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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - LUKE 2

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    CHAPTER II

    1. Decree (dogma). Wyc., mandment. From dokew, to think. Hence, strictly, a personal opinion; and, as the opinion of one who can impose his opinion authoritatively on others, a decree.

    The world (thn oikoumenhn). Lit., the inhabited (land). The phrase was originally used by the Greek s to denote the land inhabited by themselves, in contrast with barbarian countries; afterward, when the Greek s became subject to the Romans, the entire Roman world; still later, for the whole inhabited world. In the New Testament this latter is the more common usage, though, in some cases, this is conceived in the mould of the Roman empire, as in this passage, Acts xi. 28; xix. 27. Christ uses it in the announcement that the Gospel shall be preached in all theworld (Matthew xxiv. 14); and Paul in the prediction of a general judgment (Acts xvii. 31). Once it is used of the world to come (Hebrew ii. 5).

    Be taxed (apografesqai). The word means properly to register or enter in a list. Commentators are divided as to whether it refers to an enrollment for taxation, or for ascertaining the population. Rev., enrolled, which may be taken in either sense.

    2. And this taxing was first made (auth h apografh prwth egeneto). Rather, this occurred as the first enrolment; or, as Rev., this was the first enrolment made; with reference to a second enrolment which took place about eleven years later, and is referred to in Acts v. 37.

    3. Went (eporeuonto). The A.V. and Rev., alike miss the graphic force of the imperfect tense, were going. The preparation and bustle and travel were in progress. To his own city. The town to which the village or place of their birth belonged, and where the house and lineage of each were registered.

    4. House and lineage. According to the Jewish mode of registration the people would be enrolled by tribes, families or clans, and households. Compare Josh. vii. 16-18. Rev., house and family.

    5. To be taxed with Mary. We may read either, went up with Mary, denoting merely the fact of her accompanying him; or, to enroll himself with Mary, implying that both their names must be registered. Espoused. Not merely betrothed. See Matt. i. 20, 24, 25; also on Matt. i. 18.

    Great with child (egkuw). See on Chapter i. 24. Only here in New Testament.

    7. Her first born son. The Greek reads literally, her son, the first born. Wrapped in swaddling clothes (esparganwsen). Only here and verse

    12. Naturally found often in medical writings. Swaddle is swathel, from the verb to swathe.

    In a manger (en fatnh). Used by Luke only, here and xiii. 15. Wyc. has a cracche, spelt also cratch. Compare French creche, a manger. Quite possibly a rock cave. Dr. Thomson says: "I have seen many such, consisting of one or more rooms, in front of and including a cavern where the cattle were kept" (Land and Book").

    In the inn (en tw katalumati). Only here, chapter xxiii. 11; Mark xiv. 14, on which see note. In both these passages it is rendered guest chamber, which can hardly be the meaning here, as some have maintained. (See Geikie, "Life and Words of Christ," 1, 121.) In that case the expression would be, they found no kataluma, guest chamber. The word refers to the ordinary khan, or caravanserai. Tynd., hostrey. "A Syrian khan is a fort and a mart; a refuge from thieves; a shelter from the heat and dust; a place where a man and his beast may lodge; where a trader may sell his wares, and a pilgrim may slake his thirst.... Where built by a great sheikh, it would have a high wall, an inner court, a range of arches or lewans, an open gallery round the four sides, and, in many cases, a tower from which the watcher might descry the approach of inarauding bands. On one side of the square, but outside the wall, there is often a huddle of sheds, set apart from the main edifice, as stables for the asses and camels, the buffaloes and goats. In the center of the khan springs a fountain of water, the first necessity of an Arab's life; and around the jets an troughs in which the limpid element streams, lies the gay and picturesque litter of the East. Camels wait to be unloaded; dogs quarrel for a bone; Bedaween from the desert, their red zannars choked with pistols, are at prayer. In the archways squat the merchants with their bales of goods.... Half naked men are cleansing their hands ere sitting down to eat. Here a barber is at work upon a shaven crown; there a fellah lies asleep in the shade.... Each man has to carry his dinner and his bed; to litter his horse or camel; to dress his food; to draw his water; to light his fire, and to boil his mess of herbs" (Hepworth Dixon, "The Holy Land").

    8. Shepherds. Luke's Gospel is the gospel of the poor and lowly. This revelation to the shepherds acquires additional meaning as we remember that shepherds, as a class, were under the Rabbinic ban, because of their necessary isolation from religious ordinances, and their manner of life, which rendered strict legal observance wellnigh impossible.

    Keeping watch (fulassontev fulakav). Fulakh is sometimes used of a watch as a measure of time, as in Matt. xiv. 25; Mark vi. 48; Luke xii. 38. So possibly here. See Rev. in margin, night watches. There is a play upon the words: watching watches. There was near Bethlehem, on the road to Jerusalem, a tower known as Migdal Eder, or the watch tower of the flock. Here was the station where shepherds watched the flocks destined for sacrifice in the temple. Animals straying from Jerusalem on any side, as far as from Jerusalem to Migdal Eder, were offered in sacrifice. It was a settled conviction among the Jews that the Messiah was to be born in Bethlehem, and equally that he was to be revealed from Migdal Eder. The beautiful significance of the revelation of the infant Christ to shepherds watching the flocks destined for sacrifice needs no comment.

    Their flock (thn poimnhn). May not the singular number fall in with what has just been said? - the flock, the temple flock, specially devoted to sacrifice. The pronoun their would furnish no objection, since it is common to speak of the flock as belonging to the shepherd. Compare John x. 3, 4.

    9. Behold. Omitted by the best texts.

    The angel. More correctly an angel, as Rev. The Greek has no article. Came upon (epesth). The word is used in this sense in classical Greek, as well as in that of to stand by, which Rev. prefers here, as in Acts xii. 7. In verse 38 of this chapter, Rev. renders coming up. The rendering to come upon has a hostile flavor, as properly in Acts xvii. 5, where the verb is rendered assaulted; so that the Rev. rendering here is preferable. They were sore afraid. Lit., feared with great fear.

    10. I bring you good tidings of great joy (euaggelizomai umin caran megalhn). Wyc. is strictly literal: I evangelize to you a great joy.

    Which (htiv). Of a class or character which, etc.

    People (tw law). Rev., rightly, "the people;" the article pointing specially to the people of Israel.

    11. Is born (etecqh). It adds to the vividness of the narrative to keep to the strict rendering of the aorist, was born.

    A Savior. See on Matt. i. 21. Christ. See on Matt. i. 1. Lord. See on Matt. xxi. 3.

    12. Sign (shmeion). See on Matt. xi. 20.

    The babe (brefov). See on 1 Pet. ii. 2. Rev., properly, "a babe." No article.

    13. A multitude of the heavenly host. Host (stratiav) is literally army. "Here the army announces peace" (Bengel). Wyc., heavenly knighthood. Tynd., heavenly soldiers.

    14. Peace, good will toward men (eirhnh en anqrwpoiv eudokia). Both Tischendorf and Westcott and Hort read eujdokiav, which the Rev. follows. According to this the rendering is, unto men of good pleasure, or as Rev., among men in whom he is well pleased. Wyc., to men of good will. For a similar construction, see Acts ix. 15; Col. i. 13.

    15. The shepherds. Some texts add oiJ anqrwpoi, the men; but the latter texts omit.

    Let us go (dielqwmen). The preposition dia, through, implies through the intervening space.

    Thing (rhma). See on chapter i. 37. The utterance of the shepherds contains a climax: "Let us go and see this saying, which has come to pass; which the Lord made known."

    16. Found (ajneuran). Only here and Acts xxi. 4.

    Ana indicates the discovery of the facts in succession.

    Mary and Joseph and the babe. Each has the article, pointing to the several parties already referred to.

    17. They made known. See on verse 8. These shepherds, having charge of flocks devoted to sacrifice, would presently be in the temple, and would meet those who came to worship and to sacrifice, and so proclaim the Messiah in the temple.

    19. Kept (sunethrei). See on the simple verb threw, on 1 Pet. i. 4. The word signifies not merely to guard, but to keep, as the result of guarding. Hence the compound verb is very expressive: kept, sun, with or within herself: closely. Note the imperfect tense: was keeping all the while. Pondered (sumballousa). The present participle, pondering. Lit., bringing together: comparing and weighing facts. Wyc., bearing together in her heart. Vulg., conferens. Compare Sophocles, "Oedipus Coloneus," 1472-4.

    "OEDIPUS My children, the heaven ordained end of life has come upon him who stands here, and there is no avoiding it.

    "ANTIGONE. How dost thou know, and with what (fact) having compared (sumbalwn) thine opinion hast thou this?"

    22. The days of her purification (ai hmerai tou kaqarismou authv). The A.V. follows the reading aujthv, her: but all the best texts read aujtwn, their; the plural including Joseph with Mary as partaking of the ceremonial defilement. The mother of a child was levitically unclean for forty days after the birth of a son, and for eighty days after the birth of a daughter. Women on this errand commonly rode to the temple on oxen; that the body of so large a beast between them and the ground might prevent any chance of defilement from passing over a sepulchre on the road. For details, see Edersheim, "Life and Times of Jesus," i., 195; "The Temple," page 302; Geikie, "Life and Words of Christ," i., 127.

    To present him to the Lord. The first born son of every household must be redeemed of the priest at the price of five shekels of the sanctuary; about two dollars and fifty cents. Num. xviii. 15, 16; Exod. xiii. 2.

    23. The law of the Lord. The word law occurs in this chapter five times; oftener than in all the rest of this Gospel put together. Luke emphasizes the fact that Jesus "was made under the law" (Gal. iv. 4), and accordingly elaborates the details of the fulfilment of the law by the parents of both John and Jesus.

    24. A pair of turtle doves, or two young pigeons. The offering of the poor. While the lamb would probably cost about one dollar and seventy five cents, the doves would cost about sixteen cents. She would not bring the creatures themselves, but would drop the price into one of the thirteen trumpet shaped chests in the Court of the Women. Young pigeons: lit., young ones of pigeons (nossouv peristerwn). Wyc. has culver birds; culver being an old English term for dove. So Spenser:

    "More light than culver in the falcon's fist."

    25. Devout (eulabhv). Used by Luke only. The kindred word, eujlabeia, godly fear, occurs twice: Hebrew v. 7; xii. 28. From eu, well, and lambanw, to take hold of. Hence of a circumspect or cautious person who takes hold of things carefully. As applied to morals and religion, it emphasizes the element of circumspection, a cautious, careful observance of divine law; and is thus peculiarly expressive of Old Testament piety, with its minute attention to precept and ceremony. Compare Acts ii. 5. Consolation of Israel. Compare hope of Israel, Acts xxviii. 20, and Isaiah xli. 1. The Messianic blessing of the nation. Of the Messiah himself, Rest. See Isa. xi. 10. A common form of adjuration among the Jews was, So may I see the consolation.

    26. It was revealed (hn kecrhmatismenon). Lit., it was having been revealed; i.e., it stood revealed, while he waited for the fulfilment of the revelation. The verb means primarily to have dealings with; thence to consult or debate about business matter; and so of an oracle, to give a response to one consulting it. The word here implies that the revelation to Simeon had been given in answer to prayer. See on Matt. ii. 12.

    27. By the Spirit (en tw pneumati). Lit., as Rev., "in the Spirit:" the Holy Spirit prompting him. Indicating rather his spiritual condition, as one who walked with God, than a special divine impulse.

    After the custom (kata to eiqismenon). Lit., according to that which was wont to be done. Only here in New Testament; and the kindred words, eqov, custom, and eqw, to be accustomed, occur more frequently in Luke than elsewhere. Very common in medical writings.

    29. Lettest thou thy servant depart (apolueiv ton doulon). Lit., thou dost release. The word is often used of manumitting or setting free on payment of ransom; and as Simeon uses the word for bond servant, it is evident that his death is conceived by him under the figure of enfranchisement from service. Godet's "release of a sentinel from duty" is fanciful.

    O Lord (despota). See on 2 Pet. ii. 1.

    In peace. Rev. properly puts this in its emphatic position at the end of the sentence.

    31. Of all people (pantwn twn lawn). The noun is plural, the peoples, and refers equally to the Gentiles. See Introduction, on the universality of Luke's Gospel. Wyc., all peoples; and so Rev. 32. A light (fwv). The light itself as distinguished from lucnov, a lamp, which the A.V. often unfortunately renders light. See on Mark xiv. 54. To lighten (eiv apokaluyin). Wrong. Rev., correctly, for revelation. Wyc., to the shewing. It may be rendered the unveiling of the Gentiles. Gentiles (eqnwn). Assigned to the same root as eqw, to be accustomed, and hence of a people bound together by like habits or customs. According to biblical usage the term is understood of people who are not of Israel, and who therefore occupy a different position with reference to the plan of salvation. Hence the extension of the gospel salvation to them is treated as a remarkable fact. See Matt. xii. 18, 21; xxiv. 14; xxviii. 19; Acts x. 45; xi. 18; xviii. 6. Paul is called distinctively an apostle and teacher of the Gentiles, and a chosen vessel to bear Christ's name among them. In Acts xv. 9; Eph. ii. 11, 18; iii. 6, we see this difference annihilated, and the expression at last is merely historical designation of the non-Israelitish nations which, as such, were formerly without God and salvation. See Acts xv. 23; Rom. xvi. 4; Eph. iii. 1. Sometimes the word is used in a purely moral sense, to denote the heathen in opposition to Christians. See 1 Cor. v. 1; x. 20; 1 Pet. ii. 12. Light is promised here to the Gentiles and glory to Israel. The Gentiles are regarded as in darkness and ignorance. Some render the words eijv ajpokaluyin, above, for the unveiling of the Gentiles, instead of for revelation. Compare Isa. xxv. 7. Israel, however, has already received light by the revelation of God through the law and the prophets, and that light will expand into glory through Christ. Through the Messiah, Israel will attain its true and highest glory.

    33. And Joseph. The best texts read oJ pathr aujtou, his father. Marvelled (hn qaumazontev). The Greek construction is peculiar. His father was and his mother wondering; the finite verb in the singular agreeing with the father, while the plural participle agrees with both. As usual, this combination of finite verb and participle denotes continuance or progression: they were marvelling while Simeon was speaking. So Rev. 34. Them. The parents; the child being separately and specially designated.

    Is set (keitai). The verb means primarily to be laid, and so to lie: hence to be set forth or promulgated, as the law is said to be laid down, and so, appointed or destined, as here.

    The fall and rising again (ptwsin kai ajnastasin). For the fall, because he will be a stumbling block to many (Isa. viii. 14; Matt. xxi. 42, 44; Acts iv. 11; Rom. ix. 33; 1 Cor. i. 23). For the rising, because many will be raised up through him to life and glory (Rom. vi. 4, 9; Eph. ii. 6). The A.V. predicates the falling and the rising of the same persons: the fall and rising again of many. The Rev., the falling and rising up of many, is ambiguous. The American Revisers give it correctly: the falling and the rising.

    Which shall be spoken against (antilegomenon). The participle is the present; and the expression does not voice a prophecy, but describes an inherent characteristic of the sign: a sign of which it is the character to experience contradiction from the world. In the beginning, as a babe, Jesus experienced this at the hands of Herod; so all through his earthly ministry and on the cross; and so it will be to the end, until he shall have put all enemies under his feet. Compare Hebrew xii. 3. Wyc., a token to whom it shall be gainsaid.

    35. A sword (romfaia). Strictly, a large Thracian broadsword. Used in Setpuagint of the sword of Goliath (1 Samual xvii. 51). A figure of Mary's pang when her son should be nailed to the cross.

    36. A prophetess (profhtiv). Only here and Apoc. ii. 20. Asher. That tribe was celebrated in tradition for the beauty of its women, and their fitness to be wedded to high priests or kings.

    Of great age (probebhkuia en hmeraiv pollaiv). Lit., advanced in many days.

    37. Of about fourscore and four years (wv etwn ogdohkonta tessarwn). The A.V. might be supposed to be stating her age; but the best texts read ewv, until, instead of wv, about; and the statement refers to the time of her widowhood; a widow even for (or up to) fourscore and four years. So Rev. Served (latreuousa). The present participle, serving. Rev., worshipping. See on chapter i. 74.

    38. Coming up (epistasa). See on verse 9. Gave thanks (anqwmologeito). The verb originally means to make a mutual agreement; and the idea of reciprocity is retained in the expression "to return thanks" for something received. Compare Sept., Ps. lxxix. 13. Spake. Not a public utterance, for which the words, those that waited, etc., would be inappropriate. It was to the pious ones who were with her in the temple, waiting for the Messiah.

    In Jerusalem (en Ierousalhm). All the best texts omit ejn, in. Render, as Rev., the redemption of Jerusalem. Nearly equivalent to the consolation of Israel, verse 25. Compare chapter i. 68, and see Isa. xl. 2.

    39. Nazareth. See on Matt. ii. 23.

    40. The child grew, etc. The Jews marked the stages of a child's development by nine different terms: the new born babe (Isa. ix. 6); the suckling (Isa. xi. 8); the suckling beginning to ask for food (Lamantations iv. 4); the weaned child (Isa. xxviii. 9); the child clinging to its mother (Jer. xl. 7); the child becoming firm and strong (Isa. vii. 14, of the virgin mother); the youth, literally, he that shakes himself free; the ripened one, or warrior (Isa. xxxi. 8).

    41. His parents. Though women were not bound to present themselves in person.

    42. Twelve years old. At which age he was known as a son of the law, and came under obligation to observe the ordinances personally.

    43. Had fulfilled the days. Not necessarily the whole seven days of the festival. With the third day commenced the so called half holidays, when it was lawful to return home.

    44. The company (sunodia). From sun, with, and oJdov, the way. The company that shared the journey.

    Went a day's journey. Before they missed him.

    They sought (anezhtoun). From ajna, from the bottom up, and zhtew, to seek. Thus implying a thorough search: they looked for him up and down.

    45. Seeking him (anazhtountev). All the way as they went. Force of ajna, as above.

    46. After three days. From the time of separation.

    In the temple. "We read in the Talmud that the members of the Temple-Sanhedrin, who, on ordinary days, sat as a court of appeal from the close of the morning to the time of the evening sacrifice, were wont, upon Sabbaths and feast days, to come out upon the terrace of the temple, and there to teach. In such popular instruction the utmost latitude of questioning would be given. It is in this audience, which sat upon the ground, surrounding and mingling with the doctors, and hence during, not after, the feast, that we must seek the child Jesus" (Edersheim, "Life and Times," etc., i. 247). From this, Edersheim argues that the parents set out for home before the close of the feast.

    Sitting. Not occupying a teacher's place, but sitting in the circle among the doctors and their hearers. See above. Compare Acts xxii. 3.

    47. Understanding (sunesei). From sunihmi, to bring together. Hence that quality of mind which combines: understanding not only of facts, but of facts in their mutual relations. See on Mark xii. 33; where there is meant "the love of a well pondered and duly considered resolution which determines the whole person; the love which clearly understands itself" (Cremer).

    48. They were amazed (exeplaghsan). A very strong word; the verb meaning, literally, to strike out or drive away from; and so to drive out of one's senses. Hence in the general sense of great amazement. Amaze is to throw into a maze or labyrinth; and so is closely akin to the Greek word here, and is a faithful rendering.

    Son (teknon). Lit., child. See on Matt. i. 1.

    Thy father. "Up to this time Joseph had been so called by the holy child himself; but from this time never" (Alford).

    Have sought (ezhtoumen). Imperfect tense: were seeking; Mary is going over in mind the process of the search.

    49. And he said. The first saying of Jesus which is preserved to us. Must (dei). Lit., it is necessary, or it behoves. A word often used by Jesus concerning his own appointed work, and expressing both the inevitable fulfilment of the divine counsels and the absolute constraint of the principle of duty upon himself. See Matt. xvi. 21; xxvi. 54; Mark viii. 31; Luke iv. 43; ix. 22; xiii. 33; xxiv. 7, 26, 46; John iii. 14; iv. 4; xii. 34. About my Father's business (en toiv tou patrov). Lit., in the things of my Father. The words will bear this rendering; but the Rev. is better, in my Father's house. Mary's question was not as to what her son had been doing, but as to where he had been. Jesus, in effect, answers, "Where is a child to be found but in his Father's house?"

    50. The saying (to rhma). See on chapter i. 37.

    51. Was subject (hn upotassomenov). The participle and finite verb, denoting habitual, continuous subjection. "Even before, he had been subject to them; but this is mentioned now, when it might seem that he could by this time have exempted himself. Not even to the angels fell such an honor as to the parents of Jesus" (Bengel). Compare Hebrew i. 4-8. Kept (diethrei). Only here and Acts xv. 29. The preposition dia, through, indicated close, faithful, persistent keeping, through all the circumstances which might have weakened the impression of the events. Compare Gen. xxxvii. 11.

    52. Stature (hlikia). Which Rev. rightly retains. The word may be rendered age, which would be superfluous here.

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