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    LEVITICUS 23

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    1 The feasts of the Lord. 3 The sabbath. 4 The passover. 9 The sheaf of first-fruits. 15 The feast of Pentecost. 22 Gleanings to be left for the poor. 23 The feast of trumpets. 26 The day of atonement. 33 The feast of tabernacles. VERSE 1 * :1 VERSE 2 - the feasts. God appointed several festivals among the Jews. The Passover was celebrated on the 14th, or rather 15th day of the first month in the ecclesiastical year, which was the seventh of the civil year, and lasted seven days. The Pentecost was celebrated on the fiftieth day after the passover, in memory of the law's being given to Moses on Mount Sinai, fifty days, or seven weeks after the departure out of Egypt. The word is derived from the Greek word [ ,] which signifies the fiftieth. The Hebrews call it the feast of weeks, Ex 22 34:22. The feast of trumpets, celebrated on the first day of the civil year, when a trumpet was sounded, to proclaim its commencement, which was in the month {Tisri,} answering to our September, Le 23:24, 25. The new moons, or first days of every month, were, in some sort, a consequence of the feast of trumpets. God ordained that, by giving him the first-fruits of every month they should acknowledge him as the Lord of all their time, and own his providence, by which all times and seasons are ordered. The feast of expiation or atonement was kept on the 10th day of {Tisri} or September: the Hebrews call it Kippur, i.e., pardon or expiation, because it was instituted for the expiation of their sins. The feast of tents or tabernacles was so called, because the Israelites kept it under green tents or arbours, in memory of their dwelling in their passage through the wilderness. It was celebrated on the 15th day of {Tisri,} and continued eight days: the first and last days are the most solemn. Besides the feasts mentioned by Moses, we find the feast of {lots,} or {Purim,} which was celebrated among the Jews of Shushan on the 14th of {Adar,} which answers to our February. The feast of the dedication of the temple, or rather, of the restoration of the temple, which had been profaned by Antiochus Epiphanes, which is thought to be the feast mentioned in the gospel Joh 10:22, was celebrated in the winter. {Moƒdim,} properly means assemblies, convened at an appointed time and place. * :4,37 Ex 23:14-17 Isa 1:13,14; 33:20 La 1:4 Ho 2:11 Na 1:15 * Joh 5:1 Col 2:1 - proclaim * Ex 32:5 Nu 10:2,3,10 2Ki 10:20 2Ch 30:5 Ps 81:3 Joe 1:14; 2:15 * Jon 3:5-9 VERSE 3 * Le 19:3 Ex 16:23,29; 20:8-11; 23:12; 31:15; 34:21; 35:2,3 De 5:13 * Isa 56:2,6; 58:13 Lu 13:14; 23:56 Ac 15:21 Re 1:10 VERSE 4 * :2,37 Ex 23:14 VERSE 5 * Ex 12:2-14,18; 13:3-10; 23:15 Nu 9:2-7; 28:16 De 16:1-8 Jos 5:10 * 2Ch 35:18,19 Mt 26:17 Mr 14:12 Lu 22:7 1Co 5:7,8 VERSE 6 * Ex 12:15,16; 13:6,7; 34:18 Nu 28:17,18 De 16:8 Ac 12:3,4 VERSE 7 * Nu 28:18-25 VERSE 8 - by fire. * Le 1:9 - Young renders, "fire offering." * Nu 28:19-24 - seven days. i.e., daily for that period (Young). seventh day. in which the Egyptians were drowned. * Ex 12:16; 14:23-28 VERSE 9 VERSE 10 - When. See on ch. * Le 14:34 - and shall. * Le 2:12-16 Ex 22:29; 23:16,19; 34:22,26 Nu 15:2,18-21; 28:26 * De 16:9 Jos 3:15 - sheaf. or, handful. Heb. omer. the first fruits. This offering was a public acknowledgement of the bounty and goodness of God for the kindly fruits of the earth. From the practice of the people of God, the heathen borrowed a similar one, founded on the same reason. * Pr 3:9,10 Eze 44:30 Ro 11:16 1Co 15:20-23 Jas 1:18 Re 14:4 VERSE 11 * Le 9:21; 10:14 Ex 29:24 VERSE 12 * Le 1:10 Heb 10:10-12 1Pe 1:19 VERSE 13 - the meat. * Le 2:14-16; 14:10 Nu 15:3-12 - the drink. * Ex 29:40,41; 30:9 Nu 28:10 Joe 1:9,13; 2:14 - the fourth. * Ex 30:24 Eze 4:11; 45:24; 46:14 VERSE 14 - eat. * Le 19:23-25; 25:2,3 Ge 4:4,5 Jos 5:11,12 - it shall be. * Le 3:17; 10:11 De 16:12 Ne 9:14 Ps 19:8 VERSE 15 * :10,11; 25:8 Ex 34:22 De 16:9,10 VERSE 16 * Ac 2:1 VERSE 17 - two wave. * Nu 28:26 - leaven. * Le 7:13 Mt 13:33 - the first-fruits. * :10 Ex 22:29; 23:16,19; 34:22,26 Nu 15:17,19-21 De 26:1,2 * Pr 3:9,10 Ro 8:23 1Co 15:20 Jas 1:18 Re 14:4 VERSE 18 - seven lambs. * :12,13 Nu 28:27-31 Mal 1:13,14 - with their. * Nu 15:4-12 VERSE 19 - one kid. * Le 4:23-28; 16:15 Nu 15:24; 28:30 Ro 8:3 2Co 5:21 - two lambs. * Le 3:1-17; 7:11-18 VERSE 20 - wave them. * :17; 7:29,30 Ex 29:24 Lu 2:14 Eph 2:14 - holy to. * Le 7:31-34; 8:29; 10:14,15 Nu 18:8-12 De 18:4 1Co 9:11 VERSE 21 - proclaim. * :2,4 Ex 12:16 De 16:11 Isa 11:10 - a statute. * :14 Ge 17:7 Ex 12:17 Nu 18:23 VERSE 22 * Le 19:9,10 De 16:11-14; 24:19-21 Ru 2:3-7,15,16-23 Job 31:16-21 * Ps 41:1-3; 112:9 Pr 11:24,25 Isa 58:7,8,10 Lu 11:41 2Co 9:5-12 To the institution of the feast of pentecost is annexed a repetition of that law, by which they were required to leave the gleanings of their fields, and the corn that grew on the ends of the butts, for the poor. It may come in here as a thing which the priests must take occasion to remind the people of, when they brought their first-fruits, intimating to them, that to obey even in this small matter was better than sacrifice; and that unless they were obedient, their offerings should not be accepted. It also taught them that the joy of harvest should express itself in charity to the poor, who must have their due out of what we have, as well as God his. They that are truly sensible of the mercy they receive from God, will without grudging shew mercy to the poor. VERSE 23 VERSE 24 - In the seventh. * Nu 10:10; 29:1-6 1Ch 15:28 2Ch 5:13 Ezr 3:6 Ps 81:1-4; 98:6 * Isa 27:13 1Co 15:52 1Th 4:16 - a memorial. {Zichron terooƒh,} here rendered "a memorial of blowing the trumpets" properly signifies a memorial of triumph or shouting for joy. This festival is generally called the feast of trumpets; and, though the Scriptures have not expressly declared the reason of its celebration, yet, as it fell in the seventh month of the sacred year, which was the first of the civil year, that is, the month {Tisri,} answering to our September, the opinion very generally embraced by both Jews and Christians is, that it was a memorial of the creation of the world, at which "the sons of God shouted for joy," (Job 38:7;) and which is supposed, not altogether without reason, to have been at this season of the year. The month {Tisri} was not only anciently, but still is, reckoned by the Jews the first month of the year; and the feast of tabernacles, kept in this month, was said to be, as it is correctly rendered in the margin, "at the revolution of the year," (Ex 34:22;) importing, that at this season the year had revolved, and was beginning anew. So that this feast was the new year's day, on which the people rejoiced in a grateful remembrance of God's benefits, and implored his blessing for the future year. * Le 25:9 VERSE 25 - offering made by fire. Young renders, "fire offering." * :8 Nu 29:1-6 VERSE 26 VERSE 27 - the tenth. * Le 16:29,30; 25:9 Nu 29:7-11 - afflict. * Le 16:31 Nu 29:7 Ezr 8:21 Ps 35:13 Isa 58:5 Da 10:2,3 Zec 12:10 * Ac 2:37,38 2Co 7:10,11 Jas 9 4:9 - offer. * Le 16:11,15,24 VERSE 28 * Le 16:34 Isa 53:10 Da 9:24 Zec 3:9 Ro 5:10,11 Heb 9:12,26 * Heb 10:10,14 1Jo 2:2; 4:10; 5:6 VERSE 29 - that shall. See on ver. * :27,32 Isa 22:12 Jer 31:9 Eze 7:16 - he shall be. * Ge 17:14 VERSE 30 * Le 20:3,5,6 Ge 17:14 Jer 15:7 Eze 14:9 Zep 2:5 1Co 3:17 VERSE 31 - no manner of work. * :28 Mt 12:12 Mr 3:4 Ro 4:4,5; 11:6 Eph 2:7-10 Heb 4:8-11 - for ever. Heb. olam. * Ex 12:24 VERSE 32 - a sabbath. See on ch. * Le 16:31 Mt 11:28-30 Heb 4:3,11 - afflict. See on ver. * :27 Ps 35:13; 51:17; 69:10,11; 126:5,6 Isa 57:15,18,19; 58:3-7 * Isa 61:3 Mt 5:4 1Co 11:31 - celebrate your sabbath. Heb. rest. VERSE 33 VERSE 34 - The fifteenth. * Ex 23:16; 34:22 Nu 29:12 De 16:13-15 Ezr 3:4 Ne 8:14 * Zec 14:16-19 Joh 1:14; 7:2 Heb 11:9,13 - the feast of tabernacles. This feast was celebrated in commemoration of the Israelites' dwelling in tents in the wilderness for forty years; and was kept with greater hilarity than any of the other festivals. Hence, in the Talmud, it is often called {chag,} the feast, by way of excellence; and by Philo, [ ,] the greatest of the feasts; it was therefore more noticed by the heathen than any other. It is probable that Cecrops borrowed from it the law which he made in Athens, "that the master of every family should after harvest make a feast for his servants, and eat together with them who had taken pains with him in tilling his grounds." VERSE 35 * :7,8,24,25 VERSE 36 - Seven. * Nu 29:12-38 - the eighth. * 2Ch 7:8-11 Ne 8:18 Joh 7:37 - solemn. Heb. day of restraint. * De 16:8 Joe 1:14; 2:15 *marg: VERSE 37 - the feasts. See on ver. * :2,4 De 16:16,17 - every thing. * Ec 3:1 VERSE 38 - the sabbaths. See on ver. * :3; 19:3 Ge 2:2,3 Ex 20:8-11 - and beside. * Nu 29:39 De 12:6 1Ch 29:3-8 2Ch 35:7,8 Ezr 2:68,69 VERSE 39 - when. See on ver. * :34 Ex 23:16 De 16:13 - on the first. See on ver. * :24,36 VERSE 40 - the boughs. Heb. fruit. * Ne 8:15 Mt 21:8 - of palm trees. * Ps 92:12 Joh 12:13 Re 7:9 - rejoice. * De 16:14,15 Isa 35:10; 66:10 Joh 16:22 Ro 5:11 Php 3:3; 4:4 * 1Pe 1:8 VERSE 41 * Nu 29:12 Ne 8:18 VERSE 42 * Ge 33:17 Nu 24:2,5 Ne 8:14-17 Jer 35:10 2Co 5:1 Heb 11:13-16 VERSE 43 * Ex 13:14 De 31:10-13 Ps 78:5,6 VERSE 44 * :1,2; 21:24 Mt 18:20 GOTO NEXT CHAPTER - TREASURY OF SCRIPTURE KNOWLEDGE INDEX

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