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1 Boaz calls into judgment the next kinsman.
6 He refuses the redemption according to the manner in
9 Boaz buys the inheritance.
11 He marries Ruth.
13 She bears Obed, the grandfather of David.
18 The generations of Pharez unto David.
- to the gate.
* De 16:18; 17:5; 21:19; 25:7 Job 29:7; 31:21 Am 5:10-12,15
- the kinsman.
* Ru 3:12
- Ho, such.
* Isa 55:1 Zec 2:6
- the elders.
* Ex 18:21,22; 21:8 De 29:10; 31:28 1Ki 21:8 Pr 31:23 La 5:14
* Ac 6:12
- he said.
* Ps 112:5 Pr 13:10
- I thought. Heb. I said I will reveal in thine ear. Buy it.
* Jer 32:7-9,25 Ro 12:17 2Co 8:21 Php 4:8
- before the inhabitants.
* Ge 23:18 Jer 32:10-12
- for there is none.
* Le 25:25-29
- What day.
Or rather, according to the emendations proposed by Houbigant
and Dr. Kennicott, and which have been confirmed by a great
many MSS. since collated, and agreeably to the ancient
versions, "In the day thou purchasest the land from the hand
of Naomi, thou wilt also acquire Ruth, the Moabitess, the wife
of the dead," etc. This is Boaz's statement of the case to
his kinsman, before the people and elders.
- to raise up.
* Ru 3:12,13 Ge 38:8 De 25:5,6 Mt 22:24 Lu 20:28
- I cannot.
The Targum seems to give the proper sense of this passage: "I
cannot redeem it, because I have a wife already; and it is not
fit for me to bring another into my house, lest brawling and
contention arise in it; and lest I hurt my own inheritance.
Do thou redeem it, for thou has no wife; which hinders me from
- a man plucked off.
This custom does not refer to the law about refusing to marry
a brother's widow, but was usual in the transfer of
inheritances: for this relative was not a brother, but simply
a kinsman; and the shoe was not pulled off by Ruth, but by the
kinsman himself. The Targumist, instead of his shoe, renders
"his right hand glove," it probably being the custom, in his
time, to give that instead of a shoe. Jarchi says, "When we
purchase any thing new, it is customary to give, instead of a
shoe, a handkerchief or veil."
* De 25:7-10
- Ye are witnesses.
* Ge 23:16-18 Jer 32:10-12
- have I.
* Ge 29:18,19,27 Pr 18:22; 19:14; 31:10,11 Ho 3:2; 12:12 Eph 5:25
- the name.
* De 25:6 Jos 7:9 Ps 34:16; 109:15 Isa 48:19 Zec 13:2
- ye are witnesses.
* Isa 8:2,3 Mal 2:14 Heb 13:4
- the Lord.
* Ge 24:60 Ps 127:3-5; 128:3-6
* Ge 29:32-35; 30:1-24; 35:16-20; 46:8-27 Nu 26:1-65
* De 25:9 Pr 14:1
- do thou worthily. or, get thee riches, or power. Ephratah.
* Ru 1:2 Ge 35:16,19 Ps 132:6 Mic 5:2 Mt 2:6
- be famous. Heb. proclaim thy name.
- the house.
* Ge 46:12 Nu 26:20-22
* Ge 38:29 1Ch 2:4 Mt 1:3
- of the seed.
* 1Sa 2:20
- A.M. 2697. B.C. 1307. An. Ex. Is. 184. Boaz.
* Ru 3:11
- the Lord.
* :12 Ge 20:17,18; 21:1-3; 25:21; 29:31; 30:2,22,23; 33:5 1Sa 1:27
* Ru 2:5 Ps 113:9; 127:3
- the women.
* Lu 1:58 Ro 12:15 1Co 12:26
* Ge 29:35 Ps 34:1-3; 103:1,2 1Th 5:18 2Th 1:3
- which hath.
* Ge 24:27
- left thee. Heb. caused to cease unto thee. kinsman, or,
redeemer. that his.
* :21,22 Ge 12:2 Isa 11:1-4 Mt 1:5-20
- a nourisher, etc. Heb. to nourish thy grey hairs.
* Ge 45:11; 47:12 Ps 55:22 Isa 46:4
- for thy.
* Ru 1:16-18
* 1Sa 1:8 Pr 18:24
- the women.
* Lu 1:58-63
That is, [ ,] serving, or a servant, as Josephus
* 1Ch 2:4-8; 4:1 Mt 1:3 Lu 3:33
- Phares, Esrom.
- begat Ram.
* 1Ch 2:9,10 Mt 1:4 Lu 3:33
- Aram, Aminadab.
* Nu 1:7 Mt 1:4 Lu 3:32
- Naasson. Salmon. or, Samlah.
* 1Ch 2:11
* Mt 1:5 Lu 3:32
- and Boaz.
* 1Ch 2:12 Mt 1:5 Lu 3:32
* 1Sa 16:1 Isa 11:1
* 1Ch 2:15 Mt 1:6 Lu 3:31
CONCLUDING REMARKS ON THE BOOK OF RUTH.
This book is evidently a supplement to the book of Judges, and
an introduction to that of Samuel, between which it is placed
with great propriety. In the ancient Jewish canon, it formed a
part of the book of Judges; but the modern Jews make it one of
the five Megilloth, which they place towards the end of the Old
Testament. This book has been attributed to various authors;
but the best founded and generally received opinion, and in
which the Jews coincide, is that which ascribes it to the
prophet Samuel; before whose time it could not have been
written, as is evident from the genealogy recorded in ch.
17 4:17-22. The time in which the events detailed in this book
happened is involved in much obscurity and uncertainty.
Augustine refers it to the time of the regal government of the
Hebrews; Josephus to the administration of Eli; Moldenhawer,
after some Jewish writers, to the time of Ehud; Rabbi Kimichi,
and other Jewish authors, to the time of Ibzan; Bps. Patrick and
Horne to the judicature of Gideon; Lightfoot to the period
between Ehud and Deborah; and Usher, who is followed by most
chronologers, to the time of Shamgar. The authenticity and
canonical authority of this sacred book cannot be questioned;
and the Evangelists, in describing our Savior's descent, have
followed its genealogical accounts. To delineate part of this
genealogy appears to be the principal design of the book; it had
been foretold that the Messiah should be of the tribe of Judah,
and it was afterwards revealed that he should be of the family
of David; and therefore it was necessary, to prevent the least
suspicion of fraud or design, that the history of that family
should be written before these prophecies were revealed. And
thus this book, these prophecies, and their accomplishment,
serve mutually to illustrate each other. The whole narrative is
extremely interesting and instructive, and is written with the
most beautiful simplicity. The distress of Naomi; her
affectionate concern for her daughter-in-law; the reluctant
departure of Orpah; the dutiful attachment of Ruth; and the
sorrowful return to Bethlehem, are very beautifully told. The
simplicity of manners, likewise, which is shown in the account
of Ruth's industry and attention to Naomi; of the elegant
charity of Boaz; and of his acknowledgement of his kindred with
Ruth, afford a very pleasing contrast to the turbulent scenes
described in the preceding book. And while it exhibits, in a
striking and affecting manner, the care of Divine Providence
over those who sincerely fear God, and honestly aim at
fulfilling his will, the circumstance of a Moabitess becoming an
ancestor of the Messiah seems to have been a pre-intimation of
the admission of the Gentiles into his church. It must be
remarked, that in the estimation of the Jews, it was disgraceful
to David to have derived his birth from a Moabitess; and Shimei,
in his revilings against him, is supposed by them to have
tauntingly reflected on his descent from Ruth. This book,
therefore, contains an intrinsic proof of its own verity, as it
reveals a circumstance so little flattering to the sovereign of
Israel; and it is scarcely necessary to appeal to its admission
into the canon of Scripture, for a testimony of its authentic
character. Add to which, that the native, the amiable
simplicity in which the story is told, is sufficient proof of
its genuineness. There are several sympathetic circumstances
recorded which no forger could have invented: there is too much
of nature to admit any thing of art.
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