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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - ROMANS 10

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    10:1 {Desire} (eudokia). No papyri examples of this word, though eudokesis occurs, only in LXX and N.T., but no example for "desire" unless this is one, though the verb eudokew is common in Polybius, Diodorus, Dion, Hal. It means will, pleasure, satisfaction (#Mt 11:26; 2Th 1:11; Php 1:15; 2:13; Eph 1:5,9). {Supplication} (deesis). Late word from deomai, to want, to beg, to pray. In the papyri. See #Lu 1:13. It is noteworthy that, immediately after the discussion of the rejection of Christ by the Jews, Paul prays so earnestly for the Jews "that they may be saved" (eis swterian), literally "unto salvation." Clearly Paul did not feel that the case was hopeless for them in spite of their conduct. Bengel says: _Non orasset Paul si absolute reprobati essent_ (Paul would not have prayed if they had been absolutely reprobate). Paul leaves God's problem to him and pours out his prayer for the Jews in accordance with his strong words in #9:1-5.

    10:2 {A zeal for God} (zˆlon qeou). Objective genitive like #Php 3:9, "through faith in Christ" (dia pistews cristou). {But not according to knowledge} (all' ou kat' epignwsin). They had knowledge of God and so were superior to the Gentiles in privilege (#2:9-11), but they sought God in an external way by rules and rites and missed him (#9:30-33). They became zealous for the letter and the form instead of for God himself.

    10:3 {Being ignorant of God's righteousness} (agnoountes tˆn tou qeou dikaiosunˆn). A blunt thing to say, but true as Paul has shown in #2:1-3:20. They did not understand the God-kind of righteousness by faith (#1:17). They misconceived it (#2:4). {They did not subject themselves} (ouc hupetagesan). Second aorist passive indicative of hupotassw, common _Koin‚_ verb, to put oneself under orders, to obey, here the passive in sense of the middle (#Jas 4:7) like apekriqen, I answered.

    10:4 {The end of the law} (telos nomou). Christ put a stop to the law as a means of salvation (#6:14; 9:31; Eph 2:15; Col 2:14) as in #Lu 16:16. Christ is the goal or aim of the law (#Gal 3:24). Christ is the fulfilment of the law (#Mt 5:17; Ro 13:10; 1Ti 1:5). But here (Denney) Paul's main idea is that Christ ended the law as a method of salvation for "every one that believeth" whether Jew or Gentile. Christ wrote _finis_ on law as a means of grace.

    10:5 {Thereby} (en autei). That is by or in "the righteousness that is from law." He stands or falls with it. The quotation is from #Le 18:5.

    10:6 {Saith thus} (houtws legei). Paul personifies "the from faith righteousness" (hˆ ek pistews dikaiosune). A free reproduction from #De 30:11-14. Paul takes various phrases from the LXX and uses them for "his inspired conviction and experiences of the gospel" (Denney). He does not quote Moses as saying this or meaning this . {Say not in thy heart} (me eipeis en tei kardiai sou). Second aorist active subjunctive with me like #De 8:17. To say in the heart is to think (#Mt 3:9). {That is, to bring Christ down} (tout' estin criston katagagein). Second aorist active infinitive of the common verb katagw, to bring or lead down. It is dependent on the preceding verb anabˆsetai (shall ascend). Tout' estin (that is) is what is called _Midrash_ or interpretation as in #9:8. It occurs three times here (verses #6-8). Paul applies the words of Moses to Christ. There is no need for one to go to heaven to bring Christ down to earth. The Incarnation is already a glorious fact. Today some men scout the idea of the Deity and Incarnation of Christ.

    10:7 {Into the abyss} (eis ten abusson). See #Lu 8:31 for this old Greek word (a privative and bussos) bottomless like sea (#Ps 106:26), our abyss. In #Re 9:1 it is the place of torment. Paul seems to refer to Hades or Sheol (#Ac 2:27,31), the other world to which Christ went after death. {To bring Christ up} (criston anagagein). Second aorist active infinitive of anagw and dependent on katabˆsetai (shall descend). Christ has already risen from the dead. The deity and resurrection of Christ are precisely the two chief points of attack today on the part of sceptics.

    10:8 {But what saith it?} (alla ti legei?). That is "the from faith righteousness." {The word of faith} (to rema tˆs pistews). The gospel message concerning faith (objective genitive). Only here. In contrast to the law. {Which we preach} (ho kerussomen). The living voice brings home to every one the faith kind of righteousness. Paul seizes upon the words of Moses with the orator's instinct and with rhetorical skill (Sanday and Headlam) applies them to the facts about the gospel message about the Incarnation and Resurrection of Christ.

    10:9 {If thou shalt confess} (ean homologˆsˆis). Third class condition (ean and first aorist active subjunctive of homologew). {With thy mouth Jesus as Lord} (en twi stomati sou kurion iesoun). this is the reading of nearly all the MSS. But B 71 Clem of Alex. read to rema en twi stomati sou hoti kurios iesous (the word in thy mouth that Jesus is Lord). The idea is the same, the confession of Jesus as Lord as in #1Co 12:3; Php 2:11. No Jew would do this who had not really trusted Christ, for kurios in the LXX is used of God. No Gentile would do it who had not ceased worshipping the emperor as kurios. The word kurios was and is the touchstone of faith. {And shalt believe} (kai pisteusˆis). Same construction. Faith precedes confession, of course.

    10:10 {Man believeth} (pisteuetai). Impersonal construction, "it is believed" (present passive indicative of pisteuw). The order is reversed in this verse and the true order (faith, qen confession). {Confession is made} (homologeitai). Impersonal construction again, "it is confessed,"man confesses." Both kardiai (heart) and stomati (mouth) are in the instrumental case.

    10:11 {Every one} (pas). Paul adds this word to the quotation from #Isa 28:16 already made in #9:33.

    10:12 {Distinction} (diastolˆ). See on this word #3:22. Here it is followed by the ablative case Ioudaiou te kai Hellˆnos (between Jew and Greek). {Lord of all} (kurios pantwn). See #Ga 3:28. {Rich} (ploutwn). Present active participle of ploutew. See #Eph 3:8 "the unsearchable riches of Christ."

    10:13 Paul here quotes #Joe 3:5 (#Joe 2:32 LXX).

    10:14 {How qen shall they call?} (p"s oun epikales"ntai?). Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist middle) of epikaleomai (see verses #12,13). The antecedent of eis hon (in whom) is not expressed. {How shall they believe?} (pos pisteuswsin?). Deliberative subjunctive again (first aorist active of pisteuw just used). Each time Paul picks up the preceding verb and challenges that. Here again the antecedent eis touton before hon is not expressed. {How shall they hear?} (pos akous"Sin?). Deliberative subjunctive (first aorist active of akouw). {Without a preacher?} (cwris kˆrussontos?). Preposition cwris with ablative singular masculine present active participle of kerussw, "without one preaching." {How shall they preach?} (p"s kerux"Sin?). Deliberative subjunctive again (first aorist active kerussw, to preach). {Except they be sent?} (ean me apostal"Sin?). Second aorist passive deliberative subjunctive of apostellw, to send, from which verb apostolos apostle comes. Negative condition of third class. In graphic style Paul has made a powerful plea for missions. It is just as true today as qen.

    10:15 {How beautiful} (hws hwraioi). A quotation from #Isa 52:7 more like the Hebrew than the LXX, picturing the messengers of the restoration from the Jewish captivity. Paul assumes that the missionaries (apostoloi) have been sent as implied in verse #14.

    10:16 {But they did not all hearken} (ou pantes hupˆkousan). They heard, but did not heed. Some disbelieve now (#3:3) as they did qen. On obedience and disobedience see #5:19; 1Th 2:13; Ga 3:2. He quotes #Isa 53:1 to show how Isaiah felt. {Report} (akoei). Literally, "hearing" (#Mt 14:1; Mr 13:7).

    10:17 {By the word of Christ} (dia rematos cristou). "By the word about Christ" (objective genitive).

    10:18 {Did they not hear?} (mˆ ouk ekousan?). Rather, "Did they fail to hear?" (expecting the negative answer me, while ouk blends with the verb). See on ¯1Co 9:5 for this construction. {Yea, verily} (menounge). Triple particle (men, oun, ge) as in #9:20. {Sound} (fqoggos). Vibration of a musical string. See on ¯1Co 14:7. Only two N.T. examples. {The world} (tes oikoumenes). The inhabited earth as in #Lu 2:1.

    10:19 {Did Israel not know?} (mˆ Israel ouk egn"?). "Did Israel fail to know?" See above. {First} (prwtos). Moses first before any one else. LXX quotation #De 32:21. See on ¯1Co 10:22 for parazˆl"s" (I will provoke you to jealousy). {With that which is no nation} (ep' ouk eqnei). The Jews had worshipped "no-gods" and now God shows favors to a "no-nation" (people). {Will I anger you} (parorgi" humas). Future active (Attic future) of parorgizw, rare word, to rouse to wrath.

    10:20 {Is very bold} (apotolmai). Present active indicative of apotolma", old word, to assume boldness (apo, off) and only here in N.T. Isaiah "breaks out boldly" (Gifford). Paul cites #Isa 65:1 in support of his own courage against the prejudice of the Jews. See #9:30-33 for illustration of this point. {I was found} (heureqen). First aorist passive indicative of heuriskw.

    10:21 {All the day long} (holˆn tˆn hˆmeran). Accusative of extent of time. He quotes #Isa 65:2. {Did I spread out} (exepetasa). First aorist active indicative of ekpetannumi, old verb, to stretch out, bold metaphor, only here in N.T. {Unto a disobedient and a gainsaying people} (pros laon apeiqounta kai antilegonta). "Unto a people disobeying and talking back." The two things usually go together. Contrary and contradictory (#Lu 13:34f.).

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