is not reflexive, but the ordinary personal pronoun. Wycliff has it: "Do not treasure to you treasures."

    {Break through} (diorussousin). Literally "dig through." Easy to do through the mud walls or sun-dried bricks. Today they can pierce steel safes that are no longer safe even if a foot thick. The Greeks called a burglar a "mud-digger" (toichoruchos).

    6:20 {Rust} (brwsis). Something that "eats" (bibrwskw) or "gnaws" or "corrodes."

    6:22 {Single} (haplous). Used of a marriage contract when the husband is to repay the dowry "pure and simple" (tˆn phernˆn haplˆn), if she is set free; but in case he does not do so promptly, he is to add interest also (Moulton and Milligan's _Vocabulary_, etc.). There are various other instances of such usage. Here and in #Lu 11:34 the eye is called "single" in a moral sense. The word means "without folds" like a piece of cloth unfolded, _simplex_ in Latin. Bruce considers this parable of the eye difficult. "The figure and the ethical meaning seem to be mixed up, moral attributes ascribed to the physical eye which with them still gives light to the body. this confusion may be due to the fact that the eye, besides being the organ of vision, is the seat of expression, revealing inward dispositions." The "evil" eye (poneros) may be diseased and is used of stinginess in the LXX and so haplous may refer to liberality as Hatch argues (_Essays in Biblical Greek_, p. 80). The passage may be elliptical with something to be supplied. If our eyes are healthy we see clearly and with a single focus (without astigmatism). If the eyes are diseased (bad, evil), they may even be cross-eyed or cock-eyed. We see double and confuse our vision. We keep one eye on the hoarded treasures of earth and roll the other proudly up to heaven. Seeing double is double-mindedness as is shown in verse #24.

    6:24 {No man can serve two masters} (oudeis dunatai dusi kuriois douleuein). Many try it, but failure awaits them all. Men even try "to be slaves to God and mammon" (qewi douleuein kai mam"nai). Mammon is a Chaldee, Syriac, and Punic word like _Plutus_ for the money-god (or devil). The slave of mammon will obey mammon while pretending to obey God. The United States has had a terrible revelation of the power of the money-god in public life in the Sinclair-Fall-Teapot-Air-Dome-Oil case. When the guide is blind and leads the blind, both fall into the ditch. The man who cannot tell road from ditch sees falsely as Ruskin shows in _Modern Painters_. He will hold to one (henos anthexetai). The word means to line up face to face (anti) with one man and so against the other.

    6:25 {Be not anxious for your life} (me merimnate tei yucei h-mwn). this is as good a translation as the Authorized Version was poor; "Take no thought for your life." The old English word "thought" meant anxiety or worry as Shakespeare says:

    "The native hue of resolution Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought."

    Vincent quotes Bacon (Henry VII): "Harris, an alderman of London, was put in trouble and died with thought and anguish." But words change with time and now this passage is actually quoted (Lightfoot) "as an objection to the moral teaching of the Sermon on the Mount, on the ground that it encouraged, nay, commanded, a reckless neglect of the future." We have narrowed the word to mere planning without any notion of anxiety which is in the Greek word. The verb merimnaw is from meris, merizw, because care or anxiety distracts and divides. It occurs in Christ's rebuke to Martha for her excessive solicitude about something to eat (#Lu 10:41). The notion of proper care and forethought appears in #1Co 7:32; 12:25; Php 2:20. It is here the present imperative with the negative, a command not to have the habit of petulant worry about food and clothing, a source of anxiety to many housewives, a word for women especially as the command not to worship mammon may be called a word for men. The command can mean that they must stop such worry if already indulging in it. In verse #31 Jesus repeats the prohibition with the ingressive aorist subjunctive: "Do not become anxious,"Do not grow anxious." Here the direct question with the deliberative subjunctive occurs with each verb (fag"men, pi"men, peribal"metha). this deliberative subjunctive of the direct question is retained in the indirect question employed in verse #25. A different verb for clothing occurs, both in the indirect middle (peribal"metha, fling round ourselves in #31, endusesqe, put on yourselves in #25).

    {For your life} (tei yucei). "Here psuchˆi stands for the life principle common to man and beast, which is embodied in the swma: the former needs food, the latter clothing" (McNeile). yuce in the Synoptic Gospels occurs in three senses (McNeile): either the life principle in the body as here and which man may kill (#Mr 3:4) or the seat of the thoughts and emotions on a par with kardia and dianoia (#Mt 22:37) and pneuma (#Lu 1:46; cf. #Joh 12:27; 13:21) or something higher that makes up the real self (#Mt 10:28; 16:26). In #Mt 16:25 (#Lu 9:25) yuce appears in two senses paradoxical use, saving life and losing it.

    6:27 {Unto his stature} (epi ten helikian autou). The word hˆlikian is used either of height (stature) or length of life (age). Either makes good sense here, though probably "stature" suits the context best. Certainly anxiety will not help either kind of growth, but rather hinder by auto-intoxication if nothing more. this is no plea for idleness, for even the birds are diligent and the flowers grow.

    6:28 {The lilies of the field} (ta krina tou agrou). The word may include other wild flowers besides lilies, blossoms like anemones, poppies, gladioli, irises (McNeile).

    6:29 {Was not arrayed} (oude periebaleto). Middle voice and so "did not clothe himself,"did not put around himself."

    6:30 {The grass of the field} (ton corton tou agrou). The common grass of the field. this heightens the comparison.

    6:33 {First his kingdom} (prwton ten basileian). this in answer to those who see in the Sermon on the Mount only ethical comments. Jesus in the Beatitudes drew the picture of the man with the new heart. Here he places the Kingdom of God and his righteousness before temporal blessings (food and clothing).

    6:34 {For the morrow} (eis ten aurion). The last resort of the anxious soul when all other fears are allayed. The ghost of tomorrow stalks out with all its hobgoblins of doubt and distrust.

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