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  • HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION -
    CALVIN AND THE PRINCIPLES OF HIS REFORM.


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    CHAPTER 19.

    CALVIN’S RECALL TO GENEVA. (August 1540 to March 1541.)

    The Ministers of Geneva—Departure of Morand and Marcourt from the town—Great Famine—Advice of Calvin—His recall determined on—The Message taken by Louis Dufour—Calvin’s First Answer—Journey to Worms—Letter from the Syndics and Council of Geneva—Calvin Anxieties—Consultation of his friends—His Answer—Its conditions—Viret called to Geneva— Viret at Geneva—The Minister Bernard—His Letter to Calvin— Calvin at Worms—Calvin and Melanchthon—Their Intimacy— Their Reciprocal Confidence—Colloquy of Worms—Song of Victory—Triumph of Christ—Calvin’s confidence in Viret— Calvin’s Letter to Bernard—Calvin restored to Geneva by Farel— Trials—Humility and Faith

    CHAPTER 20.

    CALVIN AT RATISBON. (1541.)

    Calvin’s Uneasiness—Concessions of the Lutherans—Calvin’s Steadfastness—Discourse of Cardinal Farnese—Calvin’s Answer—Papal Tyranny—The True Concord—Unity and Diversity—The Roman See not the Apostolic See—Incontinence— Profanation of Religion—A Great Monster—True Ministers— Church Property—The Pope’s Crosier—Protestants and Turks— Calvin’s part at Ratisbon—Theology of Rome—Evils to be remedied—Calvin’s Moderation—Reference to the General Council—Calvin’s Departure from Ratisbon ... ... PAGE

    CHAPTER 21.

    CALVIN’S RETURN TO GENEVA. (July to September 1541.)

    Repeal of the Sentence of Banishment by the General Council— Letter from the Syndics and Council of Geneva to the Pastors and Councils of Zurich and Basel—Severity of their Language—Its expression of the common feeling—All difficulties removed by Letters from Geneva—Calvin’s Motto—His departure from Strasburg—His stay at Neuchatel—At Berne—Arrival at Geneva— Ostentation avoided—Calvin’s house—What he had acquired at Strasburg—His appearance before the Council—Going forward— Commission of the Ordinances—Beginning of Calvin’s work— Assistance of Farel and Viret requested—The Grace of God and the Work of Man—A Day of Humiliation—The Truth with Charity

    CHAPTER 22.

    THE ECCLESIASTICAL ORDINANCES. (September 1541.)

    Project of the Ordinances—Its presentation to the Councils— Passed in the General Council—Spirit and Purpose of the Ordinances— Calvin’s Model the Primitive Church—Geneva an Evangelical stronghold—The Christian Life—Remonstrances—The Ministry— Instruction of the Young—The Poor and the Sick—Prisoners—Election of Pastors—The Ministers’ Oath—The Doctors—The Elders—The Consistory—Worship—Common Prayer—Discipline—Manner of judging of this discipline—Government of the Church of Geneva— Theocracy and Democracy—State Omnipotence—Government of the Church assumed by the State—Calvin not responsible—The danger unseen by him

    CHAPTER 23.

    CALVIN’S PREACHING.

    Preaching Calvin’s principal office—Two to Three Thousand Sermons—His exposition of Holy Scripture—Quotations—How a young man shall cleanse his way—The love of money—A Stranger on the Earth—Transitory Devotion—Self-love—The lost Lamb— God’s will that all should be saved—His Grace unbounded—How to come to God—The blood of Christ—Predestination—Ignorance of it is Learning—No Political part played by Calvin—His clear conception of the Evangelical Ministr

    CHAPTER 24.

    CALVIN’S ACTIVITY. (February 1542.)

    State of feeling at Geneva—Calvin the soul of the Consistory—His attention to small matters—Catholicism at Geneva—Believing what the Church believes—The Virgin and the Church—Politics no concern of the Consistory—The regulation of Morals its business— Impartiality Moderation—Calvin a Peacemaker—Meekness and Strength—Latent hostility of the former Ministers—New Ministers—Ami Porral—His Triumphant Faith—His Christian Death—Living Christianity—The work prospering—Development of Religious Life—Disciplinary Action—Reconciliation— Accomplishment of the Reformation—Luther’s part—Calvin’s part—Luther the Founder of the Reformation—Calvin its Lawgiver—Calvin a Mediator—Epochs of Light—Means of National Elevation

    BOOK 12.

    THE REFORMATION AMONG THE SCANDINAVIAN NATIONS—DENMARK, SWEDEN, NORWAY.

    CHAPTER 1.

    AWAKENING OF DENMARK. (1515 to 1525.)

    John Tausen—His Youth—His entrance into the Monastery—His departure for Germany—His Studies at Louvain and Cologne—At Wittenberg—Christian II.—His Marriage—Indulgences—Revolt of Sweden—Royal Vengeance—Martin Reinhard—His foreign tongue—Encountered by ridicule—His departure from Denmark— Liberal Laws promulgated by Christian—Religious reforms— Carlstadt in Denmark—His dismissal—Fresh revolt in Sweden— Flight of the King—Assistance of his Allies asked for in vain—The Sister of Charles the Fifth—Her Death in Heresy

    CHAPTER 2.

    A REFORMATION ESTABLISHED UNDER THE REIGN OF LIBERTY. (1524 to 1527.)

    Frederick, Duke of Holstein—His call to the Throne—His leaning to Evangelical doctrine—His impartiality towards Rome and the Reformation—Promulgation of religious liberty—The New Testament in Danish—The Translator’s Preface—Uneasiness of the Clergy—The King’s Son in Germany—His adhesion to the Reformation—Growing decision of the King—A Sermon of Tausen—Tausen at Viborg—Continuance in his work—The Reformation at Copenhagen—Determination of the Bishops to Persecute—Imprisonment of Tausen—His preaching through the air-hole—His liberation by the King—Reformation at Malmoe— The eloquent Todenbinder—The Gospel embraced by the whole Town of Malmoe—Translation of Luther’s Hymns into Danish— Increasing progress in all parts of the country—The Bishops’ Invitation to Eck and Cochlaeus—Their refusal to go to Denmark—The King’s discourse to the Bishops—Complete religious liberty—Vain efforts of the Bishops—Royal ordinance— Apparent submission of the Clergy

    CHAPTER 3.

    TRIUMPH OF THE REFORMATION UNDER THE REIGN OF FREDERICK I, THE PEACEFUL. (1527 to 1533.)

    Struggles and controversies—Tausen’s Writings—A New Bishop— Various Reforms—Tausen’s zeal—Diet of Copenhagen—The Bishops and the Ministers—Increased number of Sermons by the Ministers—Silence of the Bishops—Tausen and his colleagues— Their Confession of Faith—The Articles—Surprise of the Prelates—Accusations of the Bishops—Reply of the Evangelicals— Their demand of a public discussion—Refusal of the Bishops— Presentation of a memorial to the King by the Ministers—No answer to it—Triumph of the Evangelical cause—Disorders— Frederick’s political position strengthened—Intrigues of the ex- King—Invasion of Norway by Christian II.—A short struggle— Christian taken prisoner—His demand for a safe-conduct—His Letter to Frederick—Treated as a Prisoner of State—Sentenced to Imprisonment for Life—Confined in a walled-up keep—Forsaken— Luther’s intercession for him—Death of Frederick—His Four Sons

    CHAPTER 4.

    INTERREGNUM. CIVIL AND FOREIGN WAR. (1533.)

    Reviving hope of the Bishops—Their efforts—Their intrigues— Restriction of religious freedom—Their purpose to elect the King’s fourth Son—Adjournment of the Election—Tausen sentenced to death—Rising of the Townsmen—Rescue of Tausen—The Bishops threatened—Banishment of Tausen—Brigitta Gjoe—Persecution of Evangelicals—Polemics—Popular writings—Attack of Lubeck on Denmark—Rapid progress of the Invaders—A Diet in Jutland— Long Debates—Election of Christian III. in spite of the Bishops

    CHAPTER 5.

    CHRISTIAN III. PROCLAIMED KING—TRIUMPH OF THE REFORMATION IN DENMARK, NORWAY, AND ICELAND. (1533 to 1550.)

    Vigorous prosecution of the war by the new King—The enemy driven from the provinces—Siege of Copenhagen—Extreme sufferings of the besieged town—Entry of Christian into his capital—His determination to crush the temporal power of the Bishops—Arrest of the Bishops—General Council of the nation— Bill of indictment against the Bishops—Their deprivation—Their liberation—The King’s invitation to Pomeranus—Reorganization of the Church by Pomeranus—New constitution of the Church— The Reformation in Norway—In the main a work of the Government—The Reformation in Iceland—The two Bishops of Iceland—Oddur’s translation of the New Testament—An Evangelical Bishop—His death—Popish reaction—Triumph of the Gospel

    CHAPTER 6.

    THE EARLIEST REFORMERS OF SWEDEN. (1516 to 1523.)

    Various influences—The brothers Olaf and Lawrence—Their early studies—Their application to Theology—Olaf at Wittenberg—His intimacy with Luther—His return to Sweden—The two brothers and Bishop Mathias—Present at the Massacre of Stockholm—Mathias one of the victims—Lawrence Anderson successor of Mathias—He is favorable to the Reformation—Olaf and Lawrence at their Father’s Funeral—Their refusal of the services of the Monks—Violent opposition—Their death demanded by Bishop Brask

    CHAPTER 7.

    THE REFORMERS SUPPORTED BY THE LIBERATOR OF SWEDEN. (1519 to 1524.)

    Gustavus Vasa prisoner in Denmark—His escape from confinement—His struggle for the independence of Sweden—His flight from place to place— News of the Massacre of Stockholm—Concealment in the Mountains— Farm Labor—Recognition of him—Betrayal—Pursued like a wild beast— His attempt to rouse the People—Unsuccessful efforts—A rising at last— Speedy triumph—Gustavus nominated King—His leaning to Reform—His welcome to the Reformers—Anderson Chancellor of the Kingdom—Olaf preacher at Stockholm—Partisans and adversaries—Conspiracies of the Bishops—Bishop Brask—Citation of Olaf and Lawrence before the Chapter—Their attitude—Anathema

    CHAPTER 8.

    STRUGGLES. (1524 to 1527.) The ‘Illuminated’ at Stockholm—Their expulsion—Olaf’s marriage— His excommunication by Bishop Brask—His defense undertaken by the King—Revenues of the Clergy diminished by the King—Ostentation of Archbishop Magnus—Feast of St. Erick—The Clergy humbled by the King—Fears of the Bishops—Public disputation proposed by Magnus—Accepted by the King—Olaf and Galle—Regrets of the Catholics—Tempers heated on both sides—A Pretender—The Bishops’ support of him—Declaration of the King—His resolution to complete his task—Convocation of the States of the Kingdom—A royal banquet—Humiliation of the Bishops

    CHAPTER 9.

    VICTORY. (1527.)

    An Episcopal Conspiracy—The Diet of 1527—Complaints of the King—Exactions of the Clergy—Audacity of Bishop Brask—The King’s abdication—Triumph of the Bishops—Excitement of the People—A disputation before the Diet ordered—The King entreated to resume the Scepter—His long resistance—His final consent— Political reforms—Religious reforms—Compact of Westeraas— Disarming of the Romish Hierarchy—Suppression of the armed revolts—Coronation of Gustavus I

    CHAPTER 10.

    ‘CESAROPAPIE.’ (1528 to 1546.)

    Assembly of Orebro—Authority of the Scriptures—Education of Pastors— Ecclesiastical Rites—Concessions—Obstacles—Discontent—Progress— Lawrence Petersen—His nomination as Archbishop of Upsala—Marriage of the King—Marriage of the Archbishop—Hostility of the Monks—Olaf’s desire for a complete reformation—The King’s desire to put it off—Coolness between the King and the Reformer—Complaints of Olaf—Irritation of the King—The Mock Suns of 1539—A Storm raging against Olaf—Brought to Trial with Anderson—Both condemned to death—A Ransom accepted by the King—Resignation and re-instatement of Olaf—The King head of the Church—Luther’s counsel—Church order half Episcopalian and half Presbyterian—Severity of Gustavus—Excuses—Refusal of Gustavus to join the League of Smalcalde

    CHAPTER 11.

    THE SONS OF GUSTAVUS VASA. (1560 to 1593.)

    The King’s Farewell to the People—His Illness—His Death—Erick the new king of Sweden—Debates on the Lord’s Supper— Controversies—Madness of King Erick—Massacres—Death of Burrey—Deposition of Erick—His harsh captivity—Catholicism favored by King John—Catholicism in the ascendant—Arrival of Jesuits—Their profession of Evangelical doctrines—Their attempt to convert the King—Fratricide—Death of the ex-King Erick— Conversion of John III. to popery—Sudden change of the King— His death—The Assembly of Upsala in 1593—Adoption of the Confession of Augsburg

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