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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - ACTS 4

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    CHAPTER IV

    1. Captain of the temple. It was the duty of the Levites to keep guard at the gates of the temple, in order to prevent the unclean from entering. To them the duties of the temple police were entrusted, under the command of an official known in the New Testament as "the captain of the temple," but in Jewish writings chiefly as "the man of the temple mount." Josephus speaks of him as a person of such consequence as to be sent, along with the high-priest, prisoner to Rome.

    Came upon (epesthsan). Or stood by them, suddenly. Compare Luke xxiv. 4; Acts xxii. 20; xxiii. 11. Of dreams or visions, to appear to.

    2. Being grieved (diaponoumenoi). Only here and ch. xvi. 18. The Rev. renders the force of dia by "sore troubled;" vexed through and through. The resurrection. The Sadducees denied both the resurrection and a future state. "In the Gospels the Pharisees are represented as the great opponents of Christ; in the Acts it is the Sadducees who are the most violent opponents of the apostles. The reason of this seems to be, that in the Gospels Jesus Christ came in direct collision with the Pharisees, by unmasking their hypocrisies and endangering their influence among the people; whereas the apostles, in testifying to the resurrection of Christ, opposed the creed of the Sadducees. Perhaps, also, in attacking the apostles, who taught the resurrection of that Jesus whom the Pharisees had persecuted and crucified, the Sadducees aimed an indirect blow at the favorite dogma of their rival sect" (Gloag, "Commentary on Acts").

    3. In hold (eiv thrhsin). A somewhat antiquated rendering. Better, as Rev., in ward. See on 1 Pet. i. 4.

    4. The number was about five thousand. Translate ejgenhqh as Rev., came to be; indicating the addition to the original number of the many that believed.

    7. What power - what name. Lit., what sort of power; what kind of name.

    Have ye done. The ye closes the sentence in the Greek with a contemptuous emphasis: you people.

    12. Salvation (h swthria). Note the article: the salvation; the Messianic deliverance.

    13. Boldness. See on freely, ch. ii. 29.

    Perceived (katalabomenoi). The word, meaning originally to seize upon or lay hold of, occurs frequently in the New Testament in different phases of this original sense. Thus, to apprehend or grasp, Eph. iii. 18; Philip. iii. 12, 13; Rom. ix. 30: of seizure by a demon, Mark ix. 18: of something coming upon or overtaking, John xii. 35; 1 Thess. v. 4: of comprehending, grasping mentally, as here, Acts x. 34; xxv. 25.

    Unlearned (agrammatoi). Or, very literally, unlettered. With special reference to Rabbinic culture, the absence of which was conspicuous in Peter's address.

    Ignorant (idiwtai). Originally, one in a private station, as opposed to one in office or in public affairs. Therefore one without professional knowledge, a layman; thence, generally, ignorant, ill-informed; sometimes plebeian, common. In the absence of certainty it is as well to retain the meaning given by the A.V., perhaps with a slight emphasis on the want of professional knowledge. Compare 1 Cor. xiv. 16, 23, 24; 2 Corinthians xi. 6.

    Took knowledge (epeginwskon). Or recognized. See on ch. iii. 10.

    15. Conferred (sunebalon). See on pondered, Luke ii. 19.

    17. It spread (dianemhqh). Only here in New Testament. Lit., be distributed. In 2 Tim. ii. 17, "their word will eat as canker," is, literally, will have distribution or spreading (nomhn exei). Bengel, however, goes too far when he represents the members of the council as speaking in the figure of a canker. "They regard the whole as a canker."

    18. To speak (fqeggesqai). See on 2 Pet. ii. 16.

    21. Punish (kolaswntai). Originally, to curtail or dock; to prune as trees: thence to check, keep in bounds, punish.

    24. Lord (despota). See on 2 Pet. ii. 1.

    25. Servant (paidov). See on ch. iii. 13.

    Rage (efruaxan). Only here in New Testament. Originally, to neigh or snort like a horse. Of men, to give one's self haughty airs, and to act and speak insolently. Philo describes a proud man as "walking on tiptoe, and bridling (fruattomenov), with neck erect like a horse."

    27. Didst anoint (ecrisav). See on Christ, Matt. i. 1.

    28. Thy hand. Thy disposing power.

    32. Heart and soul. See on Mark xii. 30.

    33. Gave (apedidoun). Lit., gave back (apo); as something which they were in duty bound to give.

    37. The money (to crhma). The sum of money.

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