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  • VINCENT'S NEW TESTAMENT
    WORD STUDIES - LUKE 8

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    CHAPTER VIII

    1-3. Peculiar to Luke.

    1. Afterward (en tw kaqexhv). Rev., soon afterward. See on ch. vii. 11. Throughout every city and village (kata polin kai kwmhn). Lit., by city and village. See on ver. 4.

    Preaching (khrusswn). Or proclaiming, as a herald. Compare ch. iv. 18, and see on 1 Pet. ii. 5.

    And the twelve were with him. The were is supplied by the translators. Better, "he himself went about," etc., "and the twelve (went) with him;" or, as Rev., and with him the twelve.

    3. Steward (epitropou). From ejpitrepw, to turn toward; thence to turn over to, transfer, and so commit or intrust to. The word thus literally means, one to whom the management of affairs is turned over.

    4-18. Compare Matt. xiii. 1-23; Mark iv. 1-25.

    4. Out of every city (kata polin). City by city.

    Were come (epiporeuomenwn). The present participle denoting something in progress. They kept coming. Rev., resorted.

    5. To sow. See on Matt. xiii. 3.

    His seed. Peculiar to Luke.

    By the way-side. See on Matt. xiii. 4.

    Was trodden down. A rendering which would apply better to standing grain. Render, as Rev., trodden under foot. Peculiar to Luke.

    6. The rock (thn petran). Matthew has the rocky places, and Mark the rocky ground.

    Sprung up (fuen). Lit., having sprung up. Rev., better, grew. Sprung up is Matthew's ejxaneteilen. Only here and Heb. xii. 15, where it is a quotation from the Septuagint. See on Matt. xiii. 7.

    Moisture (ikmada). Only here in New Testament. Matthew and Mark have depth of earth. The word is the medical expression for juices of the body, of plants, and of the earth. Aristophanes, metaphorically, the juice of thought ("Clouds," 233). Hippocrates uses this and the preceding word together, comparing the juices of the body with those of the earth.

    7. Among (en mesw). In the midst. Stronger than the simple ejn, in, as giving more prominence to the danger.

    Sprung up with it (sumfueisai). Only here in New Testament. See on ver. 6, and Matt. xiii. 7. The technical word among physicians for closing of wounds or ulcers, and uniting of nerves or bones. Dioscorides uses it, as here, of plants growing in the same place: "The hellebore grows together with the vines."

    Choked (apepnixan). Lit., choked off. Matthew has the simple epnixan, choked; and Mark sunepnixan; the sun, together, emphasizing the idea of compression. Luke is very fond of compounds and sonorous words. See on ch. xxiii. 51.

    8. A hundred-fold. Omitting the thirty and sixty of Matthew and Mark. See on Matt. xiii. 8.

    10. Mysteries. See on Matt. xiii. 11.

    Understand (suniwsin). See on understanding, the kindred noun, Mark xii. 33.

    11. The parable is this. According to its interpretation.

    13. For awhile believe. See on Matt. xiii. 21. Matthew and Mark have endureth, or endure for a while.

    In time of temptation. Matthew and Mark have, when tribulation or persecution cometh.

    Fall away. Lit., withdraw or stand aloof. Matthew and Mark have stumble.

    14. Go forth (poreuomenoi). The present participle. Much better Rev., "they that have heard, and as they go on their way are choked," etc.

    Choked with (upo, under). Implying the impulse under which they pursue their course.

    Bring (no fruit) to perfection (telesforousin). Only here in New Testament. Matthew and Mark have, it becometh unfruitful. The verb literally means to bring to an end or accomplishment.

    15. These are they which (outoi eisin oitinev). Which denotes them as belonging to a class. Hence Rev., rightly, such as.

    Honest and good heart. Peculiar to Luke. Honest; lit., fair, noble.

    Honest, not in the popular sense, but in the sense of the Latin honestus; noble, virtuous, worthy.

    Keep (katecousin). Much better Rev., hold it fast, giving the force of the compound verb.

    With patience. Or in patience. Peculiar to Luke. In contrast with fall away, ver. 13.

    16. Candle (lucnon). Rev., properly, lamp. See on Mark iv. 21.

    Candlestick (lucniav). Correctly, as Rev., a stand. See on Matthew v. 15.

    17. Nothing is secret-manifest. Correctly rendered in A.V., but not so the parallel passage, Mark iv. 22, on which see note.

    18. How ye hear (pwv). The manner of hearing. Mark has ti, what ye hear; the matter.

    Seemeth (dokei). Peculiar to Luke. Rev. renders "thinketh he hath," as Jas. i. 26, on which see note. Wyc., guesseth; Tynd., supposeth.

    19-21. Compare Matt. xii. 46-50; Mark iii. 31-35.

    Come at him (suntucein). Only here in New Testament. The word properly carries the idea of an accidental meeting, and slightly so here. Jesus was lost in the crowd, and his friends could not fall in with him.

    22-25; ix. 57-62. Compare Matt. viii. 18-27; Mark iv. 35-41.

    22. Let us go over unto the other side of the lake. Wyc. has, pass we over the standing water. On lake, see on ch. v. 1.

    Launched forth (anhcqhsan). See on ch. v. 3. The verb literally means to lead up; hence to lead up to the high sea, or take to sea; put to sea. It is the word used of Jesus' being led up into the wilderness and the mount of temptation (Matt. iv. 1; Luke ii. 22); also of bringing up a sacrifice to an idol-altar (Acts vii. 41). Often in Acts in the accounts of Paul's voyages.

    23. He fell asleep (afupnwsen). Very graphic. He fell off (apo) into sleep.

    Came down (katebh). More vivid than either Matthew or Mark, who have there arose. The word describes the action of the sudden storms which literally came down from the heights surrounding the lake. See on Matt. viii. 24.

    Storm (lailay). See on Mark iv. 37. Matthew has seismov, a shaking.

    See on Matt. viii. 24.

    They were filling with water (suneplhrounto). Used by Luke only.

    Mark, as usual, goes into minuter detail, and describes how the waves beat into the boat. Note the imperfects: they were filling; they were beginning to be in danger, contrasted with the instantaneous descent of the storm expressed by the aorist came down.

    24. Master. See on ch. v. 5.

    Rebuked. Compare the more detailed narrative of Mark, iv. 39, and see notes there. Wyc., blamed.

    The raging (kludwni). See on Jas. i. 6.

    Arose (diegerqeiv). Wrong. It is the word used just before, awoke. Lit., having been thoroughly awakened. Rev., correctly, he awoke. Luke is especially fond of compounds with dia.

    A calm. Matthew and Mark have "a great calm."

    25. He commandeth. Peculiar to Luke.

    26. They arrived (katepleusan). The verb means literally to sail down from the sea to the shore. Compare launched forth, ver. 22. Only here in New Testament. The two prepositions, up and down, are used in our nautical terms bear up and bear down. See Introduction, on Luke's variety of words for sailing. Matthew and Mark have came (elqontov hlqon). Gerasenes. The texts vary, some reading Gadarenes, as A.V., others Gergesenes.

    Over against (antipera). Only here in New Testament.

    27. There met him out of the city. The words out of the city belong rather with a certain man. So Rev. Which had devils long time. The best texts insert kai, and, after devils (demons), and read "who had demons, and for a long time he had worn," etc. Long (ikanw). See on ch. vii. 16.

    Tombs. See on Matt. viii. 28. Compare Mark v. 4-6.

    28. Fell down (prosepesen). Mark has prosekunhsen, which often implies religious or superstitious feeling, as Matt. iv. 9, 10. This is the prostration of abject terror.

    Cried out (anakraxav). The compound verb with ajna, up, implies what is conveyed by our phrase, lifting up the voice. See on Mark v. 5.

    What have I to do with thee? See on Mark v. 7.

    Torment (basanishv). See on Matt. iv. 24. Luke never uses the word of sickness, as Matt. viii. 6. See on ch. iv. 41.

    29. He had commanded (parhggellen). Imperfect tense. Rev. does not improve by reading he commanded. The imperfect expresses the simultaneousness of the exorcism and the cry torment me not. Better, for he was commanding. So the Am. Rev. It had seized (sunhrpakei). Used by Luke only. See Acts vi. 12; xxvii. 15. The verb literally means to snatch and carry away with (sun).

    He was kept bound (edesmeueto fulassomenov). Lit., he was bound, being guarded. Rev., was kept under guard and bound. The A.V. does not sufficiently bring out the vigilance with which he was attended.

    Chains and fetters. See on Mark v. 4.

    Breaking (diarrhsswn). Compare Mark iv. 4, and see note there.

    Was driven, etc. Peculiar to Luke.

    30. Many devils were, etc. Compare Mark v. 9.

    31. Command them. The plural, referring to the legion.

    The deep (abusson). Lit., the bottomless. Transcribed into our abyss, as Rev. Mark has a quite different request, that he would not send them out of the country (v. 10). In Rom. x. 7, used of Hades, to which Christ descended; and in Revelation always of the bottomless pit. The demons refer to their place of abode and torment.

    33. Ran violently (wrmhsen). Rev., more neatly, rushed. Only Mark gives the number of the swine, two thousand.

    A steep place. See on Matt. ix. 32.

    36. He that was possessed with devils. Expressed in the Greek by two words, oJ daimonisqeiv, the demonized.

    Was healed (eswqh). See on ch. vi. 19.

    37. They were taken (suneiconto). See on ch. iv. 38. The same word as of the fever.

    38. Besought (edeeto). Imperfect: was beseeching. See on prayers, ch. v. 33. Rev., prayed. Beseech is used to render parakalew (Mark v. 10). See on consolation, ch. vi. 24. Parakalew, beseech, is used of prayer to God in only one instance, 2 Cor. xii. 8, where Paul besought the Lord to remove the thorn in the flesh. Frequently of requests to Christ while on earth. Deomai, to pray, often of prayer to God (Matt. ix. 38; Luke x. 2; Acts viii. 22). It is noticeable that in ver. 28, where the demons address Christ as the Son of the highest God, they say deonai, I pray. In vv. 31, 32, where they ask not to be sent away, and to be allowed to enter into the swine, they say parakalew, I beseech. The restored man, recognizing Jesus' divine power, prayed (edeito) to be with him. The distinction, however, must not be closely pressed. The two words seem to be often used interchangeably in the New Testament.

    39. Shew (dihgou). Rather relate, recount, with the idea of telling the story throughout (dia). See on declaration, ch. i. 1.

    Throughout the whole city. Mark says in Decapolis.

    How great things (osa). Lit., how many things, and thus according with recount. Declared all things throughout, as many as Jesus had done.

    41-56. Compare Matt. ix. 18-26; Mark v. 22-43.

    41. Jairus. The name of one of the Israelite chiefs, Jair, who conquered and settled Bashan (Num. xxxii. 41; Josh. xiii. 30). "His name lingered down to the time of the Christian era, when, in the same region as that which he conquered, we find a ruler of the synagogue named Jair" (Stanley, "Jewish Church").

    42. Thronged (sunepnigon). With the idea of pressing together (sun) upon him: stifling. The simple verb is that rendered choke, as in vv. 8, 33.

    43. Had spent (prosanalwsasa). Only here in New Testament. Some texts omit who had spent all here living upon physicians. Luke, with professional sensitiveness, omits Mark's statement that she had suffered many things from many physicians, and was not bettered but made worse.

    44. Hem. See on Matt. ix. 20.

    Stanched (esth). A common medical term.

    45. Who touched (tiv o ayamenov). Lit., who is he that touched? Rev., who is it that.

    Throng and press (sunecousinapoqlibousin). On the former word, see ver. 37, and ch. iv. 38. Rev. renders the latter, which occurs here only, more literally, crush. It means to squeeze out, as wine from grapes. See on tribulation, Matt. xiii. 21.

    46. Hath touched (hyato) - I perceive (egnwn). Rev. renders the two aorists strictly: did touch, and I perceived, with reference to Jesus' knowledge of the touch at the moment it was applied.

    Virtue (dunamin). Rev., power. The evangelists use the word frequently of miracles - mighty works. It is used here in the sense of virtue, according to its use by naturalists and physicians. Still, too much stress must not be laid upon it as a mark of Luke's professional accuracy, as Dean Plumptre in "The Expositor," iv. 139; since Mark uses it in his narrative of the same incident, and in the same sense (Mark v. 30).

    47. Falling down. Not in worship, but in terror. See on fell down, v. 28.

    48. In peace. See on ch. vii. 50.

    49. From the ruler of the synagogue's house. A.V. and Rev. properly supply house, as the ruler himself is present with Jesus.

    Dead. Placed first in the Greek order, for emphasis. "Dead is thy daughter."

    Trouble. See on Matt. ix. 36; Mark v. 35. Tyndale renders dis-ease, in the old verbal sense of disturb.

    52. Wept and bewailed. Both imperfects, were weeping and bewailing.

    So, rightly, Rev. Compare on bewailing, Mark v. 38.

    54. Maid (h paiv). Instead of the unclassical korasion, damsel, of Matthew and Mark.

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