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HISTORY OF THE REFORMATION - BOOK 13. HUNGARY, POLAND, BOHEMIA. THE NETHERLANDS.
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THE FIRST REFORMERS AND THE FIRST PERSECUTORS IN HUNGARY. (1518 to 1526.)
First gleams—Louis II.—Mary of Hungary—Beginning of the Reformation—The first preachers—Their wish to see Luther— Threatenings of persecution—Intolerance of the Catholic clergy— Louis II. and Frederick the Wise—The Gospel at Hermannstadt— Noteworthy progress—Severe ordinance against the Reform—First act the burning of the books—Flight of Grynaeus—New efforts—An execution at Buda—Another storm
SOLYMAN’S GREAT VICTORY.
Solyman’s army—Hungary entirely unprepared—Vain attempts to raise an army—The small troop of King Louis—Battle of Mohacz—Death of Louis II.—Sorrow of the Queen—Consolation offered by Luther—A hymn of resignation—Two Kings of Hungary—Martyrs at Liebethen—Edict of persecution
DEVAY AND HIS FELLOW-WORKERS. (1527 to 1538.)
Mathias Biro Devay—Student at Wittenberg—Various lords protectors of Reform—Slackening of persecution—Reform at Hermannstadt—Solyman’s refusal to oppress the Protestants— Concession of Augsburg welcomed by Hungarians—Devay’s return to Hungary—His pastorate at Buda—His fellow-workers— Devay cast into prison—His appearance before the Bishop of Vienna—His defense and acquittal—Imprisoned again—Asylum offered him by Count Nadasdy—Controversies with Szegedy— Devay at Wittenberg—Melanchthon’s letter to Nadasdy—Devay at Basel—The Printing-press and Schools—Stephen Szantai—His enemies the Bishops—Conference appointed by Ferdinand— Embarrassment of the Arbitrators—Embarrassment of Ferdinand—Efforts of the Bishops—Banishment of Szantai
PROGRESS OF EVANGELIZATION AND OF THE SWISS REFORMATION IN HUNGARY. (1538 to 1545.)
The doctrines of Zwinglius in Hungary—Occasion of trouble to some minds—Political divisions—Fresh invasion of the Turks— Dispersion of Evangelical divines—Abatement of Moslem violence—Renewed courage of the Christians—Progress of the Reformation—Devay in Switzerland—His adoption of Calvin’s doctrines—Luther’s grief—Martin de Kalmance—Hostility excited against him—Persecution instigated by the Priests—Ordinances of Ferdinand—Courage of the Christians of Leutschau—Stephen Szegedin—His knowledge and eloquence—His writings—His acceptance of Calvin’s doctrines—Hated by the papists—His banishment
THE GOSPEL IN HUNGARY UNDER TURKISH RULE. (1515 to 1548.) Rome the persecutor—Islamism tolerant—Council of Trent—The union of Christians in Hungary—Confessions of Faith—Szegedin in the South of Hungary—His second banishment—Emeric Eszeky—The Gospel at Tolna—Refusal of the Turks to persecute— Spread of the Gospel—Rule of the Turks favorable to the Gospel— The Faith embraced in the whole of Transylvania.
BOHEMIA, MORAVIA, AND POLAND. (1518 to 1521.)
The United Brethren—Relations with Luther—Luther’s goodwill— Discussions on the Lord’s Supper—The Calixtines—Poland evangelized by the Bohemians—First successes—Luther’s Reformation in Poland—Jacob Knade at Dantzic—The Gospel well received—Religious liberty—A revolution at Dantzic—Reorganization of the Church—Appeal of the Catholics to the King— Harshness of Sigismund—Final triumph of the Gospel—The Gospel at Cracow—Embraced by many eminent persons—Words of Luther—Attempted Reformation in Russia
THE POLISH REFORMER. (1524 to 1527.)
John Alasco—At Zurich—His intercourse with Zwinglius—His stay at Basel—His intimacy with Erasmus—Study of Holy Scripture— His diligence and progress—Spiritual enjoyments of his life at Basel—Praised by Erasmus—Alasco compelled to leave Basel— His travels—Return to Poland—His life at court—His weakness— Suspected of heresy—An investigation—Alasco’s renunciation of Reform—His fall—Honors—Awakening of conscience—His better knowledge of the truth—Liberty—New honors—Alasco’s refusal of them—His departure from Poland—On his way to the Netherlands
THE POLISH REFORMER IN THE NETHERLANDS AND IN FRIESLAND. (1537 to 1546.)
Alasco’s marriage—Trials and consolations—Religious condition of Friesland—Alasco in Poland—His return to Friesland—His relations with Hardenberg—Seeking after separation from Rome— Alasco Superintendent of Friesland—Prudence and zeal— Accusations—Threats—Hatred of the Monks—A letter of Alasco— God or the World—The Reformer’s victory—Patience and success—Various Sects—A false Christ unmasked—Government of the Church—Doctrine—Oppositions—New strength— Tribulations—A hidden protector—Viglius of Zuychem—His elevated position—Secret report on his tendencies—His real sentiments—Contrast
BEGINNING OF REFORMATION IN THE NETHERLANDS. (1518 to 1524.)
Freedom and Wealth—Ambition of Charles V.—Precursors of the Reformation—The Reformation at Antwerp—At Louvain—Erasmus attacked—Violent proceedings of the Monks—Persecuting Edict— Arrest of Jacob Spreng—His recantation—His grief and repentances—The Inquisition—Cornelius Gnapheus, an Erasmian—His Imprisonment—Useless abjuration-Henry of Zutphen, Evangelist—His stay at Wittenberg—His preaching at Antwerp—His arrest—His rescue by the people—His fate in Holstein—Demolition of the Convent of the Augustines—Numerous adhesions to Reform—The Heavenly spouse—Faith and courage— Conventicles—A Martyr—Tolerance of some of the Bishops—One of the ‘Illuminated’—Luther’s counsels
OUTWORKS. (1525 to 1528.)
Charles V.—His policy in the Netherlands—Charles of Egmont’s Letter to the Pope—The Pope’s answer—Jan van Bakker—His faith—His breach with Rome—His imprisonment—His trial— Refusal to recant—Condemnation—Martyrdom—A legend— Fruitless attempt at outward Reformation—New Edict of persecution—The humanist Gnapheus—The widow Wendelmutha—Attempt to make her give way—Her condemnations—Execution—The renewed Gospel
THE VICTIMS OF CHARLES V. (1529 to 1535.)
Compassion of Charles V.—Rage of Charles of Egmont— Executions multiplied—Martyrdom of William of Zwoll—Victims of Charles V.—Death of Margaret of Austria—Mary of Hungary, governess of the Netherlands—Her false position—Cornelius Crocus—John Sartorius—Controversies—Some books of Sartorius—New Edict of Persecution—A courageous Town—A Family of Martyrs—Crimes and horrors—Sorrow and distress— The enthusiasts—Cruel fanaticism—Unhealthy fermentations— ‘Illuminated’ prophets—The Tailor Bockhold—Excesses and follies—Illuminism the offspring of persecution—The Netherlands breaking off from Lutheranism to embrace Calvinism
LOUVAIN. (1537 to 1544.)
Peter Bruly at Ghent—The Evangelists—Antoinette and Gudule— Pastor Jan van Ousberghen—The Faithful—An innocent walk— Conventicles—Boldness of the sculptor Beyaerts—Epidemic at Louvain—Arrests—Arrests by night—Twenty-three prisoners— The examinations—The wise confounded by simple women—Paul de Roovere—Insulted—Terrified—His recantation—New victims— Great display of force—Executions—Antoinette van Roesmals— Buried alive—Giles Tielmans—His simple faith—His unbounded charity—His evangelical zeal—Trouble and terror among the faithful—Imprisonment of Giles Tielmans—The Evangelist Ousberghen—His arrest—Trial—Fears—Condemnation—A great light—Execution of Ousberghen—Execution of Giles Tielmans