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  • ROBERTSON'S NT WORD STUDIES
    & BIBLE COMMENTARY - 2 CORINTHIANS 8

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    8:1 {The grace} (ten carin). As manifested in the collection in the churches, poor as they were. The Romans had lacerated Macedonia (Livy, XLV. 30).

    8:2 {Proof} (dokimei). Tests as of metals as in #2:9. {Abundance} (perisseia). Late word from perisseuw, to overflow. {Their deep poverty} (he kata baqous ptwceia autwn). ptwceia is old word from ptwceuw, to be a beggar, as of Jesus in #8:9 (from ptwcos, cowering in fear and poverty, as in #Lu 14:13, but ennobled by Christ as in #Mt 5:3; 2Co 8:9). Poverty down deep. Strabo (LX 419) has kata baqous, down to the bottom. {Liberality} (haplotetos). From haplous, single, simple (#Mt 6:22). "The passage from single-mindedness or simplicity to liberality is not quite obvious" (Plummer). Perhaps "heartiness" supplies the connecting link. See also #9:11-13.

    8:3 {Beyond their power} (para dunamin). "Alongside" with accusative like huper dunamin in #1:8. Field (_Ot. Nov_.) quotes Josephus (_Ant_. iii. 6, 1) for kata dunamin and para dunamin as here. Few give kata dunamin (according to actual ability). Paul commends this high pressure collection because of the emergency. {Of their own accord} (auqairetoi). Old verbal adjective (autos, hairetos from haireomai, to choose), of their own initiative, voluntary. Only here and verse #17 in N.T. Papyri often have hekousiws kai auqairetws (willingly and voluntarily).

    8:4 {Beseeching us with much intreaty in regard of this grace} (meta polles paraklesews deomenoi hemwn ten carin). Literally, "with much intreaty begging of us the favor and the partnership in the ministry to the saints." The accusative (carin) after deomai is unusual. By caris Paul means the privilege of giving (cf. #Ac 24:27). Apparently Paul had been reluctant to press the Macedonians because of their manifest poverty. They demanded the right to have a share in it.

    8:5 {We had hoped} (elpisamen). First aorist active indicative of elpizw. "Expected," he means. They went beyond his hopes about them. {First they gave their own selves} (heautous edwkan prwton). First aorist active indicative of didwmi (k aorist). "Themselves they gave first." That is the explanation of the generous giving.

    8:6 {Insomuch that we exhorted Titus} (eis to parakalesai hemas titon). Use of eis to and the infinitive for result with accusative of general reference (hemas). See Robertson, _Grammar_, p. 1003. {He had made a beginning before} (proenerxato). First aorist active indicative of the double compound verb pro-en-arcomai, still found only here and verse #10, to make a start before others. {Complete} (epitelesei) First aorist (effective) active subjunctive of epitelew, to finish, with perfective use of epi in composition.

    8:7 {In this grace also} (kai en tautei tei cariti). this gifted church (#1Co 12-14) had fallen behind in the grace of giving. Kindly irony in this allusion.

    8:8 {Proving} (dokimazwn). Testing and so proving. {The sincerity also of your love} (kai to tes humeteras agapes gnesion). Old adjective, contraction of genesios (ginomai), legitimately born, not spurious. A collection is a test of one's love for Christ, not the only test, but a real one.

    8:9 {Though he was rich} (plousios wn). Concessive present participle "n from eimi, to be. {Be became poor} (eptwceusen). Ingressive aorist active indicative of ptwceuw (see verse #2 on ptwceia). {Through his poverty} (tei ekeinou ptwceiai). Instrumental case, by means of. {Might become rich} (ploutesete). Ingressive first aorist active subjunctive of ploutew, to be rich with hina (that). See on Lu 1:53; 1Co 4:8.

    8:10 {Judgment} (gnwmen). Deliberate opinion, but not a "command" (epitage verse #8). Cf. #1Co 7:25. {A year ago} (apo perusi) From last year. {Not only to do, but also to will} (ou monon to poiesai, alla kai to qelein). Articular infinitives the objects of proenerxasqe on which verb see verse #6). That is to say, the Corinthians promised before any others.

    8:11 {The readiness to will} (he proqumia tou qelein). Old word from proqumos (pro, qumos), forwardness, eagerness (#Ac 17:11). They were quick to pledge. {The completion also} (kai to epitelesai). The finishing also (articular first aorist active infinitive). {Out of your ability} (ek tou ecein). "Out of the having," literally, and so, "out of what you can give" (verse #12).

    8:12 {Is there} (prokeitai). Lies before one. Old word. {Acceptable} (euprosdektos). See on 6:2. {According as a man hath} (kaqo ean ecei). Indefinite comparative clause with ean and present subjunctive ecei. Clearly God does not expect us to give what we do not have. {Not according as he hath not} (ou kaqo ouk ecei). Note present indicative rather than subjunctive because a specific case is presented. See #9:7; Mr 12:43.

    8:13 {Others may be eased} (allois anesis). "Release to others." {Ye distressed} (humin qliyis). "To you tribulation." The verb i (present subjunctive) with hina is not expressed.

    8:14 {By equality} (ex isotetos). Old word from isos, fair, equal. In N.T. only here and #Col 4:1. {Abundancy} (perisseuma). Late word from perisseuw like perisseia (verse #2) Cf. #Mt 12:34. {Want} (husterema). Late word from husterew, to be in want. See also #9:12; Lu 21:4 (cf. husteresis in #Mr 12:44).

    8:16 {Which putteth} (twi didonti). Present active articular participle, "who is continually giving." Hence Titus is full of zealous care for you.

    8:17 {Very earnest} (spoudaioteros). "More earnest than ordinarily," comparative adjective.

    8:18 {We have sent with him} (sunepemyamen met' autou). Epistolary aorist. {The brother} (ton adelfon). this may be, probably is, Luke who may also be the brother of Titus (see also #12:18) according to a common Greek idiom where the article is used as "his." But this idiom is not necessary. As a matter of fact, we do not know who this brother is. {Is spread through all the churches} (dia paswn twn ekklesiwn). No verb in the Greek (ellipsis).

    8:19 {But who was also appointed} (alla kai ceirotoneqeis). Anacoluthon. The first aorist passive participle ceirotoneqeis is from ceirotonew, old verb to stretch out the hands (ceir teinw) and so to vote in public. The idea is that this brother was chosen by the churches, not by Paul. Only here in N.T. save #Ac 14:23 where it means to appoint without notion of raising the hands. In #Ac 10:41 we have proceirotonew. {To travel with us} (sunekdemos). Late word for travelling companion. So in the inscriptions (sun, together with, ekdemos, away from home).

    8:20 {Avoiding this } (stellomenoi touto). Present middle participle of stellw, old verb, to set, to arrange. So "arranging for ourselves this ." {That any man should blame us} (me tis hemas mwmesetai). Literally, "lest any one blame us" (negative purpose with me and first aorist middle subjunctive of mwmeomai. See on 6:3, only other N.T. example). {Bounty} (hadroteti). Old word from hadros, thick, stout, ripe, rich, great as in #1Ki 1:9; 2Ki 10:6. Only here in N.T.

    8:21 {We take thought} (pronoumen). Old verb, to plan beforehand (pro-) as in #Ro 12:17; 1Ti 5:8. {But also in the sight of men} (alla kai enwpion anqrwpwn). It is not enough for one's financial accounts to be honorable (kala) as God sees them, but they should be so kept that men can understand them also. A timely warning. Paul took the utmost pains that no suspicion could be attached to him in this collection.

    8:22 {Our brother} (ton adelfon hemwn). Not Paul's personal brother, but a brother in Christ, one whom Paul had tested and was willing to trust. It may have been Tychicus or Apollos, but we do not know.

    8:23 {About Titus} (huper titou). There is no verb expressed. Supply "inquire." He endorses Titus up to the hilt. He is "my partner" (koinwnos emos) and "fellow-worker" (sunergos). {Messengers of the churches} (apostoloi ekklesiwn). Apostles in the general sense of "sent ones" (from apostellw, to send) by the churches and responsible to the churches for the handling of the funds. {The glory of Christ} (doxa cristou). Financial agents, please observe.

    8:24 {The proof of your love} (ten endeixin tes agapes humwn). There is a word here for pastors and deacons who try to protect the churches from the denominational representatives of kingdom causes. {In the face of the churches} (eis proswpon twn ekklesiwn). A great host is pictured as watching how the Corinthians will treat these duly accredited agents in the collection (Titus and the other two brethren). It requires courage to stand by such representatives of great causes before stingy saints.

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