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  • Out of St. Luke's Fifth Chapter are Found Proofs of Christ's Belonging to the Creator, E.g. In the Call of Fishermen to the Apostolic Office, and in the Cleansing of the Leper. Christ Compared with the Prophet Elisha.

    Chapter IX.—Out of St. Luke’s Fifth Chapter are Found Proofs of Christ’s Belonging to the Creator, E.g. In the Call of Fishermen to the Apostolic Office, and in the Cleansing of the Leper. Christ Compared with the Prophet Elisha.

    Out of so many kinds of occupations, why indeed had He such respect for that of fishermen, as to select from it for apostles Simon and the sons of Zebedee (for it cannot seem to be the mere fact itself for which the narrative was meant to be drawn out3711

    3711 Argumentum processurum erat.

    ), saying to Peter, when he trembled at the very large draught of the fishes, “Fear not; from henceforth thou shalt catch men?”3712

    3712 See Luke v. 1–11.

    By saying this, He suggested to them the meaning of the fulfilled prophecy, that it was even He who by Jeremiah had foretold, “Behold, I will send many fishers; and they shall fish them,”3713

    3713 Jer. xvi. 16.

    that is, men. Then at last they left their boats, and followed Him, understanding that it was He who had begun to accomplish what He had declared. It is quite another case, when he affected to choose from the college of shipmasters, intending one day to appoint the shipmaster Marcion his apostle. We have indeed already laid it down, in opposition to his Antitheses, that the position of Marcion derives no advantage from the diversity which he supposes to exist between the Law and the Gospel, inasmuch as even this was ordained by the Creator, and indeed predicted in the promise of the new Law, and the new Word, and the new Testament.  Since, however, he quotes with especial care,3714

    3714 Attentius argumentatur.

    as a proof in his domain,3715

    3715 Apud illum, i.e., the Creator.

    a certain companion in misery (συνταλαίπωρον), and associate in hatred (συμμισούμενον ), with himself, for the cure of leprosy,3716

    3716 Luke v. 12–14.

    I shall not be sorry to meet him, and before anything else to point out to him the force of the law figuratively interpreted, which, in this example of a leper (who was not to be touched, but was rather to be removed from all intercourse with others), prohibited any communication with a person who was defiled with sins, with whom the apostle also forbids us even to eat food,3717

    3717 1 Cor. v. 11.

    forasmuch as the taint of sins would be communicated as if contagious, wherever a man should mix himself with the sinner.  The Lord, therefore, wishing that the law should be more profoundly understood as signifying spiritual truths by carnal facts3718

    3718 Per carnalia, by material things.

    —and thus3719

    3719 Hoc nomine.

    not destroying, but rather building up, that law which He wanted to have more earnestly acknowledged—touched the leper, by whom (even although as man He might have been defiled) He could not be defiled as God, being of course incorruptible. The prescription, therefore, could not be meant for Him, that He was bound to observe the law and not touch the unclean person, seeing that contact with the unclean would not cause defilement to Him. I thus teach that this (immunity) is consistent in my Christ, the rather when I show that it is not consistent in yours. Now, if it was as an enemy3720

    3720 Æmulus.

    of the law that He touched the leper—disregarding the precept of the law by a contempt of the defilement—how could he be defiled, when he possessed not a body3721

    3721 Another allusion to Marcion’s Docetic doctrine.

    which could be defiled? For a phantom is not susceptible of defilement. He therefore, who could not be defiled, as being a phantom, will not have an immunity from pollution by any divine power, but owing to his fantastic vacuity; nor can he be regarded as having despised pollution, who had not in fact any material capacity3722

    3722 Materiam.

    for it; nor, in like manner, as having destroyed the law, who had escaped defilement from the occasion of his phantom nature, not from any display of virtue. If, however, the Creator’s prophet Elisha cleansed Naaman the Syrian alone,3723

    3723 Unicum.

    to the exclusion of3724

    3724 Ex., literally, “alone of.” So Luke iv. 27.

    so many lepers in Israel,3725

    3725 Compare 2 Kings v. 9–; 14 with Luke iv. 27.

    this fact contributes nothing to the distinction of Christ, as if he were in this way the better one for cleansing this Israelite leper, although a stranger to him, whom his own Lord had been unable to cleanse. The cleansing of the Syrian rather3726

    3726 Facilius—rather than of Israelites.

    was significant throughout the nations of the world3727

    3727 Per Nationes. [Bishop Andrewes thus classifies the “Sins of the Nations,” as Tertullian’s idea seems to have suggested: (1) Pride, Amorite; (2) Envy, Hittite; (3) Wrath, Perizzite; (4) Gluttony, Girgashite; (5) Lechery, Hivite; (6) Covetousness, Canaanite; (7) Sloth, Jebusite.]

    of their own cleansing in Christ their light,3728

    3728 Compare, in Simeon’s song, Luke ii. 32, the designation, “A light to lighten the Gentiles.”

    steeped as they were in the stains of the seven deadly sins:3729

    3729 [See Elucidation I.]

    idolatry, blasphemy, murder, adultery, fornication, false-witness, and fraud.3730

    3730 Such seems to be the meaning of the obscure passage in the original, “Syro facilius emundato significato per nationes emundationis in Christo lumine earum quæ septem maculis, capitalium delictorum inhorrerent, idoatria,” etc. We have treated significato as one member of an ablative absolute clause, from significatum, a noun occuring in Gloss. Lat. Gr. synonymous with δήλωσις. Rigault, in a note on the passage, imputes the obscurity to Tertullian’s arguing on the Marcionite hypothesis. “Marcion,” says he, “held that the prophets, like Elisha, belonged to the Creator, and Christ to the good God. To magnify Christ’s beneficence, he prominently dwells on the alleged fact, that Christ, although a stranger to the Creator’s world, yet vouchsafed to do good in it. This vain conceit Tertullian refutes from the Marcionite hypothesis itself. God the Creator, said they, had found Himself incapable of cleansing this Israelite; but He had more easily cleansed the Syrian.  Christ, however, cleansed the Israelite, and so showed himself the superior power. Tertullian denies both positions.”

    Seven times, therefore, as if once for each,3731

    3731 Quasi per singulos titulos.

    did he wash in Jordan; both in order that he might celebrate the expiation of a perfect hebdomad;3732

    3732 There was a mystic completeness in the number seven.

    and because the virtue and fulness of the one baptism was thus solemnly imputed3733

    3733 Dicabatur.

    to Christ, alone, who was one day to establish on earth not only a revelation, but also a baptism, endued with compendious efficacy.3734

    3734 Sicut sermonem compendiatum, ita et lavacrum. In chap. i. of this book, the N.T. is called the compendiatum. This illustrates the present phrase.

    Even Marcion finds here an antithesis:3735

    3735 Et hoc opponit.

    how that Elisha indeed required a material resource, applied water, and that seven times; whereas Christ, by the employment of a word only, and that but once for all, instantly effected3736

    3736 Repræsentavit.

    the cure. And surely I might venture3737

    3737 Quasi non audeam.

    to claim3738

    3738 Vindicare in.

    the Very Word also as of the Creator’s substance. There is nothing of which He who was the primitive Author is not also the more powerful one. Forsooth,3739

    3739 Plane. An ironical cavil from the Marcionite view.

    it is incredible that that power of the Creator should have, by a word, produced a remedy for a single malady, which once by a word brought into being so vast a fabric as the world! From what can the Christ of the Creator be better discerned, than from the power of His word? But Christ is on this account another (Christ), because He acted differently from Elisha—because, in fact, the master is more powerful than his servant! Why, Marcion, do you lay down the rule, that things are done by servants just as they are by their very masters? Are you not afraid that it will turn to your discredit, if you deny that Christ belongs to the Creator, on the ground that He was once more powerful than a servant of the Creator—since, in comparison with the weakness of Elisha, He is acknowledged to be the greater, if indeed greater!3740

    3740 Si tamen major.

    For the cure is the same, although there is a difference in the working of it. What has your Christ performed more than my Elisha?  Nay, what great thing has the word of your Christ performed, when it has simply done that which a river of the Creator effected? On the same principle occurs all the rest. So far as renouncing all human glory went, He forbade the man to publish abroad the cure; but so far as the honour of the law was concerned, He requested that the usual course should be followed: “Go, show thyself to the priest, and present the offering which Moses commanded.”3741

    3741 Luke v. 14.

    For the figurative signs of the law in its types He still would have observed, because of their prophetic import.3742

    3742 Utpote prophetatæ.

    These types signified that a man, once a sinner, but afterwards purified3743

    3743 Emaculatum.

    from the stains thereof by the word of God, was bound to offer unto God in the temple a gift, even prayer and thanksgiving in the church through Christ Jesus, who is the Catholic Priest of the Father.3744

    3744 [i.e., the Great High Priest whose sacrifice is accepted of the Father, for the sins of the whole world.]

    Accordingly He added: “that it may be for a testimony unto you”—one, no doubt, whereby He would testify that He was not destroying the law, but fulfilling it; whereby, too, He would testify that it was He Himself who was foretold as about to undertake3745

    3745 Suscepturus: to carry or take away.

    their sicknesses and infirmities. This very consistent and becoming explanation of “the testimony,” that adulator of his own Christ, Marcion seeks to exclude under the cover of mercy and gentleness. For, being both good (such are his words), and knowing, besides, that every man who had been freed from leprosy would be sure to perform the solemnities of the law, therefore He gave this precept. Well, what then? Has He continued in his goodness (that is to say, in his permission of the law) or not?  For if he has persevered in his goodness, he will never become a destroyer of the law; nor will he ever be accounted as belonging to another god, because there would not exist that destruction of the law which would constitute his claim to belong to the other god. If, however, he has not continued good, by a subsequent destruction of the law, it is a false testimony which he has since imposed upon them in his cure of the leper; because he has forsaken his goodness, in destroying the law. If, therefore, he was good whilst upholding the law,3746

    3746 Legis indultor.

    he has now become evil as a destroyer of the law. However, by the support which he gave to the law, he affirmed that the law was good.  For no one permits himself in the support of an evil thing. Therefore he is not only bad if he has permitted obedience to a bad law; but even worse still, if he has appeared3747

    3747 Advenit.

    as the destroyer of a good law. So that if he commanded the offering of the gift because he knew that every cured leper would be sure to bring one; he possibly abstained from commanding what he knew would be spontaneously done. In vain, therefore, was his coming down, as if with the intention of destroying the law, when he makes concessions to the keepers of the law. And yet,3748

    3748 Atquin.

    because he knew their disposition,3749

    3749 Formam.

    he ought the more earnestly to have prevented their neglect of the law,3750

    3750 Ab ea avertendos.

    since he had come for this purpose. Why then did he not keep silent, that man might of his own simple will obey the law? For then might he have seemed to some extent3751

    3751 Aliquatenus.

    to have persisted in his patience. But he adds also his own authority increased by the weight of this “testimony.” Of what testimony, I ask,3752

    3752 Jam.

    if not that of the assertion of the law?  Surely it matters not in what way he asserted the law—whether as good, or as supererogatory,3753

    3753 Supervacuus.

    or as patient, or as inconstant—provided, Marcion, I drive you from your position.3754

    3754 Gradu.


    3755 Ecce.

    he commanded that the law should be fulfilled.  In whatever way he commanded it, in the same way might he also have first uttered that sentiment:3756

    3756 Sententiam.

    “I came not to destroy the law, but to fulfil it.”3757

    3757 Matt. v. 17.

    What business, therefore, had you to erase out of the Gospel that which was quite consistent in it?3758

    3758 Quod salvum est.

    For you have confessed that, in his goodness, he did in act what you deny that he did in word.3759

    3759 That is, you retain the passage in St. Luke, which relates the act of honouring the law; but you reject that in St. Matthew, which contains Christ’s profession of honouring the law.

    We have therefore good proof that He uttered the word, in the fact that He did the deed; and that you have rather expunged the Lord’s word, than that our (evangelists)3760

    3760 Nostros: or, perhaps, “our people,”—that is, the Catholics.

    have inserted it.


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